CUST, ROBERT NEEDHAM: Church of England layman; b. at Cockayne Hatley (42 m. n. of London), Bedfordshire, England, Feb. 24, 1821. He studied at Eton, Trinity College, Cambridge, the East India Company's College at Haileybury, and the College of Fort William, Calcutta, graduating from the last-named institution in 1844. He was present at the battles of Mukdi, Firuzshah, and Sobraon in 1845-46, and at the close of the Sikh campaign was placed in charge of a new province in the Punjab. There he filled in succession every office in the judicial and revenue departments, and was rapidly promoted until 1867, when he resigned and returned to England, after having been a mem ber of the Viceroy's Legislative Council and Home Secretary to the Government of India in 1864-65. Since his resumption of residence in England he has devoted himself to scientific research, philanthropy, and magisterial and municipal duties, declining reappointments in India. He is member and officer in many scientific, philanthropic, and religious societies and a prolific writer; of his many books special mention may be made of the following: Draft Bill of Codes Regulating Rights in Land and Land-Revenue Procedure in Northern India (London, 1870); Modern Languages of the East Indies (1878); Pictures of Indian Life (1881); Modern Languages of Africa (2 vols., 1883); Poems of Many Years and Many Places (2 vols., 1887-97); Three Lists of Bible Translations Actually Accomplished (1890); Africa Rediviva (1891); Essay on the Prevailing Method of the Evangelization of the Non-Christian World (1894); Common Features Which Appear in All Forms of Religious Belief (1895); The Gospel-Message (1896); Memoirs of Past Years of a Septuagenarian (Hertford, 1899); OEcumenical List of Translations of the Holy Scriptures to 1900 (London, 1900); and Linguistic and Oriental Essays (7 vols., 1880-1904).

CUTHBERT, SAINT: Bishop of Lindisfarne; d. on Farne Island (2 m. from Bamborough, Northumberland) Mar. 20, 687. He was of Scotch origin, probably from the neighborhood of Dunbar. While still a boy, employed as a shepherd, he thought that he saw one night the soul of Aidan carried to heaven by angels, and thereupon went to the monastery of Old Melrose and became a monk (651). His fame for piety, diligence, and obedience was soon great. When Alchfrid, king of Deira, founded a new monastery at Ripon Cuthbert became its praepositus hospitum or entertainer of guests. Alchfrid, however, adopted Roman usages, and in 661 the Scottish monks returned to Melrose, where Cuthbert was made prior. He spent much time among the people, ministering to their spiritual needs. After the Synod of Whitby (q.v.) he seems to have accepted the Roman customs, for his old abbot, Eata, then at Lindie farne, called him to introduce them there. It was an ungracious task, but Cuthbert disarmed oppo sition by his loving nature and patience. In 676 he adopted the solitary life and retired to a cave. After a time he settled on one of the Farne Islands, south of Lindisfarne, and gave himself more and more to austerities. At first he would receive visitors and wash their feet, but later he confined himself to his cell and opened the window only to give his blessing. After nine years he was prevailed upon to return to Lindisfarne as bishop and was consecrated at York by Archbishop Theodore and six bishops, Mar. 26, 685, but after Christmas, 686, he returned to his cell. Cuthbert's fame after his death steadily grew and be became the most popular saint of North England. Numerous miracles were attributed to him and to his remains. He was buried at Lindisfarne. In 875 the Danes took the monastery and the monks fled, carrying with them Cuthbert's body, in obedience to his dying injunction. After seven years' wandering it found a resting-place at Chester-le-Street until 995,


when another Danish invasion led to its removal to Ripon. Then the saint intimated, as was believed, that he wished to remain in Durham. A new stone church was built, the predecessor of the present grand cathedral, and there the body has remained since 999, not, however, without being several times disturbed in succeeding centures.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The writings which have been attributed to Cuthbert do not now exist and there is little reason to believe that they ever did. Two lives by Bede are in MPL, xciv. 575-598, 729-770, and in Stevenson's Bedae opera historica minora, pp. 1-137, 259-317, London, 1841. Several lives and other tracts maybe found in the publications of the Surtees Society of Durham, i., viii., li, lxxxvii., 1835--91. Consult also Bede, Hint. etch., iv. 2632. Consult: R. Hegge, The Legend of St. Cuthbert, London, 1683, reprinted, Sunderland, 1815, Durham, 1828; J. Rains, St. Cuthbert, with an Account of the State in which his Remains were found upon the opening of his tomb is Durham Cathedral in 1887, Durham, 1828; C. Eyre, The History of St. Cuthbert, London, 1849; F. L. Cataheside, Life of St. Cuthber4 London, 1879; A. C. Fryer, Cuthberht of Lindisfarne, Edinburgh, 1880; E. Consitt, Life of St. Cuthbert, London, 1887; J. B. Lightfoot, Leaders of ,the Northern Church, London, 1890; W. Bright, Chapters of Early English Church History, pp. 214-216, 239240, 300-306, 372-388, Oxford, 1897; DCB, i. 724-729; DNB, x ii. 359-362.


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