BRICTINANS (Brittinans, Brittinians, so named from S. Blasius de Brictinis, a desolate region not far from Fano in Umbria): An Italian hermit-society founded during the pontificate of Gregory IX, who confirmed it in 1234 by an edict, enjoining upon the members the most rigorous asceticism, especially as to fasting and the total abstinence from flesh in any form between Sept. 14 and Easter of every year. Innocent IV sought, apparently with success, to merge them, as well as the anchorite orders of the Williamites and John-Bonites, in the new order of the Augustinians. A bull of Alexander IV, however, dated in 1260 (Potthast, Regesta, no. 17,915), assures them the right of independent existence.
BRIDAINE (BRYDAINE), JACQUES: French Roman Catholic preacher; b. at Chusclan (15 m. n.n.w. of Avignon), Department of Gard, Mar. 21, 1701; d. at Roquemaure, near Avignon, Dec. 22, 1767. He studied at the Jesuit College and the Mission Seminary of St. Charles de la Croix in Avignon; visited as a missionary preacher or evangelist nearly every city and village of France, producing a profound impression by his somber and vehement sermons. He almost always preached extemporaneously, appealed to the emotions of his hearers, and sought to terrify them. He prepared a volume of Cantiques spirituels (Montpellier, 1748), which has passed through fifty editions. Certain works have been published from his manuscripts, including Lectures et méditations (Avignon, 1821); Réglement de vie pour une pieuse demoiselle (1821); and five volumes of sermons (1823).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Abbé Carron, Le Modèle des prêtres, Paris, 1804.
BRIDEL, brî"del', PHILIPPE LOUIS JUSTIN: Swiss Protestant; b. at Lausanne Nov. 27,1852. He was educated at the Academy (now the University) of his native city and in the theological faculty of the Free Church of the same institution, being graduated from the former in 1870 and from the latter in 1876. He also studied at the University of Göttingen, and after the completion of his education held successive pastorates in the Canton of Vaud (1875-78), Paris (1879-87), and Lausanne (1887-94). Since 1894 he has been professor of philosophy and the history of theology in the theological faculty of the Free Church at Lausanne. He has been associate editor of the Revue de théologie et de philosophie since 1895 and of the Liberté chrétienne since 1898. In theology he is, to a certain extent, a follower of C. Secrétan and A. R. Vinet, and has written La Philosophie de la religion d'Immanuel Kant (Lausanne, 1876); La Palestine illustrée (4 vols., 1888-91); Roger Holland, pasteur à Paris (1902); and Charles Renouvier et la philosophie (1905).
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