CARRANZA, car-ran'tha, BARTOLOMÉ: Archbishop of Toledo; b. at Miranda (175 m. n.e. of Madrid), Navarre, 1503; d. at Rome May 2, 1576. He entered the order of the Dominicans and from 1528 lectured on philosophy and scholastic theology at Alcala, afterward at Valladolid. Charles V. offered him the bishopric of Cuzco in Peru, but he declined. At the request of the emperor he took part in the deliberations of the Council of Trent after 1546, and insisted that the bishops should reside in their own dioceses. Strange to say, Carranza came into conflict with the Roman theologians because he asserted that the bishops had their rights jure divino, not by papal appointment. When the council was suspended he might have gone to Flanders as confessor of the infante Philip, but he declined this influential position to work in Spain as provincial of his order. He accompanied Philip to England (1554) when the latter was married to Mary Tudor, and shared in the persecution of the Protestants there. For this he was rewarded by Philip in 1557 and made archbishop of Toledo, which proved the culmination of his career. When Charles V. was dying (1558), Carranza gave him the sacrament. His opponents circulated the report that the emperor had not died in the faith of the Church and that this was owing to Carranza. The Inquisition had statements made by prisoners, which offered sufficient material to justify intervention, and his enemies, especially the inquisitor-general Valdez and Melchior Cano, called attention to his catechism (Comentarios del reverendissimo Fray Bartolomé Carranza sobre el Catechismo Christiano, Antwerp, 1558), which contained anything but Protestant doctrines, but deviated in some expressions from the Roman tradition. Carranza was imprisoned, his papers were confiscated, and some further material for charges was found. The examinations of Protestants in Valladolid which he held in 1558 and 1559 were especially scrutinized, and it was found that on the doctrine of justification and purgatory he had made oral statements which were not Catholic. In spite of his appeal to the pope, the Spanish Inquisition kept him in prison eight years and when he was transferred in 1567 to Rome at the behest of Pius V. be was kept there under examination nine years longer. The Roman process ended with a solemn abjuration of fourteen statements especially taken from his writings and with canonical punishment. He was suspended for five years and died in Rome without returning to Spain. The court of inquisition had overcome in his person the highest episcopal dignitary, but Gregory XIII. allowed a laudatory epitaph to be set up in Santa Maria sopra Minerva.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Carranza's most noted work, Summa conciliorum et pontificum (a church history to Julius III.), was published at Venice, 1546 and often. His life, by H. Laugwitz, Bartholomeo Carranza, Erzbischof von Toledo, was published at Kempten, 1870. Consult also: J. Quétif and J. Échard, Scriptores ordinis Prdicatorum, vol. ii., Paris, 1721; F. H. Reuseh, Der Index der verbotenen Bücher, i. 254, 398, 588 et passim, Bonn, 1883; Moeller, Christian Church, iii. 317; H. C. Lea, Inquisition in Spain, ii. 45-87, iv. 15, 486, 502, New York, 1906.
Calvin College. Last modified on 05/10/04. Contact the CCEL.