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Page 148


Ev oh6yaod of THE NEW SCHAFF-HERZO(3 148 made of his numerous, but unimportant, letters, the Vita Epiphanii epzacopi Ticini (valuable for its biography of his predecessor), the Vita bead An tonii (very legendary, in the taste of the period), the Panegyricus dictus clemerttiasimo regi Theo dorico, the Eucharisticum de vita (autobiograph ical), and many dictiones on subjects of minor in terest. (T. F&ltsx>,at.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The works of Enaodius, except the Carmsna, are in MPL, lxiii. The Carmina, Epiatolos, and Panepyricua, ed. F. Vogel, are in MGH, Aud. ant., vol. vii., 1885. A list of editions end literature is given in Potthast, Wepwefiaer, pp. 407-408, 1291, with which cf. wattenbach, D(iQ, i (1885 ), 47, 70, 404, ii. 480, i (1893), 48, 72. Consult: Fertig, Magnus Felix Ennodiw and seine Zeit, Passau, 18550; F. Piper, in ZKO, i (1877), 239-258; B. Hasenstab, Studien zu Ennodiua, Munich, 1890; 8. L6glise, S. Ennodiub et la euprEnwtie au B, sidele, Lyons, 1890; w. Smith, Dictionary o/ Greek and Roman Biography, ii. 19-20; DCB, ii. 123-124.

The$ourceofKnowledge(§1). Similar Legenda(§3) Life and Translation (§ 2). Enoch in Tradition (§ 4).

Enoch is the .name in the Hebrew text of the eldest son of Reuben (Gen. xlvi. 9; Ex, vi. 14); a son of Midian (Gen. xxv. 4); a eon of Cain (Gen.

iv. 17-18) after whom the latter r. The named the first city; and, in the line

Source of of Seth, of the seventh patriarch as Knowledge. reckoned from Adam (Gen. v. 18).

Since the name Lamech also occurs in the lines of both Cain and Seth, and as there is a striking similarity between other names of the two lines, it has been customary since Buttmann (Mythologus, i., Berlin, 1828, pp. 170 aqq.) to regard the two genealogies of Gen. iv. and v. (which furthermore belong to different sources, J and P) as variants of a single account. The resemblance becomes still closer if it be assumed that in Gen. v. Enoch and Mahalalel (= Mehujael of Gen. iv.) have become transposed. Also a relation with the list of the ten primitive Babylonian kings in Berosus can not be denied. Enoch there has his parallel in the seventh king, Enmeduranki, in the sun-city Sippara. That Enoch also stands in some relation to the sun, is indicated by the 365 years of his life.

This patriarch, in Gen. v., has a thoroughly ethical distinction; " he walked with God " (cf.

Nosh, Gen. vi. 9). This indicates a 2. Life and constant community of life, an unTranslatioa. disturbed, familiar intercourse with

nected the most momentous matter that is still extant about Enoch in the ancient source. After a comparatively brief term of life, 365 years, " he was not; for God took him." Obviously something extraordinary is thus recorded. Enoch had suddenly vanished, was no more seen. The expression corresponds to the one used in a similar connection by Livy~ (i. 16) of Romulus, " he was not thenceforth on earth "; the event itself, to the seeking after vanished Elijah (II Kings ii. 16-17). But the reason is not indefinite; God intervened contrary to the usual course of nature and removed his favored one from the world of appearances. Except for this extraor-

dinary case, an early departure from life was considered a token of divine disfavor.

Comparisons have been adduced with heathen myths and legends, which relate of the translation

of illustrious men (Hercules, Romu3. Similar lus, etc.). But the brief mysterious

Legends. Biblical notice is essentially different

in that here the ethical community of life on earth with God (the " faith " of Heb. xi. 5) is the manifest reason for the " taking " to God; whereas the legends are based on a physical conception of divinity, whereby the same coalesces with the highest product of nature. There is a parallel in the translation *of Xisuthros in Berosus, inasmuch as this devout worthy after the Flood is translated to the gods as reward for his piety. But this hero corresponds to the Biblical Noah. While here an account is extant which is independent of the Biblical narrative but akin to it, on the other hand the legend adduced by E. Bochart (in Phaleg et Canaan, Caen, 1646), with reference to the ancient king Annakos or Nannakos in the city of Iconium, is questionable on the score of originality. This king is said to have lived upward of 300 years before Deucalion's flood; he is supposed to have predicted the same, and to have tearfully bewailed the lot of men, since after his death they were to be overtaken with destruction. The story is first found in Zenobius (Proverbia, vi. 10), that is, about 200 A.D.; Jewish influence is not improbable.

Concerning the manner of the translation, and the abode and condition of Enoch after it, which the theologians have sought to define more closely, the Bible gives no clue. The context merely stands for the fact that he was taken away from the world of sin and death, and received into closer communion with God, without dying. The view prevalent with the rabbis and in the primitive Church, designates Paradise as his place of abode; others indicate heaven; the Ascension of Isaiah (ix. 9), the seventh heaven. The Arab theologians waver according to the indefinite expression of the Koran xlx. 58 (cf. the Book of Enoch lxxxvii. 3). The New Testament also recognizes a transformation without death (I Theas. iv. 17; I Cor. xv. 51).

Tradition has been all the busier for the meagerness of actual data. By analogy with Noah, it was assumed that Enoch was a preacher of re-

pentance and herald of judgment. 4. Enoch in (Ecclus. xliv. 16; cf. xlix. 14; Book of

Tradition. Enoch i. 9; Jude 14 aqq.). Later, in

an age of speculation concerning nature and history, people thought to find in Enoch conversing so intimately with God the .actual first vehicle of divinely influenced human discernment, the genuine gnosis instilled by good spirits, in contradistinction to the knowledge conveyed by demons. His name (from the Heb. hanakh, " to consecrate ") seemed to denote the " consecrated " one, from whom authentic solutions were to be expected touching the secrets of this world and the one beyond. Hence he was esteemed no less as the inventor of writing and the sciences, especially starcraft (Eusebius, Praparatio evanyelica, ix. 17; cf. the number 305), than as apocalyptic