BAIER, bai'er, JOHANN WILHELM: Lutheran theologian of the seventeenth century; born at Nuremberg November 11, 1647; died at Weimar October 19, 1695. He studied philology, especially Oriental, and philosophy at Altdorf from 1664 to 1669, in which year he went to Jena and became a disciple of the celebrated Musaeus, the representative of the middle party in the syncretistic controversy, whose daughter he married in 1674. Taking his doctor's degree the same year, he became in 1675 professor of church history in the university, and lectured with great success on several different branches of theology. In 1682 he was chosen to represent the Protestant side in the negotiations with the papal legate Steno, bishop of Tina, for reunion of the Churches. He was three times rector at Jena before he was called by the elector Frederick III, in 1694, as professor and provisional rector to the new university of Halle. Here his devotion to strict orthodoxy brought him into conflict with some of his colleagues, and the pietistic movement also gave him trouble, so that after a year he was glad to accept the combined positions of chief court preacher, superintendent, and pastor at Weimar- which, however, he held only a few months. He left a name in the history of theology, especially by his dogmatic compendium, which still preserves the early Protestant traditions among High Lutherans, especially in America. The Jena theologians, and Musaeus in particular, had been asked by Ernest the Pious to draw up such a work, to take the place of the antiquated Hutter, and Musaeus urged his son-in-law to do it. The first edition appeared in 1686, the second, enlarged, in 1691, and it has been frequently reprinted since. It was commended for general use as a text-book by its method, its conciseness, and its absence of mere polemics. It was obviously, however, intended by its author as a vindication of the Jena theology, which had been sharply attacked from Wittenberg, and lay under some suspicion of syncretism. Its dependence upon Musaeus is really the distinguishing feature of the book, which is largely a compilation from him. Baier's other works include polemical writings against Erbermann, a convert to Roman Catholicism and a Jesuit, and against the Quakers; and three other compendiums, published after his death (1698), one of exegetical, and one of moral theology, as well as one of the history of dogma. His read significance lies in the fact that he handed on and popularized the theology of Musaeus; and his work was continued by Buddeus, whom he left at Halle as professor of moral philosophy. JOHANNES KUNZE.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: (G. A. Will, Nurnbergisches Gelehrtenlexikon, i, 47-53, v, 39, Nuremberg, 1755; W. Schrader, Geschichte der Friedrichsuniversitat su Halle, i, 49-50, Berlin, 1894; C. Stange, Die systematischen Prinzipien in der Theologie des Musaus, Halle, 1895.



BAIER, JOHANNES: German Roman Catholic; b. at Hetzles (a suburb of Erlangen) Oct. 16, 1852. He was educated at the Lyceum of Bamberg and the University of Munich (D.D., 1885), and was ordained to the priesthood in 1877. From that year until 1882 he was $ tutor in the archiepiscopal seminary for boys at Bamberg and also assistant lecturer in dogmatics at the lyceum of the same city, besides being assistant parish priest at Bamberg and Nuremberg in the summer of 1877 and at Herabruck in 1879-80. In 1882-86 he was a teacher of religion at the normal school at Bamberg, where he became Oberkhrer and tutor in the latter year, and where he has been professor since 1901. Since 1906 he has been headmaster of the same institution, and in the same year was made an honorary Austin friar. In theology " he belongs to the conservative party and is a friend of rational sound progress:' Besides many contributions to theological and philosophical periodicals, and in addition to numerous poems, he has written, frequently under the pseudonym of Dr. Johannes Scholasticus, Die Naturehe (Regensburg, 1886); Die religi6se Untertaeisung in der Volksschule (Wilrzburg, 1890); Der heilige Bruno, Biachof von Wurzburg, ale Katechet (1891); Das alto Augustinerkloster in Wiirzburg (1894); Die Stellung der Religionsunterricht sur Philosophic Herbarts (1895); Dr. Martin Luthers Aufenthalt in Wurzburg (1895); Die Geschichte des Cisterzienserklosters Langheim mit den Wallfahrtsorten Vierwhnheiligen and Marienweiher (1895); Die Geschichte der beiden Karmelitenkloster and des Reurerinnenklostem im Wilrzburg (1900); Sailers Buch fiber Erziehung fur Erzieher (Freiburg, 1901); Analyse and Synthese im Migionsunterrick (Wiirzburg, 1902); Sailer in aeinem Verhaltnis zur modernen Pddagogik (1904); Die WillenaWdung (Kempten, 1905); and Methodik des Religionsunterrcehls in Volke- and Mittelschulen (Leipsie, 1906).

BAILEY, HENRY: Church of England, canon of St. Augustine's, Canterbury; b. at North Leverton (13 m. n.w. of Lincoln), Notts., Feb. 12, 1815. He was educated at St. John's College, Cambridge (B.A., 1839). He was Crosse University Scholar in 1839 and Tyrwhitt Hebrew University Scholar, 1st class, two years later, while he was elected fellow of his college in 1842 and Hebrew lecturer in 1848. From 1850 to 1878 he was warden of St. Augustine's College, of which he has been bonorary fellow since 1878, and after 1863 was honorary canon of Canterbury. He was also rector of West Tarring, Sussex, from 1878 to 1892 and was rural dean of Storrington in 1886-92. He was twice appointed Select Preacher at Cambridge and was Proctor in Convocation in 1886-92. Since 1888 he has been canon of St. Augustine's. He has written Rituals Anglo-Catholicum (London, 1847); Manual of Devotion for Clergy (1890); and Gospel of the Kingdom (1902).

BAILLET, ba"yb', ADRIEN: Roman Catholic; b. at Neuville, near Beauvais (54 m. n.n.w. of Paris), June 13, 1649; d. in Paris Jan. 21, 1706. He was educated in the Seminary of Beauvais; became a priest 1675 and obtained a small vicarage; in 1680

he was appointed secretary to Lamoignon, president of the Parliament of Paris, and spent the rest of his life in unremitting devotion to study. His most important works were: Jugements des savants sur les principauz ouvrages et auteurs (9 vols., Paris, 1685-86); Les vies des saints (3 vols., 1695-1701); Vie de Descartes (2 vols., 1691); Histoire de Hollande, a continuation of Grotius (4 vois., 1693). He was favorable to the Jansenists and has been called hypercritical. A monograph, De la d6votion h la Sainte Vierge et du culte qui lui est dA (1693) was thought to attack the doctrine and practise of the Church and put upon the Index, and a like fate befell the first and second volumes of the Vies des saints, which were said to contain remarks little short of slanderous. The first volume of the Amsterdam edition (1725) of the Jugements des savants contains an Abr6gd of his life.

BAILLIE, ROBERT: Presbyterian; b. at Glasgow 1599; d. there July, 1662. He studied at his native city, and was made professor of divinity there in 1642, and principal of the university in 1661. He was a fine scholar and took an active part and wrote much in all the church controversies in his time. His Letters and Journals (ed. David Laing, 3 vols., Edinburgh, 1841-42, with a notice of his writings and a description of his life) are of great historical interest. To him we owe a graphic description of the Westminster Assembly of Divines, to which body he was sent as one of the five Scotch clergymen in 1643, and sat in it for three years.

BLBLIOGBAPHT: Biopraphia Britannica, ed. A. Kippie, i. 510-515, London, 1778; T. Carlyle, Baillie the Covenanter, in Weetmineter Review, xxxvii, 43, reprinted in his Mie uilaniee (a remarkable paper); DNB, ii, 420-422.

BAIRD, CHARLES WASHINGTON: Presbyterian; b. at Princeton, N. J., Aug. 28, 1828, son of Robert Baird (q.v.); d. at Rye, N. Y., Feb. 10, 1887. He was graduated at the University of the City of New York, 1848, and at Union Theological Seminary, 1852; was chaplain of the American Chapel at Rome, Italy, 1852-54; agent of the American and Foreign Christian Union in New York 1854-55; pastor of the Reformed (Dutch) Church on Bergen Hill, Brooklyn, 1859-61; of the Presbyterian Church at Rye, N. Y., 1861-87. He published Eutaxia, or the Presbyterian Liturgies (New York, 1855; revised and reprinted as A Chapter on Liturgies, with preface, and appendix, Are Dissenters to Have a Liturgy P by Thomas Binney, London, 1856); A Book of Public Prayer compiled from the authorized formularies of toorship of the Presbyterian Church as prepared by the Reformers Calvin, Knox, Bucer, and others (New York, 1857); A History of Rye, Weatcheater County, N. Y. (1871); A History o f the Huguenot Emigration to America (2 vols., 1885, new ed., 1901; left incomplete at his death).

BAIRD, HENRY MARTYN: Presbyterian, author of the authoritative history of the Huguenots; b. at Philadelphia, Pa., Jan.17,1832, eon of Robert Baird (q.v.); d. at Yonkers, N. Y., Nov. 11, 1906. He was educated at New York University (B.A., 1850), the University of Athens, Greece (1851-52),



Union Theological Seminary (1853-55), and Princeton Theological Seminary (1856). After being tutor in the College of New Jersey from 1855 to 1859, he was appointed professor of the Greek language and literature in the University of the City of New York, and became professor emeritus in 1902. He was corresponding secretary of the American and Foreign Christian Union in 1873-84, and was the first vice-president of the American Society of Church History. in addition to being a member of the board of the Soci&k de 1 Histoire du Protestantisme Frangais, honorary member of the Huguenot Society of America, honcrary fellow of the Huguenot Society of London, and a member of various historical associations. He published Modern Greece (New York, 1856); Rise of the Huguenots of France (2 vols., 1879); The Huguenots and Henry of Navarre (2 vole., 1886); The Huguenots and. the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes (2 vols., 1895); and Theodore Beza, the Counsellor o f the French Reformation (1899).

BAIRD LECTURES · A lectureship on a foundation established by Mr. James Baird (d. 1876), a wealthy Scotch ironmaster, member of Parliament 1851-57. who was. greatly interested in religious and educational affairs. While the Baird Lectures had their inception in 1871, their realization was madc possible when in 1873 Mr. Baird established the " Baird Trust " and gave into its care £500,000 to be used for aggressive Christian work. A part of the income of this fund provides for a series of lectures each year at Glasgow and also, if required, at one other of the Scotch university towns. Each course must consist of not fewer than six lectures and must be delivered by a minister of the Church of Scotland, who may be reappointed. Since 1883 each lecturer has held the position for two years with the exception of Rev. William Milligan, who lectured in 1891 only. The most noteworthy contributions are the series by Professor Robert Flint in 1876-77 on Theism and Anti-Theistic Theories (Edinburgh, 1877-79), and that by J. Marshall Lang in 1901-02 on The Church and its Social Mission (1902). A full list of the lecturers and their subjects may be found in L. H. Jordan, Comparative Religion (New York, 1905), pp.565-566.

BAIRD, ROBERT: Presbyterian; b. near

Uniontown, Fayetbe County, Pennsylvania, Oct. 6, 1796; d. at Yonkers, N. Y., Mar. 15, 1863. He was graduated at Jefferson College, Canonsburg, Penn., 1818, and at Princeton Seminary in 1822; was ordained in 1828 and thenceforth devoted his life to the cause of total abstinence, education, and the effort to spread Protestantism in Roman Catholic countries. He resided in Europe as agent of the Frenob Association and of its successor, the Foreign Evangelical Society, from 1835 to 1843, and continued in the service of the society in the United States 1843-46; from 1849 to 1855 he was corresponding secretary of the American and Foreign Christian Union and again, 1861 to his death; his ninth mission to Europe was made in 1861. He wrote Histoire des sociq& de temp& rance des .9tats-Unis d'Am&iqve (Paris, 1836);


Religion in the United States of America (Glasgow, 1844); Sketches of Protestantism in Italy (Boston, 1845).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: H. M. Baird, Life Of Rev. Robert BO.1'd, New York, 1866 (by his son). BAJUS, bd"yvs, MICHAEL (MICHEL DE BAY)

Theologian of Louvain; b. at Melin (arrondissement of Atli , 14 m. n.w. of Mons), Hainault, 1513; d. at Louvain Sept. 15, 1589. He was educated in the University of Louvain, where he became magister 1535; head of the Standonck college and member of the faculty of arts 1540, and doctor of theology 1550. When four Louvain professors were summoned to Trent at the reopening of the council there in 1551 Bajus and his like-minded colleague Johannes Hesaels (q.v.) filled the vacancies by lecturing on the Holy Scriptures. Bajus was soon appointed professor in ordinary.

Being convinced that the questions of faith which were started by the Reformation could not be sufficiently answered by the scholastic method, Bajus endeavored to found the study of theology more upon the Scriptures and the. Fathers, especially upon Augustine, whose works he is said to have read nine times. But soon a great controversy arose, and in 1560 his opponents secured the condemnation by the Sorbonne of eighteen propositions extracted from the lectures of Bajus. Bajus defended himself, complained of unfair treatment, and declared that he was ready to submit to the holy see and the council. After a few years the controversy began anew caused by a number of dogmatic tractates, the first of which (De libero arbitrio, De justitia, De jvstificatione, and others) were published in the beginning of 1563, others (De meritis oPerum, De prima hominis justitia, De virtutibus impiorvm, etc.) in 1564, and a general collection (Opvscula omnia) in 1566. The Contro- Ba.jus's opponents induced the new

versy Con- pope, Pius V, in 1567 in the bull Ex cerning omnibus a f jtictionibus to condemn Bajus's seventy-nine propositions from his

Orthodoxy. writings as heretical, false, auspicious, bold, scandalous, and offensive to pious earn, without stating, however, which of the propositions deserved the one or the other epithet, and without mention of Bajus's name. The bull, written in the usual form without punctuation, says: Quas quidem sententiee stricto coram nobis examine ponderatas quanquam nonnullae aliquo pacto sustineri possent in rigors et proprio verbarum sensu ab asse;toribus intento hcsreticas erroneas . . . damnamus, etc. If a comma be inserted after intento, as was done by the Louvain theologians and afterward by the Jansenista, the bull contains the concession that some propositions in the strict sense intended by the authors are perhaps permissible; but if,. with the Jesuits, the comma is put after svstineri possent, the contrary meaning is imparted, that some propositions which may perhaps be interpreted in au orthodox sense, are nevertheless condemned as meant by their authors. Hence arose the later controversy about the comma. Pianism. A papal brief (May 13, 1569) sustained the condemnation, and Bajus submitted and was absolved. In his lectures (Apr. 17, 1570) he expressed himself



once more in the sense of his apology. The bull against him was now first made public. The Louvain faculty made explanations, which were satisfactory in form, but the majority still adhered to the Augustinian system. Bajus remained in his prominent position, and was made chancellor of the University and dean of the Collegiate Church of St. Peter in 1575. He founded in the University a Collegium Sancti Augustini, to which his nephew Jacob, who acted as his executor, gave the name of Collegium Baianum.

The propositions of Bajus which were attacked and condemned by the papal bull rest entirely on the fundamental Augustinian idea of the entire depravity of man through original sin, of the absolute moral inability of the fallen man to do good, and of utterly unconditional and irresistible grace. To retain and carry out the Augustinian idea, he believed it necessary to oppose the scholastic (and Tridentine) notion of the original state of man. He will not admit that the original nature of man con-

sisted in the so-called pura natura, to His Doubt- which came as an additional gift

ful Teach- (donum superadditum, supernaturalia ings. dona) the justitia originalis, which lifts

man above his nature and qualifies him for salvation. He thinks that the status purse naturce est impossibilis. According to Scripture, Christ first brought grace. From this point of view the state of fallen man appears as essential corruption of human nature according to the Augustinian presentation, which especially precludes free will in the sense of power of choice. LzTberu?n arbitraum hominis non valet ad opposita. There exists indeed a certain freedom of choice with reference to things which are not under consideration, but no condition of religio-moral indifference. Finally Bains follows Augustine as a matter of course in the assertion that in the justified person original sin does indeed not rule as concupiscence but still acts, and adopts the manes actu, prteterit reatu. As the whole man is corrupted by sin, so also is all humanity.

In all these points Bajus coincides very closely with the Augustinianism of the Reformers. and only in a few points does he make a not very successful effort to explain away certain harsh expressions (e.g., concerning determinism) and charge them to the Reformers only. But he stops far short of making the decided deviation which the Reformers made from Augustine with regard to the doctrine of justification. Grace justifies man.

Since no man on earth can attain Relation active perfection in this life, our rightto the eousness will rest more upon the for-

Reformers. giveness of sins than upon our virtue. It is characteristic how the forgive ness of sins comes in here like a makeshift. Si proprie loqui velzmus, remmsio peccatomm juditia non erit, quia justitia proprie le gis obedientia est sive intus in voluntate live foris in opere . . . . Sed in scripturfs sacris peeeatorury rentissw idea etiam nomine yustitim intelligitur, quia licet proprie non sit, tamen apud deum pro justitia reputatur. Justifi cation means to make righteous and have forgive ness of sins; but it is the former above all. Baird Baker

The bull against Bajus is very instructive for the history of doctrinal theology, because the Augustinian theology is here censured with all plainness. Thus, condemnation is pronounced upon the following propositions: that every sin deserves everlasting punishment (20); that all works of the unbelievers are sin (25); that the will without the help of grace can only sin (27); that concupiscence, even where it acts unwillingly, is sin (51); that the sinner is not animated and moved by the absolving priest but only by God (58); that the merit of the redeemed is given to them freely (8); that temporal sins can not be atoned for by one's own doings de condigno, but that their abolition, like the resurrection, must be ascribed in a proper sense to the merit of Christ (77, 10).


BIBLIOGRAPHY: Michael Baii opera: cum bullis pontifuvm et aliia ipaiua cauaam apectantibua . . . collecia . .

studio A. P. theologi [G. Gerberon], Cologne, 1696; J. B. P. du Chesne, Hiatoire du Baianiame, Douai, 1731; F. X. Linsenmann, Michael Bajua and die Grundlegung des Janaeniamua, Tabingen, 1867; L. E. du Pin, Nouvelle biblioWque, xvi; R. Seeberg, in Thomasius, Dogmengeachichte, vol. ii, part 2. 718 sqq., Leipsic, 1889; A. Harnack, Dopmengeachichle, iii, 628 sqq., Freiburg, 1890, Eng. trand., vii, 86-93.

BAKER, DANIEL: Presbyterian; b. at Midway, Liberty County, Ga., Aug. 17, 1791; d. at Austin, Texas, Dec. 10, 1857. He studied at Hampden Sidney College, Va., 1811-13 and was graduated at Princeton, 1815; was licensed (1816) and ordained (1818) in Virginia; was pastor in Washington, 1822-28; in Savannah, 1828-31; after a noteworthy revival season in his church there, resigned and spent the rest of his life, with the exception of brief pastorates, traveling through the southern States as evangelist and missionary; became general missionary in Texas of the Board of Missions in 1848, was one of the founders of Austin College (Presbyterian), at Huntsville, Texas, in 1849, and agent of the college till his death. While in Washington he published A Scriptural View of Baptism, afterward revised and enlarged as A Plain and Scriptural View of Baptism (Philadelphia, 1853); he also published two series of Revival Sermons (1854-57).

BiBLrodRAPHY: W. M. Baker, Life and Labors of Rev. Dan. Baker. Philadelphia, 1858.

BAKER, SIR HENRY WILLIAMS: Hymnologist; b. in London May 27, 1821; d. at Monkland, near Leominster, Herefordshire, Feb. 12, 1877. He took his B.A. degree at Cambridge (Trinity College) 1844; became vicar of Monkland 1851; succeeded his father, Vice-Admiral Sir Henry Loraine Baker, as baronet 1859. He wrote certain tracts and prayers, and hymns of no slight merit

(including the version of Psalm xxiii, The King of Love my shepherd is). He was one of the most prominent compilers of Hymns, Ancient and Modern (London, 1861; Appendix, 1868; revised and enlarged edition, 1875), one of the most successful of modern hymnals, to which he contributed some twenty-five hymns, original and translated.

BrBrroaRAPHY: S, W. Duffield, English Hymns, p. 77 et passim, New York, 1886; Julin, Hymnology, p. 107; DNB, iii, 11.



BALAAM, b5'lam: A non-Israelitic prophet or soothsayer, son of Beor, from Pethor (Assyrian Pitru, cf. E. Schrader, KAT, i, 38; F. Delitzach, Wo lag das Paradies, Leipsic,1885, p. 269; J. Hal6vy, MBlanges d1pigraphie et d'Archdologie Sftitiquea, Paris, 1874, p. 77; Max Maller, Alien and Europa nach alogyptischen Denkmdlern, Leipsic, 1893, p. 291), a city of northern Mesopotamia, not far from the Euphrates. He seems to have been known as a sorcerer throughout a wide region, and according to Num. xxii, 5 sqq., was engaged by Balak, king of the Moabites, to curse Israel in the name of the God whom Israel served. But the God in whose name Balsam practised his magical arts, is a living God who could interfere with and govern Balsam's doings. And such an interference took place when Badak called Balsam. By this means his divination became real prediction.

Balsam, moved by desire for reward, accepted Balak's invitation, which aroused Yahweh's anger.

That he accepted the invitation gladly The Biblical may be seen from the anger which

Narrative. seized him as his animal suddenly shied on the way and refused to pro ceed. His own eyes were held so that he did not perceive the apparition in his path. He would have seen it if he had gone with the disposition of a prophet of Yahweh, for he would then have had an eye open to that which his God sent him. The irrational animal which carried him became the instrument to set him right. Its resistance changed into intelligible speech. For the animal spoke in the same manner as the wife of the first man heard the serpent speak. In neither case need one think of an act of divine omnipotence, granting to the speechless animal the momentary function of human organs of speech. The act concerned rather the ear of the prophet and for him the animal's plain tive tone became articulate utterance. The prophet could be brought to his senses and aroused from a mental disposition intent only upon gain by some thing extraordinary, which was the reason why the animal refused to proceed. Now he also saw the apparition which had startled his beast, and the horror of it made him even willing to turn back, still more to speak only that which should offer itself to him as God's word.

After Balsam had arrived in the mountainous part of Moab, near the sources of the Amon between the Amon and the Jabbok, Balak, after offering sacrifices to predispose Yahweh in his favor, three times assigned to Balsam a station (Num. xxii, 41; xxiii, 14, 28), that from the high place he might curse Israel which was encamped before his eye. But three times, overcome by Yahweh's spirit, the prophet blessed the people (Num. xxiii, 7-10; 18-24; xxiv, 3-9), first giving the reason which made it impossible for him to curse Israel, viz., that it differed entirely from other nations, being richly favored by God; he then expanded the blessing briefly indicated in this first parable, and in a third deliverance finally described the glorious prosperity of Israel and its dominion as well as the fearful power of this people which should crush all enemies, having been set for a curse and a blessing to the nations. Balak was greatly enraged and

dismissed the seer who, according to Num. xxiv, 15-24, spoke to the king more fully of the future which awaited Israel during its rule, and of the mighty commotions which should destroy nations. Under the figure of a star and scepter he sees in the distant future a king coming forth from Israel, whose glorious power none may resist, and the ruin of the world-powers one after the other and one through the other.

It can not be denied that there is something strange in Balsam's utterance=s foretelling world historical events to a remote future. But to have recourse to the expedient that we have here a prophecy after the event, or that the originally transmitted prophecy of Balsam has been enlarged in later time in accordance with the course of his tory, is to deprive Balsam's whole appearance of its essential meaning in connection with Old Testa ment prophecy. Balsam's importance Significance consists in just this, that from the of Balsam's time when Israel first appeared among Prophecies. the nations, the future of the nations and world-powers was disclosed not to one of its own prophets but to one outside of it. And the knowledge of the history of future cen turies which was there communicated to the people served to comfort thenfin the midst of threatening world-movements till Daniel's revelations came and continued the knowledge of the future from the point where Balsam left it. The great im portance of Balsam's prophecy finds its expression also in this, that whenever the Israelitic prophets of later times speak of the relations of Israel to the world-nations, we hear his words ringing through their utterances. As a matter of course, this refer ence of the origin of the oracles of Balsam to Mosaic times applies only to the essential contents, not to the form of expression as it now exists. The latter must be attributed to the narrator. Bals'am's condemnation in the New Testament (II Pet. ii, 15-16; Rev. ii, 14) is founded upon the notice Num. xxxi, 16, according to which he advised Balak to seduce Israel to the sensual cultus of Baal-Peor. The contradiction in which this later and additional notice seems to stand with Num. xxiv, 25, which passage at the first glance every one understands to mean that Balsam, after his parting-word concerning Israel, returned to his home, is easily reconciled by the supposition that Balsam actually left Balak, but stayed with the Midianites, who were allied to the Moabites (Num. xxii, 4, 7), in order to serve Israel's enemies and to await the success of his plan to lead them astray. In the war of revenge which broke out against Midian (Num. xxv, 16-19), the divine punishment overtook him (Num. xxxi, 8; Josh. xiii, 22). His giving to the Midianites the advice so fatal to Israel in its consequences can be ex plained from the irritation which took hold of him when he found himself deprived of the reward which he desired. W. Vorest.

The fascinating and somewhat perplexing story of Balsam as given in Numbers becomes less puzzling when it is analyzed and traced to its sources. The whole story is an episode of the history of the tribes of Israel at the close of their wanderings after



Its In



the Exodus. The main continuous narrative, as we now have it, is found in Num. iii-aw and contains two well-defined elements: a prose portion or the narrative proper, and a poetical portion comprising four oracles uttered by the hero of the story.

The incidents are in brief as follows: Balak, king of Moab, alarmed at the numbers and strength of the Hebrews, sends for the noted seer and wizard, Balsam of Pethor (Aesyriea Pitru) on the Euphrates is Mesopotamia, to bring a curse upon them. Balsam would not answer the messengers till he had consulted God as to what he should do. God at first forbade him to go; but after he was again approached by an embassy from Ba19k with greater gifts and more urgent appeals, he was

The Nar- granted permission upon the condition rative that he should utter only God's direct

Analyzed, message (Num. ax ii, r21). Heat once sets out for Moab with the princes of the embassy, and on meeting Balak he assures him that at best he can act only as God's mouthpiece (Num, aaii, 35-38). Then Balak takes him to Bamoth-Baal E V, " the high places of Baal "),not far south of the Arnon. Here elaborate sacrifices were prepared, and, when Balsam retired for consultation, God appeared to him and gave him a message which foretold the greatness and blessedness of Israel (Num. aaii, 39 sxiii, 10). After a bitter remonstrance from Balak a similar transaction took place upon the summit of Pisgah followed by an oracle in which Israel's purity of worship and its valor are extolled (Num. sxiii, 11-24). Balsam was neat transferred by Balak to Peor-apparently another height of Nebo, commanding a specially good view of the Dead Sea desert (Jeshimon), where Israel was encamped. At this stage Balsam, instead of going into the solitude, uttered his oracle from immediate inspi ration (as " the spirit of God came upon him',) with a glowing description of the beauty and fer tility of the promised land and a forecast of the military triumphs of Israel (Num. aaiii, 25-xxiv, 9). Finally Bah1k in anger dismisses the prophet, who without the advantages of the prescriptive sacri fices spontaneously delivers himself of a prophecy in which Israel is pictured as victorious over Moab itself as well as over the peoples to the south of Palestine. Balsam then returns to his distant home (Num. aaiv, 10-2b). Embedded in this main narrative is the story of Balsam's being confronted by the angel of Yahweh, when on his way to Moab, and of the speaking she-ass who sees this divine messenger invisible to the prophet (Num. aaii, 22--34).

A reference to the last-named section may best introduce a brief analysis of the sources. It is evident at a glance that this section contradicts the preceding part of the present nar-

rative. Verse 22 directly contravenes verse ZOa, and verees 22 sqq., which make Balsam to have traveled privately, are inconsistent withverse 20b

(ef. verses 36 and 36, where the main story is resumed). Moreover, the incident of the angel and the clairvoyant and epeaging ass is out of

place and inconsequent. There was no occasion that Balsam should learn that it was useless to resist the will of Yahweh (cf. verse 32) since it was in accordance with the divine command that he had entered upon his journey. The marvel of an animal endowed with human speech has many parallels in folk-lore from the earliest times, and adds nothing to the dignity and force of the narrative but rather detracts from it. In fact, if chap. aaii, 22-35 be removed we have a consistent and instructive allegory of the historico-prophetic order.

This single and separate episode of the journey to Moab belongs to J, and the rest of the narrative in chap. saii belongs to E. Chaps. axis and axiv are probably the work of a redactor The Sources. using materials from both of these great sources. More particularly, it is apparent that the oracles of chap. agiii bear, on the whole, an Elohietic and those of chap. axiv a Jehovistic stamp. In the narrative proper E predominates throughout. Indeed the journey episode is almost all that we have from J in the prose portions of the story. Hence it is now impossible to say what his conception was of the original attitude of Balsam toward his mission. The variations of the story, however, do not obscure the essence of it as far as it concerns the personality and doings of Balsam. 1n the remote background there appears the figure of a famous Aramean seer of the twelfth century B.C. who among the contending tribes and peoples of Palestine discerned special elements of greatness and power in the Hebrew tribes and in the religion of Yahweh, and had some prevision of their future, to which he gave official utterance. There is no reason why such a belief may not have had a foundation in fact. It must be remembered that the chief proximate ancestors of the Hebrews were Arameau (Deut. gavi, b), and that no small portion of the narrative of Genesis consists of cherished traditions of Aramean associations. Moreover, the twelfth century was the epoch-making period of emigration and travel from western Mesopotamia across the Euphrates and southward.

The oracles are of course the significant element of the Balsam story. Their underlying motive is to vindicate the rightful predomiThe nance of Israel over its rivals to the Oracles east and south. It is this motive

Their Mo- which has diverted the tradition of flue and Balsam from its original scope and Date. employed it to justify the remorseless border ware waged by southern Israel in the days of the monarchy. In the nature of the case the poems were composed not more than a very few generations after the events. Now since the oracles of chap. aziii are essentially Elohistic and had their origin in the northern kingdom, the events which suggested them took place before the schism, not later than the warlike days of David. Indeed it is generally agreed that the subjugation of Moab sad Edom (cf. xuv, 17, 18), which took place in his time, formed the central point of practical interest for the whole series. The literary period of Solomon may have been the starting-Point. But the process of enlargement and



refinement in the individual poems must have lasted till the eighth century.

An appendix to the oracles is found in chap. xxiv, 20-24, which must have been composed originally at a late date, since deportations by the Assyrians are referred to (verse 22), and perhaps also even the Macedonian conquests of the fourth century (verse 24). This poem should of course be separated from the others in our texts.

Quite apart from the main current of tradition and its idealization is the use made of the Balsam story by the priestly writer in Num.

The Story xxxi, 8, 16. He connects the prophet in P and with the Midianitish seductions de-

Later Lit- scribed (also by P) in Num. xxv, 6-18. erature. The statement that Balsam suggested the corruption of Israel by sensual allurements and suffered death in the ensuing holy war, is out of harmony with the original conception of the prophet, which is retained throughout the older accounts. The notion, however, gained continually in popularity, and is recalled in the later literature even in New Testament times (cf. II Pet. ii, 15, Jude 11; Josephus, Ant., IV, vi, 6). Prejudice is already shown in Josh. xxiv, 9; Deut. xxiii, 4, 5; but a more just sentiment is displayed in Me. vi, 5. A historical example of the influence of the tradition may be seen in Neh. xiii, 1, 2. J. F. MCCURDY.

BmLIOGRAPRY: For review of literature up to 1887 consult F. Delitasc6, Zur neuesten Literatur itber den AbschnitE Bileam, in ZKW, 1888. On the general subject. F. A. G. Tholuck, Die Geechichte Bileame, in his Vermischte Schriften, i, 406-432, Hamburg, 1839; E. w. Hengstenberg, Geechichde Bileams and seine Weissagungen., Berlin, 1842; H. Oort, Diaputatio de Num. xxii-xxiv, Leyden, 1860; G. Baur, Geschichte der adttestamentlichen Weissagungen, pp. 329 eqq., Giessen, 1861; A. Kuenen, in ThT, xvin (1884), 497-540; A. Dillmann, consult on the passage his commentary in Kurzgetasstes exegetisches Handbuch rum Alten Testament, Strasburg, 1887; A. H. Sayee, Balaam's Prophecy, Num. xxiv. 17-,24, and the God Seth, in Hebraica, iv (1887), 1-6; A. van Hoonaeker, Observations critiques sur lee r6cita concernant Bileam, in Le Mus_on, Lyons, 1888; J. Hal_vy, in Revue SLrntitique, 1894, 201-209; DD, i , 232-234; EB, i, 461-484; T. K. Cheyne, in Expository Times, 1899, 399-402. Biehcp Butler's celebrated sermon on the character of Balsam is in vol. ii of his works, Oxford, 1844.

BALAN, bd'lan, PIETRO: Roman Catholic church historian; b. at Este (17 m. s.s.w. of Padua), Italy, Sept. 3, 1840. He was educated in the seminary at Padua, where he was appointed professor in 1862. He was director of the Venetian La Liberth Cattolica in 1865 and of the Modenese Diritto Cattolico in 1867. In 1879 he became aubarchivist of the Vatican, but retired on account of ill health four years later, and has since resided at Pregatto in the province of Bologna. He was nominated chamberlain by Leo XIII in 1881, and domestic prelate in the following year, while in 1883 he was appointed referendary of the Papal " segnatura." In the latter year he was also created a commander of the order of Francis Jcseph He is the author of Studi sul Papato (Padua, 1862); Tommaso Becket (1864); Storia di S. Tommaso di Cantorbery a lei suoi tempi (2 vols., Modena, 1867); 1 Preeursori llel razionalismo moderno fino a Lutero (2 vols., Parma. 1867-68); Romani a Longobardi (Modena,


1868); L'Economia, la Chiesa a gli umanitari (1869); Pio IX, la Chiesa a la Rivoluzione (2 vols., 1869); Dante ed i Papi (1870); Chiesa a Stato (1871); Sulle Legazioni eompiute nei paesi nordici da Guglielmo vescovo di Modem nel secolo X111 (1872); Il Vescovo di Modem Alberto Boschetti (1872); Storia di Gregorio IX a lei suoi tempi (3 vols., 1872-73); Storia d'Italia dai primi tempi fino al 1870 (7 vole., 1875-86); Stories. del pond ficato di Papa Giovanni VIII (1876); Stories della Lega Lmabarda, con documenti (1876); Memorie storiche di Tencarola nel Padovano con documenti inediti (1876); Storia della Chiesa Cattolica durante il pond ficato di Pio IX (3 vols., Turin, 1876-86); Memorie della B. Beatrice 1 di Este (1877); Roberto Boschetti e l'Italia lei suoi tempi (2 vols.,1878-84); Disearsi tenuti nel quinto Congresso Cattolico in Modena (Bologna, 1879); Sull'Autenticitd del diploma di Enrico 11 di Germania a Papa Benedetto VIII (Rome, 1880); S. Catterina da Siena a il Papato (1880); La Polities italiana dal 1863 al 1870, secondo gli ultimi docur menti (1880): La Storia d'ltalia a gli arehivi segreti della Santa Sede (1881); Le Relazioni fra la. ('hiesa Cattolica a gli Slavi meridionali (1881); 1 Papi ed i vespri siciliani, con documenti (1881); 11 Processo di Banifazio VIII (1881); La Polities di Clemente VII ino al sacco di Roma (1884); Roma capitals d'Italia (1884); Monuments re formationis Lutherance ex tabulariis Sancti Sedis secretis, 1621-26 (Regensburg, 1884); and Clemente VII a l'Italia del suo tempo (Milan, 1887).

BALDACHIN: A canopy-like ornament in stone or bronze over the altar in some Roman Catholic churches, designed originally to protect the Eucharist from objects that might fall on it from above. The name is derived from Baldacco, an old Italian form of Bagdad, and owes its use in this connection to the fact that Bagdad was a rich source of the precious cloths which were frequently employed in decorating the protecting ornament over altars. In spite of legislation of the Congregation of Rites requiring a baldachin over every altar, the contrary practise is common everywhere at the present day, even in Rome. Formerly the baldachin was called a ciborium because the ciborium or vessel containing the Eucharist was suspended from it. A splendid example of the baldachin is seen in the bronze masterpiece of Bernini over the main altar of St. Peter's in Rome. A portable baldachin is held over the sacrament of the altar when it is borne in procession or, in some places, when it is carried to the sick. A baldachin should be erected also over a bishop's throne.


BALDE, bel'da, JAKOB: German Jesuit, distinguished as a scholar, poet, and preacher; b. at Ensisheim (55 m. s.s.w. of Strasburg), Alsace, Jan. 4, 1604; d. at Neuburg (29 m. n.n.e. of Augsburg), Bavaria, Aug. 9, 1668. He was destined for a legal career, and was educated by the Jesuits in his native town, at Molsheim, and at Ingolstadt. In 1624 he renounced the world and entered the Society, still continuing his classical studies, and teaching rhetoric at Munich and Innsbruck. In 1633 he was ordained; from 1635 to 1637 he was



professor of rhetoric in the University of Ingolstadt; and from 1638 to 1640, after the death of Jeremias Drexel, court preacher to Maximilian I in Munich. Here he remained as historiographer of the duchy for ten years longer, but won more renown by the poetical compositions of the years 1637-46. His work in this period was lyrical (Lyrics, Munich, 1638-42; Sylva,, 1641-45), but after 1649 he turned rather to satire and elegy. His health forced him to leave Munich in 1550, and after three years at Landshut and one at Amberg, he settled at Neuburg on the Danube, where he spent his last years in the peaceful dignity of the office of chaplain to the count palatine Philip William. His memory, which had to a great extent died out, was revived at the beginning of the nineteenth century by Herder, Orelli, and others, and his name has since been increasingly honored, especially by the efforts of the Munich society, founded in 1868, which bears it. He well deserves this renown from more than one point of view. He was a great classical scholar, a hasitive reincarnation of Roman antiquity. As a Latin poet (his small body of vernacular work is far inferior) he displays a wonderful array of excellent qualities -vivid imagination, depth of thought and feeling, brilliant invention and composition, and mastery of the most difficult forms. The characteristic universal scholarship of his age is best shown in his Urania Victrix (1663), which touches every branch of knowledge. Besides the works already mentioned, and some epics belonging to his first period, his Philamela (1645), full of devotion to the Crucified, his Elegize varice (1663), and his amusing satires on quack doctors and other impostors in Medicinm gloria (1649) may be named.

(F. L1aT.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: His collected works were first published in complete form at Munich, 1729, the earlier editions at Cologne, 1660 and 1718, being defective; his Carrnina lyrics appeared, ed. B. Mailer, Regensburg, 1884. Consult L. Brunner, J. Balde, la grand podte de l'AIsace. Notice historique et litl&aire, Guebwiller, 1865; J. Bash, Jacob Balde, der nealateiniwAe D"ter des Blaasses, Strasburg, 1885; F. Tauehert, Herder's griechische and morgenl4ndische Anthologie and seine Uebersetmnpen con J. Balde, p. 176, Munich, 1886.

BALDENSPERGER, WILHELM: German Protestant; b. at Miilhausen (63 m. a.s.w. of Strasburg), Alsace, Dec. 12, 1856. He was educated at the universities of Strasburg, G6ttingen, and Paris, and in 1880 was appointed supply at Strasburg. Two years later he was chosen assistant pastor and secretary of the editorial board of the Journal du Protestantisme frangais at Paris, where he remained until 1884. From 1886 to 1890 he was vicar at Mundolsheim (a suburb of Strasburg) and Strasburg, but in the latter year was appointed associate professor of New Testament exegesis at the University of Giessen, becoming full professor two years later. He was created a knight of the first class of the Order of-Philip the Magnanimous in 1904. In addition to many briefer studies and his contributions to the Brunswick edition of the works of Calvin, he has written Das S'elbstbeuusstsein Jesu im Lichte der messidnischen Ho ffrtung seiner Zeit (Strasburg, 1888);. L'Influenee du

Balaam Ball

dilettantisme artistique sur la morale ed la religion (1890); Karl August Credner, sein Leben and seine Theologie (Leipsie, 18£7); Der Prolog der vier Evangelien (Giessen, 1898); and Das spatere Judenthum als Vorstufe des Christenthums (Giessen, 1900).

BALDWIN: Archbishop of Canterbury; d. at Acre Nov. 19, 1190. He was born at Exeter in humble circumstances, but received a good education; became archdeacon of Exeter, but resigned to enter the Cistercian monastery of Ford, Devonshire, and within a year was made abbot; became bishop of Worcester, 1180. archbishop of Canterbury, 1184. He engaged in a quarrel with the monks of Canterbury, and successfully asserted his preeminence among the bishops of England; with King Henry II he had much influence; he crowned Richard I in 1189, and attended him to the Holy Land the next year. His works (edited by B. Tissier) are in the Bibliotheca patrum Cisterciensium, v (Paris, 1662), from which they are reprinted in MPL, cciv.

BALE, JOHN: English polemical writer of the Reformation period; b. at Cove, near Dunwich, Suffolk (25 m. n.e. of Ipswich), Nov.21,1495; d. at Canterbury Nov. 1563. He was educated in the Carmelite monastery at Norwich, and at Jesus College, Cambridge; embraced the Reformation, married, and had to seek refuge in Germany in 1540; returned under Edward VI, was made Bishop of Ossory, in Ireland, 1552, and tried to introduce reformed doctrines and practise with an intemperate zeal; fled to the Continent after the accession of Mary, and lived for some years at Basel; returned under Elizabeth, and was made prebendary of Canterbury in 1560. He wrote much and with a coarseness and bitterness in controversy which gained him the name of " Bilious Bale." His principal work is Illustrium majoris Britannice scriptorum summarium (Ipswich, 1548; enlarged editions, Basel, 1557 and 1559); he also became noted as a writer of miracle plays in which he violently attacked the Roman Church. His play Kynge Johan has been published by the Camden Society (1838); and the Parker Society has published a selection of his works (1849), with biographical notice by H. Christmas.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The fullest account of his life is in C. H. Cooper, Athena< Cantabrigienass, London, 1858.

BALL, JOHN: Puritan and Presbyterian; b. at Cassington (5 m. n.w. of Oxford) Oct. 1585; d. at Whitmore (4 m. s.w. of Newcastle-under-Lyme), Staffordshire, Oct. 20, 1640. He was educated at Brasenose College and St. Mary's Hall, Oxford, and in 1610 became minister at Whitmore. He was one of the fathers of Presbyterianism in Englard, and, as Richard Baxter says, " deserving as high esteem and honor as the best bishop in England:' His Small Catechism containing the Principles o f Religion (London) reached an eighteenth impression in 1637; and his larger catechism, entitled A Short Treatise, containing All the Principal Grounds of Chris tian Religion, a fourteenth impression in 1670. They were published anonymously. His Treatise of Faith (London, 1631; 3d edition, corrected and



enlarged 1637, with an introduction by Richard Sibbs) is divided into two parts, the first showing the nature, and the second the life of faith. It is an exceedingly valuable and complete discussion. But his chief work was published after his death by his friend Simeon Ashe, with an introduction signed by five Westminster divines, entitled A Treatise of the Covenant of Grace (1645). This is of great importance as exhibiting that view of the covenants which found expression in the Westminster symbols. Important also is A tryall of the New-Church way in New England and in Old (1644). According to Thomas Blake, " his purpose was to speak on this subject of the covenant all that he had to say in all the whole body of divinity. That which he hath left behind gives us a taste of it." In this he anticipated Cocceius and the Dutch Federal Theology, but his view of the covenants is somewhat different from theirs. Simeon Ashe also issued several other works of Ball of a practical and controversial character.

C. A. BRiGGs.

BIawomApxy: A. 8 Wood, Athen2 Oxonisnaea, ii, 670, ed. P. Bliss, 4 vols., London, 1813-20; DNB, iii, 74-75.

BALLANCHE, b8"lanah', PIERRE SIMON: French theocratic philosopher of the Restoration, an intimate member of the circle which gathered around Chateaubriand and Madame R6camier; b. at Lyons Aug. 4, 1776; d. in Paris Aug. 7,1847. His great work, the PalingMesie socials (Paris, 1830), is an attempt to construct the philosophy of history on the basis of revelation; only the first of three parts projected was completed; a fragment of the third part, the Vision d'Hobal (1841), attempts in a vague way to predict the future. Ballanche's thought was unsystematic and his style . obscure. He was elected to the Academy in 1841. A collected edition of his works was begun in 1830, but only four volumes of the nine planned appeared.

131BLIGGELAPHY: Sainte Beuve, Portraits wntemporaine, vol. ii, Paris, 1846; J. J. Amore, P. Ba77anehe, Paris, 1848; G. Frainnet, Essai our la philosophic de P. 8. Ballanehe, Paris, 1902.

BALLANTINE, bal'nn-tain, WILLIAM GAY: Congregationalist; b. at Washington, D. C., Dec. 7, 1848. He was graduated at Marietta College, Marietta, O. (1868), and Union Theological Seminary (1872). He studied at Leipsic in 1872-73, and in the following year was a member of the American Palestine Exploring Expedition. He was then successively professor of chemistry and natural science in Ripon College (1874-76), assistant professor of Greek in the University of Indiana (1876-78), professor of Greek and Hebrew in the same institution (1878-81), and professor of Old Testament language and literature in Oberlin Theological Seminary (1881-91). From 1891 to 1896 he was president of the latter institution, but resigned and studied in Greece until in 1897 he was appointed instructor in Bible at the International Y. M. C. A. Training School, Springfield, Mass. He was an editor of the Bibliotheca Sacra in 1884-91, and has written Philippians, the Model Letter (New York, 1898); Christ in the Gospel of Mark (1898); Inductive Bible Studies,


Mark and Acts (1898); Luke and John (1899); and Matthew (1900).

BALLARD, ADDISON: Congregationalist; b. at Framingham, Mass., Oct. 18, 1822. He was educated at Williams College (B.A., 1842), and was successively principal of Hopkins Academy, Hadley, Mass. (184213), tutor in Williams College (1843-44), and principal of the academy at Grand Rapids, Mich. (1845-46). In 1846-47 he was a home missionary in Grand River Valley, Mich., and was then professor of Latin in Ohio University (1848-54), professor of rhetoric in Williams College (1854-55), and professor of mathematics, natural philosophy, and astronomy at Marietta College (1855-57). He has held successive pastorates at the First Congregational Church, Williamstown, Mass. (1857-65), the Congregational Church at North Adams, Mass. (1865-66; stated supply), and the First Congregational Church, Detroit, Mich. (1866-72). He was professor of Christian Greek and Latin and of moral philosophy and rhetoric at Lafayette College in 1874-93, and of logic in New York University from 1894 to 1904. He is an honorary member of the London Society of Science, Letters, and Art, and in theology is au advocate of the doctrine of justification by faith. He has written Arrows, or the True Aim in Teaching and Study (Syracuse, N. Y., 1890); From Talk to Text (New York, 1904); Through the Sieve (1907).

BALLE, b81'le, lYICOLAI EDINGER: Bishop of Zealand; b. at Vestenskov, near Nakskov (on the w. coast of the island of Laaland, 80 m. s.w. of Copenhagen), Denmark, Oct. 12, 1744; d. in Copenhagen Oct. 19, 1816. He studied at Copenhagen, Leipsic, Halls, and Gottingen; in 1770-71 he gave lectures at Copenhagen on church history and philology, and then accepted a pastorate in the bishopric of Aalborg; in 1772 he returned to the university, was made court preacher and doctor of theology in 1774, first professor of theology in 1777, assistant to Bishop Harboe of Zealand in 1782, and finally his successor in 1783; he resigned as bishop in 1808. Belle lectured and wrote on almost all theological branches, but church history was his specialty, and in 1790 he published a Ilis tordes ecclesica Christiance, reaching to the Reformation. His Theses theologiei (1776), the last work on dogmatics written in Denmark in the Latin tongue, was used at the universities of Kiel and Wittenberg. He opposed rationalism and freethinking, and when the candidate Otto Horrebow started a publication, Jesus og Forntcften (" Jesus and Reason "), Belle replied with Biblen f orsroarer aig selro (" The Bible Defending Itself "). He introduced weekly Bible readings in the capital, advocated the public school, and believed in special training for teachers. In 1791 he published a primer, which contains supranaturalistic as well as rationalizing views, and in 1798 a new hymnbook. Both these works served their time, but were finally superseded on the revival of Christian and church life in Denmark. Balle~e position among the bishops of Denmark is an important and honorable one. In recognition of his labors,


429 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Ballanahe the citizens of Denmark presented to him in 1798 a gold medal with the inscription: " To the friend of religion, to the friend of the State, Matt. x, 32." The pastors of Zealand erected a monument over his grave, and a bas-relief in the garrison church where he explained the Bible represents him with the Bible in his hand. (F. NIE1sEN.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: L. Koch, Bishop N. E. Bane, Copenhagen, 1876; F. Nielsen, Bidrag tit den eoangdiek-kriatelige Psalmebogs Historie. ib. 1895.

BALLERINI, bar"la-r%'nP, PIETRO and GIRO LAMO: Brothers, of Verona, distinguished by their joint labors in church history and canon law; b., the former, Sept. 7, 1698, the latter, Jan. 29, 1702; d., Pietro, Mar. 28, 1769, Girolamo, Apr. 23, 1781. Both were educated in the Jesuits' school in Verona and became secular priests. Pietro for a time was at the head of the Accademia delle belle lettere in Verona and spent eighteen months in Rome (1748-50) as counselor to the Venetian am bassador there, during which time he made good use of exceptional opportunities for investigation. Both brothers devoted the greater part of their lives to studies in common and produced, with other works, editions of the Sermones of St. Zeno of Verona (Verona, 1739; in MPL, xi); of the Summa theologica of St. Antoninus of Florence (4 vols., Verona, 1740); of the Summa de ptenitentia of St. Raymond of Pennaforte (1744); of the Opera of Pope Leo the Great (3 vols., Venice, 1753-57; MPL, liv-lvi), one of the most important pieces of editorial work of the eighteenth century, with an appendix on the collections of canons before Gratian; and of the Opera of Ratherius, Bishop of Verona (Verona, 1765; MPL, exxxvi). Pietro also participated in literary controversies of his time and defended the absolute papacy with learn ing and zeal. His two last works, De potestate ee clesiastica sanctorum ponti ftcum et conciliorum gene ralium . . . contra opus J. Febronii (1765) and De vi ac ratione primatus pond ficum (1766), have been edited by E. W. Westhoff (Munster, 1845 47), and an appendix to the former on papal infalli bility was translated into German by A. J. Bin terim (Dfsseldorf, 1843). K. BENRATH.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: G. M. Masauohelli, Oli ScriUori d'Italia, vol. ii, part 1, 178-185, 6 parts, Brescia, 1753-65; L. Federici, Elogi iaforiei de' piu illustri ecclseiastici Veronesi, iii, 69120, Verona, 1819.

BALLOU, ba-11T, HOSEA: American Universalist; b. at Richmond, N. H., Apr. 30, 1771; d. at Boston June 7, 1852. He was the son of a poor Baptist minister and had to struggle for an education; began to preach at the age of twenty, and was ordained at the Universalist convention of 1794; settled at Dana (then called Hardwick), Mass., the same year; removed in 1803 to Barnard, Vt., in 1809 to Portsmouth, N. H., in 1$15 to Salem, Mass., and in 1818 to Boston, where he took charge of the Second (School Street) Universalist Society. In 1819 he assisted in founding and became editor of the Universalist Magazine (later called The Trumpet, The Universalist, and The Christian Leader), the first Universalist newspaper in America; in 1831, of The Universalist Expositor (afterward The Universalist Quarterly Review).

He wrote Notes on the Parables (Randolph, Vt., 1804); A Treatise on the Atonement (1805); Examination of the Doctrine of Future Retribution (Boston, 1834); and several volumes of sermons.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: M. M. Bello% Life Story of Hosea Ballou, for the Young, Boston, 1854; T. Whittemore, Life of Hosea Ballou, 2 vols., ib. 1854; O. F. Safford, Hosea Ballou; a Marvellous Life Story, ib. 1889.

BALLOU, HOSEA, 2d: American Universalist, grand-nephew of Hosea Ballou; b. at Guilford, Vt., Oct. 18, 1796; d. at Somerville' Moss., May 27, 1861. He assisted his uncle in schoolteaching a6 Portsmouth; was first settled as pastor at Stafford, Conn., in 1821 was called to Roxbury, Mass., and in 1838 to Medford; in 1853 became first president of Tufts College. He helped the elder Hosea Ballou as editor of denominational periodicals and wrote The Ancient History of Universalism (Boston, 1829).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: H. $. Ballou, Hosea Ballou td, first President of Tufts College; hu Origin, Life, and Letters, Boston, 1896.

BALM: The rendering in both English versions of the Hebrew ?ori (Gen. xxxvii, 25 and xliii, 11, where R. V. has " mastic " in the margin; Jer. viii, 22; xlvi, 11; li, 8; Ezek. xxvii, 17). An impor tant product of Palestine, particularly of the East Jordan country, is evidently referred to, and the transparent, yellowish-white, fragrant gum of the mastic-tree (Pistacia lentiscus, L) is probably meant. Pliny mentions the Judean mastic (Hilt. nat., xiv, 122 sqq.). The substance was prized by the ancients as a medicine (Puny, xxiv, 32 sqq.). The identification of gori with balsam by Jewish tradition is not correct; such a tropical or sub tropical product would hardly be found on the mountains of Gilead. In Song of Sol. v, 1, basam may be the true balsam (so R. V., margin; text and A. V., " spice "; cf. " bed of spices," v, 13; vi, 2). It grew in the Ghor, and the balsam gardens of Jer icho were famous (Josephus, Ant., IX, i, 2; XIV, iv, 1, and many others). Pompey is said to have carried it thence to Rome, and Josephus thought the Queen of Sheba brought it to Palestine (Ant., VIII, vi, 6; cf. I Kings x, 10). There are several varieties, of which the chief is the Amyris Gileadert sis, L, the true Arabian or Mecca balsam. It is a low, berry-producing tree, with small blossoms, and imparipinnate leaves. The balsam exudes from the ends of the twigs. Myrrh also belongs to the balsamodendra and probably bdellium; see MyftaH; BDELLIUM. I. BENzINoE$.

BAIMES, bar"mfr, JADE (LUCIANO). Spanish politico-religious writer; b. at Vich (37 m. n.n.e. of Barcelona), Catalonia, Aug. 28, 1810; d. there July 9, 1848. He studied at his native place and at the University of Cervera, and was ordained priest 1833; became teacher of mathematics at Vich 1837. After 1840 he acted as associate editor of La Civilizacion and sole editor of La Sociedad, journals of Barcelona, in which he had opportunity to express his political views; visited France and England 1842, and after returning to Spain settled in Madrid, where from Feb., 1844, to Dec. 31, 1846, he published El Pensamienld


Balogh Baltimore Councils THE NEW SCHAFF-HERZOG

de la Naci^n in the interest of the Catholic party. He hailed the accession of Pius IX and the last thing he published was a brilliant work in his praise (Pio IX, Madrid, 1847). He gained his greatest fame by his Protestantismo comparado con el Catolicismo en sus relaciones con la civilizacion europea (-I vols., Barcelona, 1842-44; Eng. transl., from the French, by C. J. Hanford and R. Kershaw, Protestantism and Catholicity Compared in their Effects on the Civilization of Europe, London, 1849; 31st American edition, Baltimore, 1899), a work modeled on Guizot's History of Civilization, and an able presentation from the Roman Catholic point of view. He also wrote La Religion demostrada al al^ance de los niiios (Barcelona, 1841, Eng. transl., by Canon Galton, The Foundations of Religion Explained, London, 1858); Cartas d un eseeptico en materia de religion (Madrid, 1845; Eng. transl., by W. M'Donald, Letters to a Skeptic on Religious Matters, Dublin, 1875); El Criterio (Madrid, 1845; Eng. transl., Criterion: or how to detect error and arrive at truth, New York, 1875); Filosofia fundamental (4 vols., Barcelona, 1846; Eng. transl., by H. F. Brownson, 2 vols., New York, 1856); Curso de Filosofia elemental (4 vols., Madrid, 1847). He published a collected edition of his political writings at Madrid, 1847.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: B. Garcia de los Santos, Vida de Balmes, estracto y analiais de sus obraa, Madrid, 1848; A. de Blanche Rafn, Jacques Balmea, sa vie et sea ouvrages, Paris, 1849.

BALOGH, FERENCZ: Hungarian Reformed; b. at Nagy V:irad (140 m. s.e. of Budapest) Mar. 28, 1836. He was educated at the gymnasium of his native city and at the Reformed theological seminary of Debreczin (1854-58), where he remained nine years in various capacities. He visited Paris, London, and Edinburgh for the purpose of further study in 1863-65, and in 1866 was appointed professor of church history in the Reformed theological seminary of Debreczin, where he has since remained and of which he has been rector five times. He has been an elder in the session of the Reformed Church since 1860, and an ecclesiastical councilor for life in the Transtibiscan superintendency of the same religious denomination since 1883. He was a delegate of the Hungarian Reformed Church to the general councils of the Presbyterian Alliance at Edinburgh (1877) and London (1888), and was a member of the national synod of Debreczin in 1881-82. He has been a member of the committee of the Hungarian Protestant Literary Society since 1890, and an honorary member of the British and Foreign Bible Society since 1904. In theology he is a strict adherent of the Helvetic Confession. His numerous works include the following in Hungarian: "Peter Melius, the Hungarian Calvin" (Debreczin, 1866); " History of the Hungarian Protestant Church" (1872); "General Church History to the Present Time" (5 vols., 1872-90); " History of Dogma up to the Reformation " (1877); " Principal Points of Modern Theology " (1877), a polemic against the German Evangelical Union; " Literature of Hungarian Protestant Church History " (1879); " Specific Illustrations of the most Recent Unitarian History" (1892); "Phenomena of the History of Dogma in the


Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries " "(1894); and " History of the Reformed College of Debreczin " (1905). He likewise wrote in English History of the Creeds, which appeared in the Report of the Proceedings of the Presbyterian Alliance (Philadelphia, 1880), and is the author of numerous minor contributions in Hungarian, French, and German, while in 1875 he founded at Debreczin the Hungarian weekly " Evangelical Protestant Gazette," which he conducted for three years in a successful crusade against the Budapest " Protestant Union."

BALSAM. See BALM. Greeks.

BALSAMON, b81'sa-men, THEODOROS: Greek writer on church law; b. in Constantinople; d. there about 1200. He was chosen patriarch of Antioch in 1193, but, as the patriarchate was in the hands of the Latins, remained in Constantinople. The most important of his writings is the commentary on the Nomocanon and Syntagma of Photius, in which he helped to make general the view that in matters of the Greek canon law, not the Justinian compilation, but the Basilica were authoritative. Balsamon's " Answers " to the patriarch Mark of Alexandria and his eight " Dissertations " (Gk. meletai) are of great importance for the canon law of the


BIBLIOGRAPHY: The best edition of his juridical writings is found in Rhalles and Potles, UvTavaa r&v &imv cai iepwv

Kavuvw, 6 vols., Athens, 1852-59; Krumbacher, Geachichte, passim.

BALTHAZAR, bal'tha-zar, OF DERNBACH AND THE COUNTERREFORMATION D1 FULDA: Balthazar of Dembach, abbot of Fulda 15701606, was born about 1548- d. at Fulda Mar. 15, 1606. He came of an old Hessian family, and though his parents were Protestants, took the Catholic side as a boy. In 1570, you=:g as he was, he was elected prince-abbot of Fulda, and became the leading champion of the Counterreformation there. The territory under his jurisdiction, adjoining Protestant Hesse and Saxony, seemed practically lost to Rome. The chapter, jealous of its rights, was willing rather to join with the enemies of the Church than to support a strict, determined abbot; the upper classes were striving for both temporal and spiritual independence; the citizens stood by the Augsburg Confession. Balthazar took a decided stand against all three classes. His first task was the enforcement of ecclesiastical discipline, the appointment of Catholic officials, and the suppression of popular demands for the appointment of a Lutheran preacher and the erection of a Protestant school. He called the Jesuits to his aid; in 1571 they started a school and the next year a college. The chapter were much annoyed by the privileges granted to the newcomers, and as a movement hostile to the abbot grew, Protestant princes took a hand. As selfish motives actuated the chapter and the gentry, so they played a part with the Landgrave of Hesse, who joined the Elector of Saxony and the Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach (Oct., 1573) in sending an embassy to demand the expulsion of the Jesuits and the abandonment of anti-Protestant measures.



The demands did not move the abbot, though they strengthened his opponents; a formal alliance was made between the chapter and the gentry. Balthazar gained time by politic delays, and found support from his fellow Catholics; the Curia 'and Duke Albert of Bavaria sought to influence the emperor in his favor. After some hesitation, Maximilian took his aide, and rebuked the princes (Fe b., 1574) for their interference. Dissensions Fprang up between the allies; and the chapter finally made peace with their abbot. He proceeded more diligently than ever to assert his jurisdiction and to keep down the new faith. In 1576 the three classes joined once more in opposition, and thin time the chapter were willing to consider the deposition of their chief. Bishop Julius of Wiirzburg was destined as his successor, and justified the part he played as the only means of saving Roman Catholicism in the district. He promised religious freedom to the country gentry, while refusing it to the towns, and observance of all the rights, both of the gentry and the chapter-practically the restoration of the conditions previous to 1570. Balthazar was in Hammelburg, supervising the restoration of Catholicism there, which had been previously unsuccessful. On June 20 the forces of his opponents entered the town, followed the next day by Bishop Julius. They numbered about 200 horsemen, and Balthazar had made no provision for defense. On the 23d he was forced to abdicate; compensation in both money and benefices was offered to him, on condition that he would write to the emperor and other princes, assuring them that the proceedings had been freely agrees to by him. A few days later, Julius was formally chosen administrator of Fulda. But it was not possible long to.conceal the real facts. The emperor immediately addressed astern mandate to Julius, annulling the agreement, and Balthazar recalled his forced consent. Julius lost the support of the Roman Catholic princes when the facts were known, and the Protestants had little confidence in him. Long legal proceedings followed. The Diet of Regensburg provided a temporary administrator, who was, however, a vassal of the Bishop of Wiirzburg. Yet from 1579 onward Catholicism made steady progress, largely through the tireless labors of the Jesuits, which Balthazar, living at Bieberstein near Fulda, supported to the sxtent of his power. To him also was owing the erection of a seminary at Fulda in 1584. When, therefore, in 1602 the final decision was rendered in his favor, his return in December met with no opposition from the new generation, and the Counterreformation made still more rapid strides during the remaining four years of his activity, until at his death the Roman Catholic faith was restored fn practically the whole district, with the exception of the country gentry. This earliest case of the successful resistance of a minority to the Reformation had a great importance as showing what could be done and inspiring the Catholic party to take the offensive in reconquering territory which they seemed to have lost. WALTER GOETZ.

BrELIOanAP87: Komp, Filretabt BaZthazar von Fuld, and die $NftmbeZZion von 1678, in Hiatoriech-poZ.itaachs BZ71h

ter, lvi, 1885 (contains rich collection of sources): H. Egloffatein. Ffiratabt BaZthaaar von Dernbac)v and die katholiache Reetauratian im Hochatifte FuZda, 1670-1808, Munich, 1890; H. Moritz, Die Wahl RudoZfa Il,derReichstag ra Regensburg and die FreieteZlungabewepung, pp. 28, 347, 411 aqq., Marburg, 1895; K.'8chellhase, Nunt9adalborichte, iii, 3, Berlin, 1896; W. E. Schwarz, Nuntiaturkorrupondenz Groppere, Paderborn, 1898.

BALTIMORE COUNCILS: A name given to ten assemblies of the Roman Catholic Church in the United States held during the nineteenth century. The first indepe;=dent episcopal see of the Church created in the American Republic was that of Baltimore (erected in 1790), and the same diocese was made the first metropolitan see of the United Staten in 1808. On account of this priority in point of time the archdiocese of Baltimore enjoys a quasiprimatial dignity conferred upon it by the pope, and hence that city has been the place of meeting of the various assemblies of the American hierarchy. The first of these assemblies was held under the presidency of Moat Rev. James Whitfield, fourth archbishop of Baltimore, in Oct., 1829. This council and the six following ones, held respectively in 1833, 1837, 1840, 1843, 1846, and 1849, belong to the category designated canonically as provincial councils; i.e., assemblies of all the bishops of a territory known as an ecclesiastical province, and presided over by the metropolitan or archbishop. Three other Baltimore Councils (held in 1852, 1866, and 1884) are called plenary or national, by which is meant an assembly of all the bishops of a country, convoked and presided over by the primate or some other dignitary commissioned thereto by the pope. At the time of the first council, the province of Baltimore was the only one in the United States, comprising, besides its own see, the sees of Boston, New York, Bardstown (Kentucky), Charleston, and Cincinnati, and only the incumbents of these dioceses with their coadjutors constituted the voting members of the council. The decrees drafted were thirty-seven in number, and they were confirmed by a papal reacript of Oct. 16, 1830. They embody the earliest attempt at a uniform legislation in church matters in the United States, and they deal with the most urgent needs of a time when church forces were scattered and without organization. Thus, among other things, means are taken to regularize the credentials and the ministrations of the small number of available clergy, and to obviate the abuses arising from lay interference in ecclesiastical matters, particularly that known as " tlvateeiam." The Douai version of the English Bible was recommended, and various regulations were formulated

with reference to the administration of the sacra. menu, because in the generally prevailing circumatancea, it was impossible to carry out in full the prescriptions of the Roman ritual. The six succeeding councils, which continued to frame, as

circumstances required, the local canonical 1eg18- lation of the Roman CathOliC Church in the United States, were similar in purpose, form of procedure, and general results. The First Plenary Council of Baltimore was held

in May 1852, and was presided over by Archbishop Kenrick, who had been appointed to that


8sltimore Councils Hampton Lectures THE NEW SCHAFF-HERZOG

function by Pope Pius IX. There were present six archbishops and twenty-four bishops with a large number of theologians and canonists, who acted as consultors. The decrees of the former councils of Baltimore were confirmed and extended to all parts of the country; certain enactments were made concerning the canonical administration of dioceses, the publication of marriage banns, the establishment of ecclesiastical seminaries, etc. The council suggested to the Roman authorities the erection of a metropolitan see in San Francisco and the establishment of ten new dioceses in various parts of the country. The suggestion was acted upon by Pius IX who confirmed the decrees of the council by a rescript dated Sept. 26, 1852.

The Second Plenary Council of Baltimore was held in Oct., 1866, under the presidency of the Most Rev. M. J. Spalding, archbishop of Baltimore; there were present seven archbishops, thirty-eight bishops, three mitered abbots, and 120 theologians. The motives for calling the council and the topics discussed were in the main the same as those pertaining to the previous assemblies, but in particular it was deemed useful, " at the close of the great national crisis which had acted as a dissolvent upon all sectarian ecclesiastical organizations, to reaffirm solemnly the bond of union existing between the Catholics of all parts of the republic, and to deliberate on the measures to be adopted in order to meet the new phase of national life which the result of the war had just inaugurated." Besides, it was felt to be an urgent duty on the part of the heads of the Church to discuss the future status of the newly emancipated yet very dependent negro. Among the results of the council may be mentioned the erection of ten new dioceses and the drafting of a scheme for the selection of bishops, which, having been approved in Rome, remained in force until amended in the Third Plenary Council.

This last and most important of the Baltimore Councils was held Nov. 9-Dec. 7, 1884, under the presidency of the Most Rev. James Gibbons, who had been appointed to that office by Pope Leo XIII. The number of prelates who took part in the council was fourteen archbishops, Sixty bishops, five visiting bishops from Canada and Japan, seven mitered abbots, one prefect apostolic, eleven monsignors, eighteen vicars-general, twenty-three superiors of religious orders, twelve rectors of ecclesiastical seminaries, and ninety theologians. The object of the council was to provide efficient means of organization for the needs of the rapidly growing Church of the United States, and to prepare the way for the gradual introduction of the more useful elements of canon law into the administration of religious affairs in this country. The decrees of the council, which were approved by Pope Leo, Sept. 10, 1885, comprise eleven tituli or sections, and each one of these is divided into several chapters. This body of.legislation touches successively upon the prerogatives told duties of bishops and the inferior members of the clergy, on divine worship, the administration of the sacraments, the training of the clergy, Catholic schools, ecclesiastical courts, church property, etc. Since the promulgation of these decrees in 1885 they constitute the norm of

ecclesiastical law as applied within the jurisdiction of the Roman Catholic Church in the United States. JAMES F. DRISCOLL.

BiDwoanAPHr: Concilia proaincialia Baltimori habits ab anno 182*8 ueque ad annum 18.¢0, Baltimore, 1842; Corn cilium plenarium totius Americo septentrionalia faderate3 habitum anno 1852, ib. 1853; Concilii plenarii Baltimorensia 11. acta et decreta, ib.1868, 2d ed.,1877; Third Plenary Council of Baltimore, 188.¢, New York, 1885; Memorial Volume of the Third Plenary Council of Baltimore, Baltimore, 1885; Acta et deaeta concilii plenarii Baltamorensis, ib. 1886; J. G. She&, Riot. Of the Catholic Church in the United States, vole. Hi-iv, New York, 1892; T. O'Gorman, American Church History Series, ix, 340 sqq., New York, 1895.

BALTUS, b81"tiW, JEAN FRAN90IS: French Jesuit; b. at Metz June 8, 1667; d. at Reims, as librarian of the college, Mar. 19, 1743. He joined the Jesuits in 1682, and taught in several schools in France; became censor of books in Rome, 1717. He distinguished himself by a number of literary and theological works, of which the most important are, Rgponse d. l'histoare des oracles de M. de Fontenelle (2 vols., Strasburg, 1707; Eng. transl., London, 1708), in which he maintains that the ancient oracles were not mere frauds on the part of the priests, but utterances under demoniacal influence; and Mfen8e des Saints Pyres accus& de platoniww (Paris, 1711), in which he vindicates the originality of the Fathers and their complete independence of the ancient philosophy.


eanonist and historian; b. at Tuile (Tutela Lemo vicum, 45 m. sx.e. of Limoges), in Limousin, France, Nov. 23, 1630; d. at Paris June 28, 1718. He belonged to a family of famous jurists and studied first with the Jesuits at Tulle. In 1646 he was sent to Toulouse, where he remained till 1654, attending the philosophical lectures at St. Martial, the Jesuit college there. While still in school he showed an inclination for old parchments and historical documents. As his father made him study civil law, he could only devote himself in secret to his favorite studies in the library of Charles of Montchal, bishop of Toulouse. Exceptional acumen and persevering application made his critical method a Safe one and he soon became known among the scholars of his time. His studies made it necessary for him to become either a monk or a priest, or to enter the service of some ecclesiastical dignitary. He received the tonsure and looked for a patron, whom he found in the successor of Montchal, Peter of Marca, afterward archbishop of Paris, who also showed him how to utilize his extensive historical studies for the canon and civil law. After Marca's death (1652) different bishops and archbishops tried to attach him to themselves. For a short time he remained with the Archbishop of Auch, and Le Tellier, the chancellor, who appointed him canon of Reims. In 1667 the minister J. B. Colbert made him his librarian, and Baluze occupied this position until compelled to resign by advanced age after thfrtythree years' Service. He collected hundreds of documents from abbeys and monasteries and copied



a large number. In 1707 Louis XIV appointed him inspector of the College royal, where he had been professor of canon law since 1689. In this position he corresponded and had personal intercourse with scholars of different countries. A history of the house of Auvergne, which he edited during this time with the help of Cardinal Bouillon, obliged him to leave Paris after the flight of his ambitious protector (1710). Though eighty years of age, Baluze was obliged to go from place to place and finally settled at Orldans, where he remained till 1713. The family of Bouillon being received again by the king after the Peace of Utrecht, Baluze was able to return to Paris. Deprived of all means, he was obliged to devote himself entirely to literary activity, and he died without completing his history of Tulle. He wrote: Regum Francorum capitularid (1677; new edition by de Chiniac, 3 vols., fol., 1780); Epistolce Innocentii paptv 111 (1682); Conoiliorum nova collectio (1683, fol.); Yitm papa rum Avenionensium (1693); Historia Tutelensw (1717); Cypriani opera (1726); Bibliotheca Baluziana (1719); Miscellanea (7 vols., 1677-1713).


BIBLIOGRAPHY: Hie autobiography is in the Bibliotheca Balusiana, Paris, 1719. Consult L. E. Du Pin, Bsbliothtque des auteure eccl&iastiquea, xix, 1-6 47 vols., Paris 168695; Niceron, Memoirea, i, 459-471; Vitrac, dope de Baluse, ib. 1777; M. Deloche, A. Baluze, ea vie et see aruvree, ib.1856; L.Delisle,LeCabinetdeemanuscritsdsla Bi$liothkue Nationale, i, 364-367, 445-475, ib. 1868; Bulletin de la eoci_M des lettree de la Corr~ze, iii (1881), 93 and 457, iv (1882), 513, v (1883), 160, vi (1884), 645, ix (1887), 100-163, x (1888); A. Lefranc, Hietoire du College de France, Paris, 1893; E. Fags, t. Baluae, so vie, sex ouvwes, son exile, ea d6fense, ib. 1899.

BAMBERG, BISHOPRIC OF: A see founded in 1007 by King Henry II in the city (civitas Papinberc) which Otho II had given to Henry's father, Duke Henry of Bavaria, in 973. As Henry II had no children, his idea was to leave this possession to God, at the same time aiding in the final conquest of paganism in the district. But the territory of the Wends on the upper Main, the Wiesent, and the Aisch had belonged to the diocese of Wiirzburg since the organization of the Middle German bishoprics by St. Boniface, so that no new diocese could be erected without the con sent of the occupant of that see. He raised no objection to parting with some of his territory, especially as the king promised to have Wfirzburg raised to an archbishopric and to give him an equivalent in Meiningen. The consent of Pope John XVII was obtained for this arrangement, but the elevation of Wilrzburg to an archbishopric proved impracticable, and its bishop withdrew his consent. The king persisted, however, and had the erection of the new diocese confirmed at the great Synod of Frankfort, subsequently naming his chancellor, Eberhard, the first bishop. [The next seven bishops were named by the emperors, after which free canonical election was the rule. Eberha,rd's immediate successor, Suidger of Mors leben, became pope in 1046 as Clement II. At the beginning of the thirteenth century the diocese gradually became a territorial principality, and its bishops took secular precedence next after the 1: 28 Baltimore Councils Hampton Lectures

archbishops. The fortieth bishop, George III of Limburg (1505-22), was inclined toward the Reformation, which caused a violent social outbreak under his successor Weigand (1522-56), and the city suffered severely in the Margraves' War (1552-54), as well as in the Thirty Years' War, when it was placed under the jurisdiction of Bernard, the new Duke of Franconia. At the Peace of Westphalia (1648), the bishops recovered their possessions; but these were overrun by the French revolutionary armies, and in 1802 annexed to Bavaria. From 1808 to 1817 the diocese was vacant]; but by the Bavarian Concordat of the latter year it was made an archbishopric, with Warzburg, Speyer, and Eichstadt as suffragan sees. The present diocese comprises Upper Franconia and the northern half of Middle Franconia.

(A. HAucx.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Adalbert, Vita Heinrici, e d. f3. H. Perta, in MOB, Script ., iv (1841), 787 eqq.; A. Ueeermann, EpiscoPatus Bamberpenaia, Blaise, 1802; P. Jaff6, Monumanta Bambsrpenaia, Berlin, 1869; KL, i , 1915-28 (very full); J. Looshorn, GesrAichts des Bistume Bamberg, 6 vols., Munich, 1886-1906 (an exhaustive history); Hau* KD, iii, 418-428.

BAMPTONL LECTURES: A series of eight lectures or sermons instituted at the University of Oxford by the Rev. John Bampton, M.A., of Trinity College, Canon of Salisbury (b. 1689; d. 1751), who left his. entire estate for the purpose. By the terms of the founder's will they shall be preached on Sunday mornings in Term, " between the commencement of the last month in Lent Term [the day before Palm-Sunday] ante the end of the third week in Act Term [the day before Whitsundaythe Saturday after the first Tuesday in July, or later, if continued by Congregation], upon either of the following subjects-to confirm and establish the Christian Faith, and to confute all heretics and schismatics-upon the divine authority of the holy Scriptures-upon the authority of the writings of the primitive Fathers, as to faith and practise of the primitive Church-upon the Divinity of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ-upon the Divinity of the Holy Ghost-upon the Articles of the Christian Faith, as comprehended in the Apostles' and Nicene Creeds." The publication of the lectures is obligatory. The lecturer is chosen by the heads of colleges and must be at least a master of arts of Oxford Or Cambridge; no one can be selected a second time. The first course was given in 1780; since 1895 lectures have been suspended in alternate years because of diminution in the income provided by the endowment fund. At present the estate produces £120 to each lecturer.

A list of lecturers and subjects is given in The Hi, torieol Register of the University of Oxford (Oxford 1900); also, down to 1893 in J. F. Hurst, Literature of Theology (New York, 1896); the continuation from the latter date is as follows:

1894. Rev. John Richardson Illingworth, Personality, Human and Divine, PP. xv, 274, 8vo, London, Macmillan, 1895.

1895. Very Rev. Thomas Banks Strong, Christian EMS, PP xxvii, 388, Svc), London, Longman0. 1896.

1897. Rev. Robert Lawrence Ottley, Aspects of the Old Testament, PP. xix, 448, 8vo, London, Longmane, 1897

1899. Rev. William Ralph Togs, Christian Mysticism, PP. xv, 380, 8vo, London, Methuen, 1899.



1901. Rev. Archibald Robertson, Xepnum DA pp. xiz, 402, Svo, London, Methuen, 1901.

1903. Rev. William Holden Hutton, The Influence of Christianity upon National Character, illustrated by the Lives and Legends of the English Saints, pp. xiv, 12, 385, 8vo, London, Wells, Gardner, Darton & Co., 1903.

1905. Rev. Frederick William Bussell, Christian Theology and Social Progress, London, Methuen, 1907.

BAN: In the civil law of the old German Empire, a declaration of outlawry; in the twelfth century adopted by the church as the common name for a declaration of excommunication (q.v.).

BANCROFT, RICHARD: Archbishop of Canterbury; b. at Farnworth, Lancashire, 1544; d. in Lambeth Palace, London, Nov. 2, 1610. He was educated at Cambridge (B.A., 1567; D.D., 1585), was made rector, of Teversham, near Cambridge, 1576, and rose steadily till he became Bishop of London in 1597 and Archbishop of Canterbury in 1604. He was a High-churchman, asserting that the episcopal authority is based upon a divine right, and most violently opposed to the Puritans, whbm he often attacked in his sermons. As president of the Convocation, he presented for adoption the Book of Canons now in force, and as Archbishop he was " the chief overseer " of the authorized version of the Bible, which he had opposed as a Puritan proposition at the Hampton Court Conference (1604). His literary remains are unimportant.

BAKES, bd"n6s', DOMINGO: Spanish theologian; b. either at Mondragon (65 m. s.e. of Bayonne ' France), Biscaya, or at Valladolid Feb. 28, 1528; d. at Medina del Campo Oct. 21, 1604. He studied at Salamanca; joined the Dominicans 1544; lectured on theology at Avila, Alcala, Valladolid, and Salamanca. At Avila he became the confessor of St. Theresa and remained her friend till his death. He was one of the greatest of the expounders and defenders of Thomism (see THOMAS AQu1NAs, SAINT) and contributed much to the condemnation of Molina. His chief work was his commentary on the Summa theologize of Thomas Aquinas (4 vols., Salamanca, 1584-94).


BANKS, JOHN SHAW: English Wesleyan; b. at Sheffield Oct. 8, 1835. He was educated at King Edward's School, Birmingham, and, after being a missionary in southern India from 1856 to 1864, was a minister of his denomination in Plymouth, Dewsbury, London, Manchester, and Glasgow until 1880. Since the latter year he has been professor of theology in Headingley College, Leeds. He was president of the Wesleyan Conference in 1902, and has written Three Indian Heroes: Missionary, Statesman, Soldier (London, 1874); Martin Luther, the Prophet of Germany (1877); Our Indian Empire, its Rise and Growth (1880); Manual of Christian Doctrine (1887); Scripture and its Witnesses, Outlines of Christian Evidence (1896); The Tendencies of Modern Theology (1897); Development of Doctrine in the Early Church (1899); Development of Doctrine from the Early Middle Ages to the Reformation (1901), in addition to translating F. A. Philippi's " Commen-

tary on St. Prul's Epistle to the Romans " (2 vols., Edinburgh, 1878-79); D. G. Monrad's " The World of Prayer" (London, 1879); and I. A. Dorner's " System of Christian Doctrine" (in collaboration with A. Cave, 4 vols., Edinburgh, 188082), as well as a number of less important German theological works.

BANKS, LOUIS ALBERT: Methodist Episco palian; b. at Cornwallis, Ore., Nov. 12, 1855. He was educated at Philomath College, Philomath, Ore., and Boston University, but did not take a degree. He has held pastorates at the Hall Street Church, Portland, Ore., Vancouver and Seattle, Wash., Bois6 City, Ids., Trinity Church, Cincin nati, O., First Church, Cleveland, O., Hanson Place Church, Brooklyn, N. Y., St. John's Church and First Church, Boston, Mass., Grace Church, New York City, and Trinity Church, Denver, Col. He was Prohibition candidate for governor of Mas sachusetts in 1893, and is now an evangelist for the American Antisaloon League. In theology he is an orthodox Methodist. He has written The People's Christ (Boston, 1891); The White Slaves (1892); The Revival Quiver (1893); Anecdotes and Morals (New York, 1894); Common Folks' Religion (Boston,. 1894); Honeycomb of Life (New York, 1895); Heavenly Trade Winds (1895); The Christ Dream (1896); Christ and his Friends (1896); Paul and his Friends (1896); The Saloon-Keeper's Ledger (1896); The Fisherman and his Friends (1897); Seven Times around Jericho (1897); Hero Tales from Sacred Story (1897); The Christ Broth erhood: Heroic Personalities (1898); The Unex pected Christ (1898); Immortal Hymns and Their Story (Cleveland, 1898); Sermon Stories for Boys and Grids (New York, 1898); Immortal Songs of Camp and Field (Cleveland, 1899); The Great Sin ners o f the Bible (New York, 1899); A Year's Prayer Meeting Talks (New York, 1899); Chats with Young Christians (Cleveland, 1900); David and his Friends (New York, 1900); The Lord's Arrows (1900); Fresh Bait for Fishers of Men (Cleveland, 1900); Poetry and Morals (New York, 1900); Hidden Wells of Comfort (1901); The Great Saints of the Bible (1901); Unused Rainbows (Chicago, 1901); The Motherhood of God (1901); The King's Stew ards (New York, 1902); Life of Rev. T. DeWitt Tal mage, D.D. (1902); Youth o f Famous Americans (1902); Windows for Sermons (1902); The Healing of Souls (1902); The Great Portraits of the Bible (1903); Soul-Winning Stories (1903); Thirty-one Revival Sermons (1904); The Religious Life of Fza mous Americans (1904); and Great Promises of the Bible (1905).

BANNS: A public announcement of an intended marriage, made in church during service. The word is a plural of ban, meaning an authoritative proclamation. The singular in the modern sense occurs in the fifteenth century; since then the plural only is found. Banns really have no connection either with the professiones of the early Church, alluded to by Ignatius and Tertullian, or with the provision made in the Carolingian capitulary of 802 for investigation by the clergy and seniores in order to avoid incestuous marriages.


The public announcement seams to have become customary first in France, then in England (where the Synod of Westminster, 1200, decreed that no marriage should be contracted without banns thrice published in the church), and were prescribed for the whole Church by Innocent III in the Lateran Council of 1215. According to the provisions of the Council of Trent the proclamation must be made in the place of residence of both parties on three consecutive Sundays or feasts of obligation. The bishop may dispense from this rule, and in case of need the parish priest may disregard it; in any case its observance does not affect the validity of the marriage. The evangelical churches of Germany retained this custom, as involving investigation of possible impediments and intercession of the congregation for the couple, and most secular laws, where marriage in church is required, have also sanctioned it, as a ,preliminary to ecclesiastical marriage. [In the Church of England the Prayer-book requires the publication of banns on three successive Sundays, after the second lesson at morning or evening prayer. This may be avoided by the procuring of a special licence from the Archbishop of Canterbury. In the United States banns are published only in the Roman Catholic Church and certain minor denominations.] (E. FRIEDBERG.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Bingham, Origines, book xxii chap. ii, 2; E. Marthne, De antiquis ecelseiae ritibus, book ii, chap. ix, art. v, 3 vote., Antwerp, 1736-37; J. Fessler, Der Kirchenbann and seine Polpen, Vienna, 1862; Schilling, Der Kirdaenbann nach kanonisahen Recht, Leipsie, 1859.


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