CARPENTER, J(OSEPH) ESTLIN: English Unitarian; b. at Ripley (22 m. s.w. of London), Surrey, Oct. 5, 1844. He was educated at University College, London (1860-63), and Manchester New College (1860-66; B.A., University of London, 1863), and was successively minister of Oakfield Road Church, Clifton, Gloucestershire (1866-69), and Mill Hill Chapel, Leeds (1869-75). From 1875 to 1906, he was a lecturer on Hebrew, Old Testament literature, and comparative religion in Manchester New College, first in London, then at Oxford, where he was appointed principal in 1906. He has edited the third, fourth, and fifth volumes of Ewald's History of Israel (London, 1871-74), a portion of the Sumangala Vilasini (1886), and the Digha Nikaya (2 vols., 1890-1903; both in collaboration with Rhys Davids); and The Hexateuch According to the Revised Version (2 vols., 1900; in collaboration with G. Harford-Battersby); and has translated C. P. Tiele's Geschiedenis van den Godsdienst tot aan de heerschappij der Wereldgodsdiensten (Amsterdam, 1876) under the title Outlines of the History of Religion (London, 1878). His independent works include: Life and Work of Mary Carpenter (London, 1879); Life in Palestine when Jesus Lived (1889); The First Three Gospels, Their Origin and Relations (1890); Composition of the Hexateuch (1902); The Bible in the Nineteenth Century (1903); Studies in Theology (1903; in collaboration with P. H. Wicksteed); The Place of Christianity Among the Religions of the World (1904); and James Martineau, Theologian and Teacher (1905).
CARPENTER, LANT: English Unitarian; b. at Kidderminster (15 m. s.w. of Birmingham), Worcestershire, Sept. 2, 1780; lost overboard from a steamer between Naples and Leghorn Apr. 5, 1840: He studied at Glasgow College 1798-1801; became a popular and successful school-teacher and preacher; was minister at Exeter 1805-17, and at Bristol 1817-39. He did much to broaden his denomination and to consolidate its scattered congregations; was a leader in philanthropic work; and was one of the most efficient of English schoolmasters. His publications were numerous, the most noteworthy being: An Introduction to the Geography of the New Testament (London, 1805); Unitarianism the Doctrine of the Gospel (1809; 3d ed., with alterations, Bristol, 1823); Systematic Education, in collaboration with William Shepherd and Jeremiah Joyce (2 vols., 1815); An Examination of the Charges Made Against Unitarians by the Right Rev. Dr. Magee (Bristol, 1820); Principles of Education (London, 1820); A Harmony of the Gospels (Bristol, 1835). After his death appeared a volume of Sermons on Practical Subjects (Bristol, 1840), edited by his son, Russell Lant Carpenter.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: R. L. Carpenter, Memoirs of the Life of Rev. Lant Carpenter, with Selections from his Correspondence, Bristol, 1842; DNB, ix. 157-159.
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