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CASWALL, EDWARD: Hymn writer; b. at Yateley (35 m. w.s.w. of London), Hampshire, July

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15, 1814; d. at the Oratory, Edgbaston, near Birmingham, Jan. 2, 1878. He studied at Brasenose College, Oxford (B.A., 1836; M.A., 1838); was curate of Stratford-sub-Castle, near Salisbury, 1840-47; in 1850 he joined the Oratory of St. Philip Neri under Newman, to whose influence his conversion to Roman Catholicism was due. He wrote original poems, but is best known for his translations from the Roman breviary and other Latin sources, which are marked by faithfulness to the original and purity of rhythm. They were published in Lyra Catholica, containing all the breviary and missal hymns (London, 1849); The Masque of Mary (1858); and A May Pageant (1865). Hymns and Prose (1873) is the three books combined with many of the hymns rewritten or revised.

CATACOMBS. See CEMETERIES, I; II., 3; III., 1.

CATAFALQUE: A structure erected to represent a corpse lying in state, decorated with emblems of mourning (also called tumba, castrum doloris). The custom of erecting such structures arose in the Catholic Church when the corpse of the deceased was no longer brought into the church, where, according to the Roman rite, the office of the dead, the requiem-mass, and the Libera were to be sung, before the interment. The object of the catafalque was to keep the older custom in mind, and to add greater solemnity to the service. The bier is covered with black hangings, and surrounded with lights. The officiating priest sprinkles it with holy water, as a symbol of the purifying blood of Christ and the water of eternal life, and then censes it as a token of honor to the body of the deceased, which has been the temple of the Holy Ghost, and as a symbol of the prayers for the departed soul which are to go up as a sweet savor before the Lord.

CA-TAL'DUS: According to legend, a native of Ireland and bishop there of a place called Rachan, otherwise unknown. He is said to have made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem and to have been directed in a vision to preach the Gospel to the heathen at Tarentum. With signs and wonders he performed his mission, became bishop of Tarentum or even archbishop, and converted the entire region before his death. The historical fact which underlies the legend is probably that a pious Irishman named Cataldus or Cathaldus ( = Cathal or Cathald, a real Irish name) preached in Lower Italy. His time can not be earlier than the sixth or seventh century. The veneration of Cataldus begins in the early Middle Ages. His relics were discovered in 1071, and many churches are dedicated to him in Lower Italy, and also in France, where he is honored as St. Carthauld or St. Catas. He is commemorated on Mar. 8, May 8, and May 10, the last being the day of his death according to the Martyrologium Romanum.

(O. ZÍCKLERć.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: ASB, May, ii. 568-577; J. Colgan, Acta sanctorum veteris et majoris Scotiť sive Hiberniť, pp. 544-562, Louvain 1645; Lanigan, Eccl. Hist., iii. 121-128; J. Healy, Insula Sanctorum, pp. 457-465, Dublin, 1890.

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