BAUSSET, bö"sê', LOUIS FRANÇOIS DE: Cardinal; b. at Pondicherry Dec. 14, 1748; d. at Paris June 21, 1824. He studied in the Seminary of St. Sulpice; was appointed Bishop of Alais, 1784; emigrated in 1791, but returned in 1792 to Paris, and supported himself, after a short imprisonment, by literary labor. In 1806 he was made canon of St. Denys, and in 1815, after the second return of Louis XVIII, director of the council of the University of Paris, peer of France, and cardinal 1817. He wrote the Histoire de Fénelon (3 vols., Paris, 1808) and Histoire de Bossuet (4 vols., Versailles,. 1814).
BAUTAIN, bö"tan', LOUIS EUGÈNE MARIE: French philosopher; b. at Paris Feb. 17, 1796; d. at Viroflay, near Versailles, Oct. 15, 1867. He became professor of philosophy at Strasburg in 1819. He was a pupil of Cousin and a student of German philosophy, and, his teaching not being acceptable to the church authorities, he was suspended in 1822. He modified his views and took holy orders in 1828, and resumed teaching. In 1834 he again fell into difficulty with the Bishop of Strasburg because of his teachings concerning the relation of reason and faith; is 1838 he went to Rome and sought in vain to have his views approved there. In 1840 he submitted, became vicar-general of Paris in 1849, and professor at the Sorbonne in 1853. He held that the human reason can not prove such facts as the existence of God and the immortality of the soul, and that the truths of religion are communicated purely by divine revelation. His most important works were: Philosophie du Christianisme (2 vols., Strasburg, 1835); Psychologie expérimentale (2 vols., 1839; new ed., with title Esprit humain et ses facultés, Paris, 1859); Philosophie morale (2 vols., Paris, 1842); La morale de l'Évangile comparée aux divers systèmes de morale (1855). He had much repute as an orator and published an Étude sur l'art de parler en public (1856; Eng. transl., The Art of Extempore Speaking, London, 1858).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: E. de Régny, L'Abbé Bautain, Paris, 1884.
BAUTZ, JOSEF: Roman Catholic; b. at Keeken (near Cleves) Nov. 11, 1843. He was educated at Münster, where he became privat-docent of apologetics and dogmatics in 1877, being promoted to the rank of associate professor in 1892. He has written Die Lehre vom Auferstehungsleibe (Paderborn, 1877); Der Himmel, spekulativ dargestellt (Mainz, 1881); Die Hölle, im Anschluss an die Scholastik (I882); Das Fegfeuer. Im Anschluss an die Scholastik (1883); Weltgericht und Weltende. Im Anschluss an die Scholastik (1886); Grundzüge der christlichen Apologetik (1887); and Grundzüge der katholischen Dogmatik (4 vols., 1888-93).
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