BOROWSKI, bo-rov'skî, LUDWIG ERNST VON: A prominent Prussian evangelical preacher; b. at Königsberg June 17, 1740, of a well-to-do Polish family which had emigrated on account of its religion; d. in Berlin Nov. 10, 1831. In his fourteenth year he went to the University of Königsberg, where he was one of Kant's earliest pupils, practised oratory, and showed an inclination toward literature. His theological convictions were not influenced by Kant, despite a lasting personal devotion, but rather by the supernaturalist school. In 1758 Kant recommended him to General von Knobloch as a tutor in his family; but before long Field-marshal von Kunheim, impressed by Borowski's oratorical gifts, urged him to become a military chaplain. This career he finally took up in 1762, being ordained by Süsamilch, and joining his regiment in the camp at Sorau soon afterward. He remained with the army until 1770, when Süsamilch had him appointed superintendent of the district of Schaaken in East Prussia. Here he labored diligently for twelve years, until he was called to a pastoral charge in his native town. The development of his preaching powers and theological knowledge won him increasing prominence; in 1793 the king appointed him a member of the special commission on churches and schools, and he received the title of consistorial councilor in 1804. When the storms of war burst over Germany, he rose to the height of the occasion, and his eloquent exhortations had a deep effect on Frederick William III and his queen, who resided in Königsberg from 1807 to 1809. The king's warm affection and respect continued to be shown through the years that followed. In 1812 he made Borowski general superintendent, in 1815 first court preacher, in 1816 a bishop, and in 1829 archbishop of the Prussian Evangelical Church. These last years of his life, old as he was, were full of incessant activity;


he was president of the Bible Society and of the Missionary Union founded in 1822. Outside of his preaching, however, he gave more thought to the training of his candidates for ordination than to anything else, and even in the wanderings of his last illness his mind was occupied with them.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: Selected sermons and lectures, with sketches of his activities by von Kahle and E. Oesterreich, were published by his grandson, K. L. Volkmann, Königsberg, 1833. Consult also ADB, iii, 177.

BORRHAUS, MARTIN (generally known as CELLARIUS): German theologian; b. at Stuttgart 1499; d. at Basel Oct. 11, 1564. Being educated and adopted by his kinsman Simon Cellarius, he called himself Cellarius until about forty years of age, although the name of his parents seems to have been Burress or Borrhus. In 1515 he was made magister artium at Tübingen, where he became intimately acquainted with Melanchthon, two years his senior. He was made bachelor of theology under Reuchlin at Ingolstadt in 1521, and became a friend of Marcus Stübner at Wittenberg. The eight sermons delivered by Luther after his return from the Wartburg impressed Cellarius deeply, but his zeal in defense of Stübner was such that he left Wittenberg, where he had treated Luther with rudeness, and went to Switzerland, whence he traveled by way of Austria and Poland to Prussia, which had just embraced the Evangelical faith. There he was tried, and required to sign a bond in which he promised to return at once to Wittenberg. His interview with Luther in 1526 filled the latter with respect for Cellarius, who now settled in southern Germany, winning the hearts of Capito and Butzer in Strasburg. In 1527 he published his first work, De operibus Dei, and in 1544 he was appointed professor of the Old Testament at Basel, where, in collaboration with Castello and Curio, he composed a polemical treatise under the name of Martin Bellius, directed against Calvin in the Servetus controversy. He rejected infant baptism, but was a firm believer in predestination.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: ADB, iii (1876), 381; E. Egli, Zwingliana, i, 30-31, Zurich, 1904; C. Gerbert, Geschichte der Strassburger Sektenbewegung zur Zeit der Reformation, 1524-34, Strasburg, 1889. References will be found in the lives of the Reformers Luther, Melanchthon, Butzer, Zwingli.


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