BOGOMILES. See NEW MANICHEANS, I.
BOGUE, DAVID: English Congregationalist; b. at Hallydown, near Coldingham (10 m. n.w. of Berwick), Berwickshire, Feb. 18, 1750; d. at Brighton Oct. 25, 1825. He studied at Edinburgh (M.A., 1771), was licensed to preach, and taught school in England; in 1780, while minister of a Congregational chapel at Gosport (opposite Portsmouth), he undertook the instruction of young men for the ministry, and from this beginning was
BIBLIOGRAPHY: James Bennett, Memoirs of the Life of Rev. David Bogue, London, 1827; DNB, v, 302-303.
BOHEMIA. See AUSTRIA.
This sketch of the origin of the Bohemian Brethren renders it clear that the current view which represents them as remnants of the Taborites is incorrect. In 1471 they designated themselves as disciples of Rokycana and his colleagues, and declared that they had been developed from the older communities mentioned above. The main outlines of the organization are contained in certain synodical resolutions of 1464-67. The community was divided into three groups: beginners or penitents, comprising children under the age of twelve and all who sought to enter the community from the time they made profession of their desire until they were received; the advanced, forming the majority of the community and devoting themselves to various civil callings, with masters and matrons appointed to supervise and counsel them; and the perfected (also called priests; although the community then had no specially appointed priesthood), who had renounced private property and given their possessions to the poor, particularly to those who "journey for the sake of the word of God." It was the duty of the perfected to proclaim the word and to hear confessions; they were required to travel in pairs, instead of alone, to earn a livelihood by the work of their hands, and to collect alms regularly, which were destined partly for the poor and partly for themselves, in case their work was insufficient to support them. Those of the laity, either male or female, who had voluntarily chosen poverty, also belonged to this class. At the head of the communities stood one or more elders, although no details of their duties are known, and information is equally scanty regarding the imposition of their frequent synods. The Brethren at Kunwald gained an increasing number of adherents in Bohemia and Moravia, while their opposition to the dominant Church became stronger and stronger, especially as a result of the persecution instituted against them by King George in 1460. They accordingly felt themselves obliged, seven years later, to break entirely with the Church by the creation of an independent priesthood, the historical course of events being as follows, according to Goll's proposed combination of the sources, which are not always in entire agreement.
By a meeting with the Waldensians and their "bishop" Stephen, with whom they had become acquainted through Rokycana, the Bohemian Brethren had entered into relations with the Waldensians
The members of this newly constituted community called themselves "Brethren," and were known in different portions of the country by the names of their chief centers, such as Kunwalders, Bunzlau Brethren, and the like. As a whole they termed themselves Jednota Bratrská, which they later rendered into Latin as Unitas Fratrum. Their characteristic designation was Brethren, which had already been current in various older Bohemian communities. The name Fratres legis Christi first arose in the second half of the sixteenth century, but never became general. Their opponents usually termed them Waldensians or Pickards (a corruption of Beghards), and this designation, found even in the royal decrees, became so general that they themselves employed it in the titles of many of their writings, terming themselves "the Brethren who for envy and hatred are called Waldensians or Pickards." The first result of the events of 1467 was a renewal of the persecutions, which lasted until the death of George and Rokycana in 1471, and which also involved the Waldensians, Stephen being burned at the stake in Vienna during this period. This persecution may also have been the cause of the renewed attacks on them in Brandenburg, and about 1478 two Waldensians accordingly went from that country to the Brethren, thus inaugurating an intercommunication between the two sects which resulted in a number of Waldensians joining the Brethren after 1480 and settling at Landskron in Bohemia and at Fulneck in Moravia. In the latter country both sects were tolerated under King Matthias, until the end of his reign, when a decree of expulsion was issued in 1488, although it was soon revoked at the petition of some patrons of high rank. A portion of the Brethren had already emigrated to Moldavia, but apparently returned within a few years.
Internal strife, centered about the ideal of Peter mentioned above, was more perilous to the maintenance of unity than external oppression. A "small" party clung to this ideal, and accordingly rejected temporal power, law, service in war, the oath, and the like as unchristian, while a "great " party regarded all these as dangerous, yet not to be rejected unconditionally. The controversies ended in 1494 with the victory of the "great" party, the "small" party, who called themselves Amosites after their leader Amos, separating as an independent community and preserving an existence for several decades. During these dissensions two leaders of the "great" party, Lukas and Thomas, journeyed to North Italy to visit the Lombard Waldensians in their own homes, possibly seeking, in view of their disagreement with the "small" party, to make a final effort to induce the Waldensians to break openly with Rome. A correspondence between the Brethren and the Waldensians was associated with this journey, the three Waldensian treatises, preserved either entire or in fragments, La epistola al serenissimo Rey Lancelau; Ayczo es la causa del nostre departiment de la gleysa Romana; and De l'Antichrist, as well as the catechism Las interrogations menors, being apparently translations or revisions of Bohemian writings composed by the Brethren, although the mutual relations are not yet altogether clear.
The period between 1496 and 1528 is marked by the activity of Lukas. Although he was not appointed presiding bishop until 1517, his influence was potent during the administration of his predecessors in office, Procopius (1507) and Thomas of Prelouc (1517). His special task was the restoration of the Unity which had become necessary in consequence of the secession of the "small" party. A mass of ordinances, touching on all the relations of life,
Although Luther at first declared himself at least in sympathy with their doctrine of the Lord's Supper, he became estranged from the Brethren after 1524, while their tendency to remain aloof, so far as possible, from the Lutheran movement was strengthened by the vagaries of Gallus Cahera in Prague (1523-29), especially since it resulted in the enforcement by the diet of the decree of Vladislav (1525). The Brethren also sent a fruitless deputation to Erasmus, apparently in 1520. In the closing years of his life Lukas found himself obliged to break with the Habrovanites or Lultish Brethren in Moravia, who were closely associated with the "small" party, and rejected celibacy, spiritual and temporal authority, and the taking of oaths, in addition to following Carlstadt in the doctrine of the Lord's Supper, and wishing to substitute baptism of the spirit for baptism by water. After a fruitless conference, letters were exchanged with considerable frequency for a number of years, while an effort made by the Anabaptists who had emigrated from the Tyrol to Moravia to unite with the Brethren ended in 1528 in a complete schism. Lukas died at Jungbunzlau on Dec. 11, 1528, and was buried in the local house of the Brethren, which had formerly been a monastery. The organization, however, which he had given the Unity remained unchanged until its end.
In principle the supreme judicial power was lodged with the synod, which consisted of all the clergy, although it contained no delegates chosen from the communities. It was, at the same time, the supreme court of appeal, although the chief administrative body, the "Close Council" (úzká rada), which was composed of some ten members chosen by the synod for life, apparently constituted the real government. The legal relation of the "Close Council" to the synod seems never to have been accurately defined. At the Synod of 1497 the "Close Council" was treated with all submission
The independent development of the Unitas Fratrum closed with the death of Lukas. The Lutheran party among the Brethren, headed by such men as Johann Horn (Roh), Michael Weisse, Johann Augusta, and Mach Sionsky, now became more prominent and assumed the leadership. After the brief administration of the insignificant Martin Skoda, Horn became judge in 1532, but was surpassed in importance by his colleague Johann Augusta, a man characterized by meager education, yet of great firmness, energy, and eloquence, and deeply impressed with a sense of the peculiar advantages of the community. He sought to associate the Brethren with the foreign Evangelicals, and found a favorable opportunity shortly after 1530, when the margrave George of Brandenburg requested Conrad of Krajek to instruct him in the doctrines of his sect. A confession was prepared, and Luther was induced to have it painted at Wittenberg with a eulogistic preface. At the same time, however, Augusta made overtures to the Strasburg theologians, and Matthias Cervenka, his envoy to Butzer, unexpectedly met Calvin. On the other hand, his relations with the Utraquistic Church of Bohemia were strained, especially during the administration of Mistopol. Another trait which characterizes the history of the Brethren after Lukas (1528-47) is the prominence of their nobility. The country estates were required to take part in the country diets just as the estates of the kingdom shared in the royal diets, and it thus became necessary for the estates of the Brethren to enter the former to defend the existence of their ecclesiastical union. In 1535, therefore, they gave King Ferdinand the creed of the Brethren, signed by all members of the nobility among them, twelve lords and thirty-five knights. Since ten of the twenty-six nobles tried by Ferdinand after the suppression of the so-called Bohemian revolt in 1547 were members of the Unity, he found a long-desired pretext to crush the community so far as possible. The decree of Vladislav was reenforced, certain estates which had been the centers of the brotherhood were confiscated by the king, and the former protectors of the Brethren were no longer able to evade the execution of the decree under the existing circumstances. The community was practically destroyed in Bohemia. Its seat of government was transferred to Moravia, but the majority of the Brethren were banished from the entire kingdom. Augusta himself was betrayed to Ferdinand, and regained his freedom only after repeated tortures and an imprisonment of sixteen years.
The sixth decade of the century ushered in a period of comparative peace for the Brethren, and they now sought, under the leadership of Johann Blahoslav, to gain state recognition of their Church, their chances seeming especially favorable in view of the supposed Protestant tendency of Maximilian. In 1555 and the following years they accordingly endeavored to win the favor of the archduke through repeated conferences between Blahoslav and Maximilian's court preacher, Pfauser of Vienna, but their efforts to secure definite promises for the future bore little fruit. The same object was pursued by Utraquism, which had now become essentially Lutheran, and which had prepared a new creed for the Lutheran Church in Bohemia in 1575, after the compacts had been annulled by the diet of deputies in 1567 as antiquated. Through their representatives the Brethren sought to have their independence clearly expressed in the preface of the new creed, but their chance of recognition by the side of the "Neo-Utraquists" steadily decreased, while their essential community of interest with the new body became more and more clear. In 1609, when the estates forced Rudolf to issue his charter, the Brethren shared the religious liberty which it granted by joining in the Bohemian Confession of 1575, after having already given a full explanation of its acceptance in the previous year.
All special names were now to cease, and the members of the united Bohemian Evangelical Church were henceforth to be called "Utraquistic Christians." The Brethren were represented in the common consistory, but despite the abolition of a separate name, this was, strictly speaking, not a union, but rather a confederation between the Unitas Fratrum and the Bohemian Church. The Brethren, therefore, retained their own organization and regulations, and even their independent creed (1564), while the Bohemian Lutherans, in like manner, held to the Augsburg Confession, although both creeds are declared to be in full harmony with the Bohemian Confession of 1575. Definitive form was accordingly given the church discipline of the Brethren at the Synod of eravic in 1616 under the title Ratio disciplin ordinisque ecclesiastici in unitate fratrum Bohemorum, but the plan of making this valid for the whole Bohemian Church was not realized. This organization, however, had but a brief period of prosperity, for the battle at the White Hill (Nov. 8, 1620) destroyed Protestantism in Bohemia and Moravia for more than a century and a half.
The Brethren expelled from Bohemia in 1547 in consequence of the Schmalkald War emigrated partly to Moravia and partly to Prussia, where they were received by Duke Albert. After his death in 1568 they returned to Moravia and Poland, exercising an important influence on the introduction of the Reformation in the latter country, and attempting to establish friendly relations between the various Evangelical bodies at a synod held at Sendomir in 1570. Their scanty remnants still exist in the five so-called communities of Unity in the Prussian province of Posen: Posen, Lissa, Lasswitz, Waschke, and Orzeszkowo.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: For full bibliography of the subject consult W. G. Malin, Catalogue of Books relating to or illustrating the History of the Unitas Fratrum or United Brethren now generally known as the Moravian Church, Philadelphia, 1881.
For general history consult: J. Camerarius, Historica narratio de fratrum orthodoxorum ecclesiis in Bohemia, Moravia, at Polonia, Heidelberg, 1605; J. Lasicius, De origine et institutis Fratrum libri viii (only the eighth book was published, ed. J. A. Comenius, 1649); Historia persecutionum ecclesi Bohemic, Amsterdam, 1648, Eng. transl., London, 1650; J. A. Comenius, Ecclesi Slavonic historiola, Amsterdam, 1660; idem, Historia fratrum Bohemorum, ed. Buddeus, Halle, 1702; Martyrologium Bohemicum, oder die böhmische Verfolgungsgeschichte, 894-1632, Berlin, 1766; D. Cranz, Alte und neue Brüder Historie, Barby, 1771, Eng. transl., London, 1780; The Reformation and Anti-Reformation in Bohemia, ib. 1845; V. Krasinski, Religious History of the Slavonic Nations, Edinburgh, 1851; A. Gindely, Geschichte der böhmischen Brüder, 2 vols., Prague, 1857; A. Bost, Hist. of the Bohemian and Moravian Brethren, London, 1863; E. W. Cröger, Geschichte der alten Brüderkirche, Gnadau, 1865; D. Benham, Notes on the Origin and Episcopate of the Bohemian Brethren, London, 1867; B. Czerwenka, Geschichte der evanelischen Kirche in Böhmen, 2 vols., Bielefeld, 1870; E. Jane Whately, Sketches of Bohemian Religious History, London, 1876; E. de Schweinitz, Hist. of the Church known as the Unitas Fratrum, Bethlehem, 1885.
For the church order consult: Ratio disciplin ordinisque ecclesiastici in unitate fratrum Bohemorum, Leszno, 1632, Amsterdam, 1660, and Halle, 1732; B. Seifferth, Church Constitution of the Bohemian and Moravian Brethren. The Original Latin with a Transl., London, 1866.
The original text of the Confession is reproduced in A. Gindely, Quellen zur Geschichte der böhmischen Brüder, p. 354 sqq., Vienna, 1861, and in de Schweinitz, History, ut sup., pp. 648 sqq. Consult also J. C. Koecher, Die drey letzten und vornehmsten Glaubensbekenntnisse der böhmischen Brüder, Leipsic, 1741; H. A. Niemeyer, Collectio confessionum, pp. 771 sqq., ib. 1840.
For catechisms consult: J. G. Ehwalt, Die alte und neue Lehre der böhmischen Brüder, Danzig, 1756; C. A. G. von Zezschwitz, Die Katechismen der Waldenser und böhmischen Brüder, Erlangen, 1863; J. Müller, Die deutschen Katechismen der böhmischen Brüder, Berlin, 1887.
On the Hymnology consult: P. Wackernagel, Das deutsche Kirchenlied, iii, 229-368, iv, 346-485, Berlin, 1870-75; J. Zahn, Die geistlichen Lieder der Brüder in Böhmen, Mähren und Polen, Nuremberg, 1875; Julian, Hymnology, pp. 153-160.
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