CONSUBSTANTIATION: A technical term denoting the Lutheran view of the elements of the Lord's Supper, in contradistinction from the Roman Catholic view-- transubstantiation. According to the Roman doctrine, the bread and the wine are by the consecration transformed into the flesh and blood of Christ: while, according to the Lutheran doctrine, the bread and wine remain bread and wine; though, after the consecration, the real flesh and blood of Christ coexist in and with the natural elements, just as a heated iron bar still remains an iron bar, though a new element, heat, has come to coexist in and with it-- an illustration which Luther himself used in his letter to Henry VIII. Lutheran theologians repudiate the popular term "consubstantiation," in the sense of a permanent connection of the elements with the body and blood of Christ, confining this connection to the act of the communion. See TRANSUBSTANTIATION.

CONTARINI, can"ta-ri'ni, GASPARO: Italian cardinal; b. at Venice Oct. 16, 1483, d. at Bologne Aug. 24, 1542. After a thorough scientific and philosophical training, he began his career in the service of his native city. In 1521 he was the Republic's ambassador to Charles V. He accompanied Charles to Spain, later, after the sack of Rome, he assisted in reconciling the emperor and Clement VII., also the emperor and the Republic of Bologna. His accomplishments, but still more his mild resoluteness and blameless character, made him everywhere respected. One of the fruits of his diplomatic activity is his De magistratibus et republica Venetorum. In 1535 Paul III. unexpectedly made the secular diplomat a cardinal in order to bind an able man of evangelical disposition to the Roman interests. Contarini accepted, but in his new position did not exhibit his former independence. The disposition which Ranke (Popes, i. 118) calls "the collected product of all his higher faculties" governed his action also in the new field. At first everything seemed to work well. In 1536 Paul III. appointed a commission to devise ways for a reformation. The evangelical movement had made such progress in Italy that something had to be done, and it seemed best that the most influential be the agents. The decision was a bold one; Paul III., however, received favorably Contarini's Consilium de emendanda ecclesia, but it remained a dead letter, and his successor Paul IV., once a member on the commission, in 1539 put it on the Index, a deed which still embarrasses Catholic historians. What Contarini had to do with it is shown by his letters to the pope in which he complained of the schism in the church, of simony and flattery in the papal court, but above all of papal tyranny. But he came a century too late. Contarini in a letter to his friend Cardinal Pole [dated Nov. 11, 1538] says that his hopes had been wakened anew by the pope's attitude. He and his friends thought that all would have been done when the abuses in churchly life had been put away. This was the judgment of a diplomat of noble and virtuous nature, reared on the best fruits of antiquity and refined through the Gospel, urged on by a desire for, peace and unfettered by dogmatic formulas. But he was soon to see the other side. In the year 1541 he was papal delegate at the diet and religious debate at Ratisbon. There everything was unfavorable; the Catholic states were bitter, the Evangelicals were distant. Contarini's instructions though apparently free were full of papal reservations. But the papal party had gladly sent him, thinking that through him a union in doctrine could be brought about, while the interest of Rome could be attended to later. Though the princes stood aloof, the theologians and the emperor were for peace, so the main articles were put forth in a formula, Evangelical in thought and Catholic in expression. The papal legate had revised the Catholic proposal and assented to the formula agreed upon. All gave their approval, even Eck, though he later regretted it. This did little good, for the Protestants could see in it only Roman cunning; at home the cardinal fared still worse. His own position is shown in a treatise on justification, composed at Ratisbon, which in essential points is Evangelical, differing only in the omission of the negative side and in being interwoven with the teaching of Aquinas. Meanwhile the papal policy


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on men. A children's covenant has survived signed in the village of Pentland by fifteen girls, the first on the list being then ten years old. The accession of James II. brought no relief. Another Argyll perished in an abortive rising in 1885. At last on James's flight in 1688 the persecution ceased.

William of Orange believed in toleration and left the Scotch Estates to settle their own religious affairs. Prelacy was at once thrown off, and the Parliament of 1690 renewed the Act of 1592 establishing Presbyterianism. As only about ninety of the ministers " outed " in 1661 now survived, the complaisant curates were allowed to stay on. The aggressive Presbyterian ideal of 1638 and 1643 was abandoned. Some of the obnoxious legislation since then was left unrescinded. Therefore, a stricter section calling themselves Cameronians, or the Reformed Presbyterian Church of Scotland, holding the nation still bound by the great National Covenants of the preceding generation, refused to approve the settlement and protested against the constitution of both Church and State. There was of course no more persecution, and they and their descendants maintained their testimony and their aloofness from all exercise of civil rights undisturbed. Almost all joined the Free Church in 1876, but several congregations still remain. See CAMERON, RICHARD, CAME&ONIANB; also the section of PRESBYTERIANS treating of the Scotch Church.


BIBwoasAPH7: For the earlier " bands " thq sources are: John Knox, Hiat. of the Reformation in Scotland, ed. D. Laing, vole i.-ii. of Works, Edinburgh, 1848-47; D. Calderwood, Hiet. of the Kirk of Scotland, 8 vole., republished, ib. 1842-49; A Cloud of Witnesses for the Royal Prerogatives of Jesus Christ, or the last Speeches and Testimonies of those who suffered for the Truth in Scotland since . . . 1880, ib. 1730; J. Howie, Scots Worthies, ad. W. H. Carslaw, ib. 1885. Modern books are R. Simpson, Traditions of the Covenpntem Edinburgh, 1889; D. H. Fleming, Story of the Scottish Covenants. ib. 1904 (based upon earlier sources, readable, condensed). Scott's grossly unfair Tales of My Landlord was answered by T. McCrie in Christian Instructor, 1817 (reprinted with his Sermons), and a reply by Scott is in the Quarterly Review, xvi. 439480. Other works are: J. Dodds, Fifty Year's' Struggles of the Scottish Covenanters, London, 1871; .J. K, Hewleon, Hist. of the Church in Scotland from as Refarwrat;m to the Revolution, 2 vole., Glasgow. 19o.


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