ALEXANDER JANNAEUS. See HASMONEANS.
ALEXANDER OF LYCOPOLIS, lai-kep'o-lis or lic"ep'o-lis: Alleged author of a work against the doctrines of the Manicheans, written in Greek, probably about 300. He was therefore contemporary with the first apostles of Manicheism in Egypt. Photius (Contra Manichaeos, i. 11) calls him bishop of Lycopolis (in the Thebaid), but the work (which is an important source for the Manichean system) does not even justify the inference that the writer was a Christian, and nothing is known of his life. The work was published by F. Combefis in his Auctarium novissimum, ii. (Paris, 1672) 3-21, and is reprinted in MPG, xviii. 409-448.
ALEXANDER NEVSKI, SAINT: A saint of the Eastern Church; b. at Vladimir (110 m. e. by n. of Moscow) 1218; d. at Goroditch (360 m. s.e. of Moscow) Nov. 14, 1263. He was the second son of Grand Duke Jaroslav II. of Novgorod. In 1240 he defeated the Swedes on the Neva, whence his title, " Nevski." Two years later he repelled the Livonians, who had the support of Rome. The popes of the time were making great efforts to bring about a union with the Eastern Church, and, to further their plans, they tried to induce Alexander and Prince Daniel of Galitch to undertake a crusade against the Tatars. Innocent IV. addressed letters to Alexander (Jan. 23 and Sept. 15, 1248), urging him strenuously to submit to the Roman see, to which the duke and his advisers replied: " We know what the Old and New Testaments say, and we are also acquainted with the teaching of the Church of Constantine and from the first to the seventh council; but your teaching we do not accept." Nevertheless, Innocent and his successor, Alexander IV., pursued their plans and appointed a legate for Russia, hoping that Roman bishoprics might in the course of time be established there. Grand Duke Alexander defended his Church as ably as he did his country. He won the favor of the Tatar khans, and in 1261 a bishopric was established at Sarai on the lower Volga, the residence of the Khan of the Golden Horde. Alexander died on one of his many journeys thither. He was canonized by the Church and the day of his burial (Nov. 23) was consecrated to him. His remains were transferred on Aug. 30, 1724, to the Alexander Nevski monastery in St. Petersburg, which had been founded by Peter the Great in 1711 on the supposed scene of Alexander's victory over the Swedes in1240. R1oaeRn HAUBMANN.
ALEXANDER SEVERUS (Marcus Aurelius Alexander Severus): Roman emperor 222-235; b. at Arcs in Phenicia, moat probably 205; murdered by the army, probably near Mainz, at the beginning of a campaign against the Germans in Gaul, Mar., 235. He was a noble character, conscientious, almost scrupulous, meek, and well inclined toward all gods and men. The religious policy which he inherited was one of electiciam and syncretism. Alexander and his two immediate predecessoraCaracalla, 211-217, son and successor of Septimius Severna (q.v.), and Elagabalus, 218-222, reputed son and successor of Caracslla--may be called the Syrian emperors. They were much influenced by Julia Domna, wife of Septimiua and daughter of a priest of the sun at Emesa; Julia Maesa, her sister; and the two daughters of the latter, Soaemiss, mother of Elagabalus, sand Julia Mamma, mother of Alexander. About these women gathered a circle of philosophers and scholars who took a deep interest in religious questions. There was naturally here no inclination to the Roman religion and the claims of Christianity were, in part at least, recognized. There was a disposition to attempt to revive heathenism byimporting the good in the
new religion. Elagabalus (q.v.) had sought to unite the religions of the empire, but in fantastic manner, aiming to make all gods subordinate to the sun-god of Emesa, whose priest he was. Alexander continued his syncretism in nobler fashion. He was susceptible to all good and had respect for all religions. The image of Christ stood in his huaiium with those of Orpheus, Abraham, and Apollonius of Tyana, and he is said to have wished to erect in Rome a temple to Jesus. The Christian ethics also attracted him, he often quoted the precept " what ye will not that others do i;o you, that do not ye to them " and had it inscribed on public buildings. Mamma was even more favorable to Christianity; Eusebius (Hzst. eccl., vi. 21) calls her " a moat pious woman, if there ever was one, and of religious life," but the assertion that she was a Christian (first made by Orosius, vii. 18) is unfounded.
That the Church had peace under Alexander, as under his predecessors, was the natural consequence of his training and his character. Lampridiua says expressly that Alexander " suffered the Christians to exist," and Firmilian, bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia, in a letter to Cyprian (Epist., lxxv. [lxxiv.]), written about 256, speaks of " the long peace." To be sure, individuals may have been brought to trial here and there, but the later accounts which make Alexander a cruel persecutor under whom thousands of Christians suffered death are false, and the reputed martyr doms under him, as of the Roman bishops Calliatus and Urbanua and of St. Cecilia, are unhietoric. (A. IiAUCS.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Original sources are: Dion Cassias, Hisl. Ron., laav., laavi., ha.; Aliue Lsmpridius. Alexander Seoerua, beat in M. Niaerd. Su6toru, pp. 453-482. Paris, 1883; Eueebius, Hint. eed., v. 28, vi. 1; NPNF, 2d aeries, i. 246, 249. Consult: G. Uhlhorn, Der Kampt des Chriatentuma. PP. 284 eqq.. Stuttgart, 1875; B. AuK Lee Clvr6hena dare l'empire romain, pp. 63 eqq., Paris, 1881; J. 13eville, La Religion d Rome soua lea SWres, ib. 1885; P. Allard, Hietoiro des pera6cutione . . . du iii. sock, PP. 79 eqq., 171 eqq., ib. 1888; W. Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography, iii. 802-804, London. 1890; Neander, Chriat~an Church, i. 12b-127 et passim; Schaff, Chris. tian Church, ii. b8-b9; Moeller, Christian Church, i. 191, 195.
ALEXANDER, ARCHIBALD: Presbyterian clergyman, and first professor in the Princeton Theological Seminary; b. about 7 m. e. of Lexington, in Augusta (later Rockbridge) County, Virginia, Apr. 17, 1772; d. at Princeton Oct. 22, 1851. He received as good schooling as the place and time afforded, including attendance from the age of ten at the Liberty Hall Academy of the Rev. William Graham, near Lexington. He was converted in the great revival of 1789, studied theology with Mr. Graham, was licensed in 1791 and ordained in 1794, and became president of Hampden Sydney College 1796, and pastor of the Third PresbyterianChurch(Pine Strut), Philadelphia, 1806. In 1812 he was entrusted by the General Assembly with the organization of the Princeton Theological Seminary. For the first year he taught all departments, but as other professors were added he confined himself to pastoral and polemic theology. His chief books were: A Brief Outline of the
BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. W. Alexander. Life of Archibald Alexander, New York, 1854.
ALEXANDER, CHARLES McCALLON: Revivalist; b. at Meadow, Tenn., Oct. 24, 1867. He was educated at Maryville College, Maryville, Tenn., but left in 1887 without taking a degree, and, after being musical director for a time in the same institution, prepared himself for evangelistic work at the Moody Bible Institute, Chicago, having already been singing associate of the (ZZuaker evangelist John Kittrell for three months. During a part of the period of study in the Moody Bible Institute he was choirmaster of the Moody Sunday-school, and in 1893 was associated with Dwight L. Moody in the revival services connected with the World's Fair at Chicago. From 1894 to 1901 he was singing associate of the revivalist Milan B. Williams, working in Iowa for the first five years and in other parts of the United States during the remainder of the time. At the conclusion of this period Mr. William went for a short visit to Palestine, and in the interval Alexander was asked by Rev. Dr. R. A. Torrey to accompany him to Australia. They began their work in 1902, and for six months traveled throughout Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand, after which they conducted a revival for six weeks in Madura, Madras, Calcutta, Bombay, and Benares. They then went to England, where they remained from 1902 to 1904, and in 1905-06 conducted successful revival services in Canada and the United States. In regard to the Bible Mr. Alexander takes the most conservative position, for he declares that he " believes in the absolute reliability of every statement " in it. He has issued Revival Songs (Melbourne, 1901); Revival Hymns (London, 1903); and Revival Hymns (another collection; Chichgo, 1906). BIBLIOGRAPHY: G. T. B. Davis, Torrey and Alexander, Chi osgo, 1905.
ALEXANDER, GEORGE: Presbyterian; b. at West Charlton , N. Y., Oct. 12, 1843. He received his education at Union College and Princeton Theological Seminary (1870). He was pastor of the East Avenue Presbyterian Church, Scheneotady, N. Y'., from 1870 to 1884, and in the following year was called to the University Place Church, New York City, where he has since remained. While at Schenectady, he was likewise professor of rhetoric and logic at Union College in 1877-83. He is president of the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions and of the board of trustees of Sixo Paulo College, Brazil, as well as of the New York College of Dentistry. He is also vice-president of the Council of New York University, a trustee of Union College, and a director of Princeton Theological Seminary.
ALEXANDER, GROSS: Methodist Episcopalian; b. at Scottsville, Ky., June 1, 1852. He was
educated at the University of Louisville (B.A., 1871) and Drew Theological Seminary (B.D., 1877), after having been a tutor at the University of Louisville in 1871-73 and professor of classics at Warren College, Ky., in 1873-75. He held suoceesive pastorates in New York State (1875-77) and Kentucky (1877-84), and from 1885 to 1902 was professor of New Testament exegesis in Vanderbilt University. Since the latter year he has been presiding elder of Louisville. He was also a secretary of the general conferences held at Memphis (1894), Baltimore (1898), and Dallas (1902), and has written, in addition to numerous briefer contributions, Life of S. P. Holcombe (Louisville, 1888); History of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South (New York, 1894); The Beginnings of Methodism in the South (Nashville, 1897); and The Son of Man: Studies in His Life and Teaching (1899), besides editing Homilies of Chrysostom on Oalatians and Ephesians (New York, 1890). In 1906 he became editor of The Methodist Quarterly Review.ALEXANDER, JAMES WADDELL: Presbyte rian; b. near Gordonsville, Louisa County, Virginia, Mar. 13, 1804, eldest son of Archibald Alexander (q. v.); d. at Red Sweet Springs, Virginia, July 31, 1859. He was graduated at Princeton in 1820, studied theology there and served as tutor, was licensed in 1824, and was pastor in Virginia till 1828, when he became pastor at Trenton, N. J. He was editor of The Presbyterian, Philadelphia (1832), professor of rhetoric and belles-lettres at Princeton (1833), pastor of Duane Street Presby terian Church, New York (1844), professor of ec clesiastical history at Princeton Seminary (1849) recalled to his old church in New York, now reor ganized as the Fifth Avenue Church (1851). Perhaps. the best known of his writings were the Plain Words to a Young Communicant (New York, 1854) and Thoughts on Preaching (1864). Some of his translations of German hymns (such as Gerhardt's 0 Sacred Head now Wounded), first published in Schaff's Deutsche Kirchen freund, have passed into many hymn-books.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Forty Years' Familiar Letters o/ Jamee W. Alexander, ad. Rev. John Hall of Trenton, 2 vole., New York, 1880.
ALEXANDER, JOSEPH ADDISON: American Presbyterian; b. at Philadelphia Apr. 24,1809, third son of Archibald Alexander (q. v.); d. at Princeton, N. J., Jan. 28, 1860. He was graduated at Princeton in 1826; became adjunct professor of ancient languages and literature there in 1830; studied and traveled in Europe in 1833 and 1834; on his return to America, became adjunct professor of Oriental and Biblical literature in Princeton Seminary. He was transferred to the chair of church history in 1851 and to that of New Testament literature in 1859. He was a remarkable linguist, assisted in preparing the first American edition of Donnegan's Greek lexicon (Boston, 1840), and did much to introduce German theological learning into America. He wrote commentaries on Isaiah (2 vols., New York, 1846-47; ed. John Eadie, Glasgow, 1875) and the Psalms (3 vols., ib. 1850); with Prof. Charles Hodge he planned a series of popular commentaries on the books of the
New Testament, of which he himself contributed those on the Acts (2 vols., 1857), Mark (1858), and Matthew. The last-cited was published posthumously (1861), as well as two volumes of sermons (1860) and Notes on New Testament Literature (2 vols., 1861).BIBLIOGRAPn?: H. C. Alexander, Lifa of J. A. Alexander, 2 vole., New York, 1869.
ALEXANDER, WILLIAM: 1. Anglican archbishop of Armagh and primate of all Ireland; b. at Londonderry, Ireland, Apr.13,1824. He was educated at Tunbridge School and Exeter and Brasenose Colleges, Oxford (B.A., 1854). After his graduation he was successively curate of Derry Cathedral and rector of Termonamongan, Upper Fahan, and Camus-Juxta-Mourns (all in the diocese of Derry), while in 1863 he was appointed dean of Emly. Four years later he was consecrated bishop of Derry and Raphoe, and in 1896 was elevated to the archbishopric of Armagh and the primacy of all Ireland. He was select preacher to the University of Oxford in 1870-71 and Bampton Lecturer in 1876. He has written Leading Ideas of the Gospels (Oxford sermons, London, 1872); The Witness of the Psalms to Christ and Christianity (1877); commentaries on Colossians, Thessalonians, Philemon, and the Johannine Epistles, in The Speaker's Commentary (1881); The Great Question and Other Sermons (1885); St. Augustines Holiday aced Other Poems (1886); Discourses on the Epistles of St. John (1889); Verbum Crueie (1892); Primary Convictions (1893); and The Divinity of Our Lord (1886).
2. American Presbyterian; b. near Shirleysburg, Pa., Dec. 18, 1831; d. at San Anselmo, Cal., June 29, 1906. He was educated at Lafayette College and Jefferson College (B.A., 1858), and at Princeton Theological Seminary (1861). He was ordained to the Presbyterian ministry in 1862 and was pastor at Lycoming Church, Williamsport, Pa., in 1862-63. From 1863 to 1865 he was president of Carroll College and stated supply at Waukesha, Wis., and then held successive pastorates at Beloit, Wis. (1865-69) and San Josh, Cal. (186971). From 1871 to 1874 he was president of the City College, San Francisco, in addition to holding the professorship of New Testament Greek and exegesis in the San Francisco Theological Seminary, of which he was one of the founders in 1871. From 1876 until his death he was professor of church history in the latter institution. He was a member of the committee to revise the Westminster Confession of Faith in 1 890-93 and was one of the editors of the Presbyterian and Reformed Review (now the Princeton Theological Review). In addition to a number of contributions of minor importange, he prepared the commentaries on the International Sunday-school lessons in 1881-53.
ALEXANDER, WILLIAM LINDSAY: Scotch Congregationalist; b. at Leith Aug. 24, 1808; d. near Musselburgh (5 m. e. of Edinburgh) Dec. 20, 1884. He studied at Edinburgh and at St. Andrews (1822-27); began the study of theology at the Glasgow Theological Academy; and was classical tutor at the Blackburn (Lancashire) Theological Academy, 1827-31. He was minister in Liverpool, 1832-34; was called to the NorthCollege Street Congregational Church, Edinburgh, 1834, and remained with the same congregation until 1877. In 1854 he became professor of theol ogy in the Congregational Theological College at Edinburgh, and was its principal 1877-,81; he was made eraminer in mental philosophy of St. Andrews in 1861, and was a member of the Old Testament Revision Company from its formation in 1870. He was a frequent contributor to the periodicals and edited The Scottish Congregational Magazine 1835-40 and 1847-51; he wrote for the eighth edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica; translated Havernick's Introduction to the Old Tes tament (Edinburgh, 1852) and the first division of Dorner's History o f the Development o f the Doctrine o f the Person o f Christ (1864); prepared Deuteronomy for the Pulpit Commentary (London, 1880); and brought out the third edition of Yitto's Biblical Cyclopadia (3 vols., Edinburgh, 1862-66). His other works include: The Connection and Harmony of the Old and New Testaments (Congregational Lecture, 7th series, London, 1841, revised ed., 1853); Anglo Catholicism not Apostolical (Edinburgh, 1843); The Ancient British Church (London, 1852, new ed., revised by S. G. Green, 1889); Christ and Christianity (Edinburgh, 1854); Memoirs of the Life and Writings of Ralph Wardlaw (1856); Christian Thought and Work (1862); St. Paul at Athens (1865); Zechariah, his Visions arid Warnings (London, 1885); A System of Biblical Theology (published posthu mously, 2 vole., Edinburgh, 1888, ed. James Ross). BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. Rose, W. L. Alexander.... his Life
and Works, with Muedulions of h'u Teachings, London, 1887.
ALEXANDRIA, PATRIARCHATE OF: One of the most important episcopal sees of the early Church, traditionally believed to have been founded by the evangelist Mark. It originally had metropolitan jurisdiction over the whole of Egypt, and gradually became recognized as holding an even wider or patriarchal authority, next to that of Rome, until Constantinople took second place in the fourth century. For its early history in this connection, see PATRIARCH. The rise of heresies and divisions in the Church, so zealously combated by famous incumbents of this see, such as Athanasius and Cyril, led to schisms. The Monophysites contested the see with the orthodox or occupied it through a large part of the fifth and sixth centuries, and from the seventh century the Melchites and Copts continued the same conflict. The Coptic patriarchs maintained close relations with the Jacobite patriarchs of Antioch, and enjoyed the larger share of the favor of the Mohammedan rulers. In the fourteenth century, however, they as well as their Melchite rivals were subjected to severe persecutions. When the city was conquered by the crusaders in 1365, the Melehite patriarch was living in Constantinople under the protection of the patriarch of that see, whose influence continually increased in Alexandria, until the Alexandrian patriarchs came to be regularly chosen either from the clergy of Constantinople or from Alexandrian clergy resident there.
The seat of the patriarchate was for a long while in Old Cairo, but in modern times the incumbent
has usually resided in Constantinople. Since 1672 he has had only four metropolitans under him; namely, those of Ethiopia (purely titular), Cairo (the former Memphis), Damietta (transferred from Pelusium), and Rosetta. The Coptic see was transferred to Old Cairo still earlier, under Christodoulos (10476), and claims jurisdiction over thirteen bishoprics. See COPTIC CHURCH; EGYPT.ALEXANDRIA, SCHOOL OF. Origin (§ 1). Its Development from Hellenism and Judaism (§ 2). Christian Modifications (§ 3). Significance and Achievements (§ 4). Organisation (§ 5). Later Developments (§ 6). Representatives of the Later School (§ 7).
The term "School of Alexandria" is used in two different senses: (1) The catechetical school was an institution which grew up not later than the last half of the second century, and lasted to the end of the fourth, with a regular succession of teachers like the schools of philosophy. (2) By the same name is also understood a group of theologians of the fourth and fifth centuries, the most important of whom was Cyril of Alexandria. They were in general opposition to the school of Antioch (q.v.), and were the progenitors of Monophysitism and of the anti-Nestorian interpretation of the decrees of Chalcedon, thus originating in the order of intellectual development the decisions of the third and fifth councils. It will be convenient to treat both meanings of the term together.
Nothing certain is known of the origin of Christianity in Alexandria, but it is noteworthy that
tradition refers the first preaching :. Origin. of the Gospel there and the foundation of a group of ascetic philosophers to one and the same period, and practically to the same man, Mark the Evangelist-which indicates that the school dates from the earliest days of Alexandrian Christianity. At the end of the second century, it emerges into light as an established institution under the teacher Panteenus, thus confirming the observation, generally true, that Christianity adapted itself everywhere to local characteristics. The oldest Gnostic schools are met with in Egypt, and the oldest school found in direct relation to the Church (Justin, Tatian, and others had what might be called private schools) is that of Alexandria. If one may judge from the later period, in which the relations between the school and the Church, between the bishop and the teacher, were frequently strained, the school grew only gradually into close connection with the Church; but the Alexandrian Church itself shows, at the transition from the second to the third century, a freer, less rigidly orthodox habit of thought, which gave place to the settled Catholic forms only in the episcopate of Demetrius, under Caracalla and Elagabalus.
The catechetical school had forerunners in the Hellenistic " Museum " on one side, and in the Jewish schools (bane midrashot) on the other. The development of Helleno-Judaic learning, as seen in Philo, is a direct step to the Christian, which took up its inheritance. The speculations of the Egyp_
tian Gnostics, the schools of Basilides and Valentinus, and those of the Church theologians proceed from the same source. Its theology is the science of interpreting the written documents;
a. Its De- it is extracted from the divine oracles velopment by means of the exegetic-pneumatic from Hel- method. But access to the highest lenism and secrets is possible only by passing Judaism. through various anterooms, designated on one side by the different disciplines of Greek philosophy, and on the other by special divine revelations. This progressive enlightenment corresponds to the constitution of nature and the human organism, with their long course of progressive development. The path thus marked out leads, however, naturally to apologetics, just as the preparatory study, in metaphysics and ethics, in knowledge and in divine love, leads to the laying of a foundation for the theological gnosis. All this has appeared already in Philo; and so has the essentially Platonic attitude toward the whole world of thought, the energetic effort to surpass Plato's idea by a hyper noeton (thus offering religion access in the form of the transcendental to a lofty region peculiarly its own), and the alchemistic process with the Bible by which it is made to yield not only the highest gnosis but also, when interpreted literally and morally, the theology of the preparatory stages.
The Christian school made no radical change in this way of looking at things; but it modified the earlier views by giving the revelation of God 3. Christian in Christ precedence over the Old Tes-Modiflca- tament law, which it placed practically bona on a level with Greek philosophy, and by accepting the Pauline,Tohan nean conception of the appearance of the Godhead (the Logos) on earth. The mystery of God coming down to his creature, or of the deification of the created spirit, now became the central thought of theology, and served to strengthen the long-existing conception of the essential affinity of the created spirit with its creator. The fundamental question whether the return of souls to God is only an ap parent return (since really all the time they are in him), or a strictly necessary natural process, or the historical consequence of a historical event (the Incarnation), was never satisfactorily answered by the teachers of the catechetical school. The Alexandrian orthodox teachers are distinguished from the heretical by their serious attempt to save the freedom of the creature, and thus to place a boundary between God and man and to leave some scope for history; but the attitude of the Christian Gnostic, which Origen praises as the highest, leaves room neither for the historic Christ nor for the Lo gos, in fact for no mediator at all, but conceives everything as existing in calm immanence and blessedness-while this very teacher, as soon as he placed himself on one of the numerous steps which lie between man as a natural being and man as a blessed spirit, became the theologian of redemption, atonement, and mediation.
The catechetical school of Alexandria has a great significance as well for the internal history of the Church as for its relation to the world outside. It furnished the Church with a dogmatic theology; it
taught it scientific exegesis, in the sense then understood, and gave it a scientific consciousness; it overthrew the heretical school; it laid down themain problems of future theology; and 4. Signifi- it transformed the primitive spirit of cance and enthusiastic asceticism into one of con- Achieve- templative asceticism. In regard to meats. the outer world, it forced the Hellenic
mind to take account of the message of Christianity, it led the conflict with the last phase of Greek philosophy, Neoplatonism, and defeated its enemies with their own weapons.
The school had a settled organization under a single head. A knowledge of the course of study isobtained from the great tripartite work g. organi- of Clement (the " Exhortation to the zation. Heathen," the "Instructor," and the
"Miscellanies ") and from accounts of Origen's teaching. The main subjects of the older philosophy were taught, but the principal thing, to which the whole course led up,was the study of Scripture. The school seems to have had no fixed domicile, at least in Origen's day, but to have met in the teacher's house. There were no fixed payments; rich friends and voluntary offerings from such as could afford them provided for its needs. The list of heads is as follows: Panteenus, Clement, Origen, Heracles, Dfonysius (the latter two afterward bishops), Pierius (Achillas), Theognostus, Serapion, Peter (afterward bishop), Macarius (?) . . Didymus, Rhodon. The last-named, the teacher of Philippus Sidetes, migrated to Side in Pamphylia about 405, and the school, shaken already by the Arian controversy and by the unsuccessful struggle of Theophilus with the barbarous monastic orthodoxy, became extinct.
The theology of the Cappadocians, especially Gregory of Nyssa, is a product of the influence of the Alexandrian school, and in so far as this theology, withits echoes of Origenistic teaching, has 6. Later never wholly died out, the work of
Develop- the school has remained effective. It meats. lived on also in the learning of Jerome,
Rufinus, and Ambrose, and was valuable to the Western Church. Athanasius has nothing directly to do with the catechetical school, but his teaching on the incarnation of the Logos and his conception of the relations of God and man were in touch with one side of Origenistic speculation. By carrying through the Homoovsios he brought about at the same time a view of the person of Christ according to which the divine nature has so absorbed the human, has so made the latter its own, that a practically complete unity of nature exists. He did not work this consequence out thoroughly; there are many uncertainties both in him and in the Cappadocians, his and Origen's disciples; but his teaching and his theological attitude led up to what was later called Monophysitism, in its strictest and most logical form. This attitude did not change when the Church felt obliged to repudiate the attempt of Apollinaris of Laodicea to represent Christ as a being in whom the Godhead took the place of the reasonable human soul. On the contrary, it was felt that the theoretical assertion of the complete and perfect human nature of Christ6k.-,:
in opposition to Apollinaris was a sufficient protection against any dangers incurred in free speculation on the " one nature of the Word made flesh." These speculations were based on the conception of the possibility of a real fusion of the divine and human natures. This conception might be regarded in a twofold aspect, either from the standpoint of historic realism (the divine plan of salvation has historically brought together the two separate natures), or from that of philosophic idealism (the divine plan of salvation declares and makes plain what lies already in the nature of things, in so far as the intellectual creature is in the last resort substantially one with the Godhead). The connection of this with the later teaching of the school is evident; this connection, rooted as it is in Platonism, comes out in the pneumatic exegesis, although Origen's expositions, which seemed to offend against the rule of faith and Biblical realism, were rejected.
The theologians who represented this line of thought, and who from the beginning of the fifth
century are found in conflict with the 7. Repre- school of Antioch, are called the Alex-sentatives andrian school. After Macarius, the of the most important of them is Cyril, who is Later known by his numerous commentaries School. and polemical treatises, as well as
by the victorious boldness of the position which he took in these controversies. While there may be two opinions about his character, there can be no doubt of the soteriological tendency of his theology. He succeeded in following up the partial victory which he won at the Council of Ephesus (431) and converting it into a complete one. His successor, Dioscurus, accomplished the entire defeat of the theology of Antioch, and at Ephesus in 449 the " one nature of the Word made flesh " was proclaimed to the East. At Chalcedon in 451 came the reaction, but it was brought about not so much by any opposition in the Eastern mind to the formula as by the despotic bearing of its champion. That which was adopted at Chalcedon roundly contradicted, indeed, the Alexandrian theology, but inasmuch as Cyril's orthodoxy was expressly reeognized there, the new Byzantine-Roman Church, in spite of its teaching on the two natures, found a place for the Alexandrian school. In the sixth century Leontius and Justinian showed (Second Council of Constantinople, 553) that its influence was not dead-that, on the contrary, the exposition of the decrees of Chalcedon must be determined in accordance with it. No fundamental difference appeared in the attitude of the sixth council (Constantinople, 680-681); and after the Adoptionist controversy the Western theology also became consciously Alexandrian. It has never been able to do more than theoretically to assert the real humanity of Christ, or to reduce it to very narrow limits; it is, after all, essentially Apollinariau and docetic. Consequently in all its phases
it has left room for mystical speculations on the relation of the Godhead and humanity, in which the human factor tends to disappear and historyto be forgotten. (A. HexNeca.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. F. Baltue, Di/ense du saints pares aceuus do Platonism, Paris, 1711; H. E. F. Guericke, De eehola qua Alexandrios floruit catechetica, Halls, 1824; C. F. W. Hasselbach, De echola quo floruit catahdiaa, 8tettin, 1824; E. R. Redepenning, Oripenea, i, Bonn, 1841; J. Simon, Hietoire critique de l'Ecole d'Alexandrie, Paris, 1845; E. Vaeherot, Histoire critique de 1'Eeole d'Alexandris, 2 vole., Paris, 1846; C. Kingsley, Alexandria and her Schools, Cambridge, 1854; C. Bigg, Christian Platonists of Alexandria, Oxford, 1886; A. Haxnaek, Zehrbuch der Dopmenpschichts, i., ii., Freiberg, 1894, Eng. tranel., 7 vole., London, 1895-1900.
ALEXANDRIA, SYNODS OF. For the synods held in Alexandria in 320 or 321 and 362, see ARIAN Isnl I., 1, § 2; I., 3, § 6; for the synod in 400, see ORIOENISTIC CONTROVERSIES; for the synod in 430, see NEBTORIUB.ALEXIANS: An order, aiming to care for the sick and bury the dead, which originated in the Netherlands at the time of the black death about the middle of the fourteenth century. The mem bers were at first called Cellitte (Dutch, Gellebroe ders, " Cell-brothers ") and Lollards, or Nollards, on account of their monotonous intoning at burials. When and where they chose St. Alexius-accord ing to the legend, a son of rich parents who gave all his possessions to the poor, lived for many years unrecognized as a beggar in his father's house, and died July 17, 417-as patron is not known. The place may have been Antwerp, or Cologne, or else where in Lower Germany. A certain Tobias is said to have had a part in their foundation, and the name Fratres rooluntarie pauperes, which is some times applied to them, may have been their oldest and chosen designation. From the fifteenth cen tury they were found in great numbers in Belgium and western Germany. In 1459 Pius II. permitted them to take the solemn vows. To avoid being taken for Beghards, and to escape persecution, they adopted the monastic rule of St. Augustine (with black cassock), and Sixtus IV. confirmed the arrangement in 1472. Later they appeared in .' the four provinces of the Upper Rhine, Middle Rhine, Flanders, and Brabant, without central government or priests at the head of the different monasteries. Jan Busch (q.v.), the monastic refor mer of the fifteenth century, took note of their illiterate and deficient lay character. A reform of the order, which was verging on decay, was under taken in 1854 by the monastery of Mariaberg in Aachen, and was confirmed by Pius IX. in 1870. About fifteen houses, for both sexes, scattered over western Germany, are affiliated with Aachen, and there are others in Belgium. O. ZOC%LER t.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Helyot, Ordree monastiques, iii. 401-408; G. Uhlhorn, Die chrisUiche Liebeetdtipkeit in Mittelalter, pp. 390 sqq, Stuttgart 1884 W. Moll, vorre%rmatorische Kirchenpeechichts der Niederlande, 1250 sqq., Leipsie,1895; Heimbueher, Orden and Konyrepationen i. 479-481.
ALEXIUS L, d-lex'i-us, COMNENUS: Emperor of Constantinople 1081-1118, founder of the Comnenus dynasty. He was the nephew of loam Comnenus, who as emperor (1057-69) had tried through the army to save the state from the selfish tyranny of the official class, but had been put to death, with the result that for two decades military wealmess. administrative demoralization, and the loss of provinces to Turks and Normans had brought the empire into an almost hopeless condition.
During this period Alexius won considerable renown by defeating a Norman mercenary captain named Ursel, who attempted to found a kingdom in Asia Minor, and two pretenders to the imperial throne. He was adopted by the empress Maria, but found himself so zealously watched in Constantinople that his only safety was to seize the crown for himself, which he accomplished by a masterly conspiracy. New dangers, however, threatened him. Asia Minor was largely in Mohammedan hands; the sovereignty of the empire in the Balkan peninsula was scarcely more than nominal; and Robert Gaiscard menaced the Adriatic provinces, having already taken the south Italian ones. Alexius summoned his forces, and ratified the burdensome treaty with Venice which his predecessor had made, but he was defeated, and the Normans occupied Durazzo, the western gate of the empire. He tried to create a diversion by inciting the German king, Henry IV., to an attack on southern Italy, which afforded only temporary relief, and nothing but Robert's death in 1085 saved him from this determined foe.
Steady pressure from the half-barbarous hordes of the Balkans made a new danger, and at one time it seemed likely that the Turkish pirates of Asia Minor and the Sultan of Iconium would join them in an attempt to effect the complete overthrow of the empire. By the aid of the Cumane, however, they were defeated with horrible slaughter (1091). The lack of military force inspired Alexius with the idea of gaining &ssistance from the West. The first crusade (1095-99), partly due to his appeals for the expulsion of the Turks, assumed far different proportions from those which he had expected; but he might have welcomed it, had it not been that the participation of Bohemund, Robert Guiscard's son, gave it the appearance of a mere episode in the old Norman inroads. Ab first all went peaceably, but mutual distrust soon showed itself. At the siege of Nicaea (1097), Alexius did not wait to see if the crusaders would fulfil their agreement to restore to him the territory which had but recently belonged to the empire, but gained the city by a secret agreement with the Turkish garrison. When Antioch fell (1098), it was not restored to the emperor. This marked the crisis-of the undertaking. The Turks threatened to recapture Antioch, and Alexius was entreated to send the help he had promised. He saw that by giving it he would make the Turks his irreconcilable foes, without finding submissive vassals in the crusaders, and he drew back, seizing the opportunity to recover possession of the coasts of Asia Minor, with the large maritime cities and the islands, and then using this recovered territory as a base of operations against the new Norman principality in Syria. Bohemund found himself obliged in 1104 to seek help from the pope and the kings of England and France. He spread the belief that Alexius was the enemy of Christianity and a master of all deceits and wiles. A new crusade, led by Bohemund, sought to pass through the Eastern empire, but its purpose was perfectly understood in ConstantinOple. Preparations were made in time, and in the winter of 1107-08 Alexius won the greatest
triumph of his reign. Bohemund was forced to submit to the humiliating conditions of the treaty of Deabolis, and to hold Antioch as a fief of the empire, without the right to transmit it. The last ten years of Alexius's reign were years of struggle for the maintenance of his recovered dominion in Asia Minor, and for the consolidation of his power at home. To gain the help of the ecclesiastics, as well as to atone for the sins of his youth, he regulated the life of his court with great strictness, and did his utmost to repress the sects (Paulicians, Armenians, Monophyaites, and Bogomiles) which had flourished in the anarchy of the time immediately preceding his own.
It is difficult to arrive at an unprejudiced view of Alexius's character, so much have the one-sided views of the Western historians prevailed. His success in making the weakened empire once more a power must be admired. He was a man of infinite resource, of tremendous energy, of an indefatigable readiness to avail himself of circumstances, not wanting in physical courage, but even greater in moral steadfastness. (C. NEUMANN.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sources: Nicephorus Bryennlue, Com mentarii, in CSHB, viii., 1836; Anna Comnena, A(esiad, ibid. iii., 1878, and ed. by Reifferecheid, 2 vole., Leipeic, 1884; also Theophylact, CSHB, iv., 1834, cf. Krumbaoher, Gesehichte, pp. 133 eqq., 463184. Consult G. Finlay, Hiet. of the Byzantine and Greek Empires, 2 vols., London, 1854; A. F. Gfr6rer, Byzantiniache Gooch., 3 vole., Gras, 1872-77; B. Kugler, Geschichts der Krsuzsgpe, Berlin, 1880; H. E. Tozer, The Church and the Eastern Empire, London, 1888; C. W. C. Oman, Byzantine Empire, New York, 1892 (popular but useful); Gibbon; Decline and Fall, v. 232, vl. 79, 1898; F. Harrison, Byzantine Hist, in the Early Middle Apes, London, 1"; F. Chalandon, Essai our . . . Alexis 1. Comnenus, Paris, 1900.ALFORD, HENRY: Dean of Canterbury; b. in London Oct. 7,1810; d. at Canterbury Jan. 12,1871. He studied at Trinity College, Cambridge (B.A., 1832), and was ordained deacon in 1833, priest in 1834, and elected a fellow of Trinity the same year; he became vicar of Wymeswold, Leicestershire, 1835, minister of Quebec Chapel, Marylebone, London, in 1853, and dean of Canterbury in 1857. He was a many-aided man, a good musician, a wood-carver and painter of some skill, a good preacher, and for many years a successful teacher of private pupils. His publications include ser mons, lectures, essays and reviews, poems, hymns, a translation of the Odyssey in blank verse (London, 1861), an edition of the works of John Donne (6 vols., 1839), The Queen's English (1864), and even a novel, Netherton on Sea (1869), written in col laboration with his niece (Elizabeth M. Alford), He was Hulsean lecturer for 1841-42 and published his lectures under the title, The Consistency of the Divine Conduct in Revealing the Dodnnes o f Redemp tion (2 vole.). He was the first editor of the Con temporary Revieew (1866-70). The great work of his life, however, was his Greek Testament (4 vole., London, 1849-61; thoroughly revised in subsequent editions), vihich introduced German New Testa ment scholarship to English readers, and involved & vast amount of patient labor. An outcome of this work was The New Testament for English Readers (4 vole., 1868) and a revised English version (1869). He was one of the original mem bers of the New Testament Revision Committee.
Near the close of his life he projected a commentary on the Old Testament, and prepared the Book of Genesis and part of Exodus, which were published posthumously (1872).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: H. Alford, his Life, Journals, and Letters, by his widow, London, 1873; DNB, i. 282-284.
ALFRED (ALFRED) THE GREAT: King of the West Saxons 871-901; b. at Wantage (60 m. w. of London), Berkshire, 849; d. at Winchester, Hants, Oct. 28, 901. He was the youngest son of Ethelwulf and Osburga, and succeeded his brother Ethelred on the throne. His reign, with its recurring conflicts with the Danes, contained many vicissitudes; nevertheless, he succeeded in establishing his power, enlarged the borders of his realm, and advanced the spiritual and intellectual welfare of his people. He remodeled the political and ecclesiastical organization of his kingdom, rebuilt the churches, monasteries, and schools burnt by the Danes, and founded new ones. He invited learned men to his country and provided for them there, and through the intimate connection which he maintained with Rome he was able to procure books and form libraries. Of still greater import were his personal exertions to arouse among his countrymen a desire for knowledge and culture. He translated Boethius's De consolations philosophim and the history of Orosius. Both works are treated with great freedom, much change was necessary to adapt them to the needs of the rude Saxons, and Alfred himself did not always fully understand his text. There are many omissions and additions. The work of Orosius (an attempt to write a history of the world from a Christian standpoint) is supplemented by a geographical and ethnological review of Scandinavia and the Baltic countries from the reports of Othhere and Wulfstan. Of greater importance from a religious point of view is Alfred's translation of the Liber paastoralia curse of Pope Gregory I. (590-604), a book well adapted to influence the spirit of the Saxon clergy. A paraphrase of Bede's Hiatoria ecclesiastics genus An glOMm has been erroneously ascribed to Alfred; it may, however, have been prepared under his direction. Translations or paraphrases of the Dialogue of Gregory I. and of the " Soliloquies " of St. Augustine have also been ascribed to him. His millennary was celebrated at Winchester in 1901, and commemorative exercises were ]geld in America also.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The Whole Works o/ King Alfred, with preliminary essay, were published in a " Jubilee Edition," 3 vole., Oxford, 1852-53. Separate editions are: Of the Orosius, text and Latin original, ed. H. Sweet, London, 1883; of the Boethius, text and modern English, ed. W. J. 8edgefi id, Oxford, 1899-1900; of the Gregory, text and translation, ed. H. Sweet. London, 1871-72; of the Bede, text and translation, ed. T. Miller, ib. 189098, and J. 6chipper, 3 parts, Leipsic, 1897-98; of the "Soliloquies " of St. Augustine, ed. H. L. Hargrove (Yak Studies in English, No . 13), New York, 1902. For Alfred's iaws, consult Ancient Laws and Institutes of England, ed. B. Thorpe London, 1840. The chief sources for Alfred's life are: The De rebus pesos ~fflfredi of the Welsh bishop Aeser, ed. W. H. Stevenson, Oxford, 1904; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, e d. B. Thorpe (Rolls Series, No. 23), 1861, and C. Plummer, Oxford, 1892; translations of both Asser and the Chronicle by J. A. Giles in Bohn,, Antiquarian Library, . iv.; of Asser by A. S. Cook, Boston, 1906, Of the many modern live, of Alfred the following
may be mentioned-in German: R. Pauli, Berlin, 1851, Eng. tranel., London, 1853, and J. B. Weiss, Freiburg, 1852; in English: T. Hughes, London, 1878; E. Conybeare, ib. 1900; W. Besant, The Story o/ King Alfred, ib. 1901; C. Plummer, Cambridge, 1902; and the volume of essays by different writers, ed. A. Bowker, London, 1899. Consult also Lappenberg, Geschichte von England, vol. i., Hamburg, 1834, Eng. transl. by B. Thorpe, ii., London, 1845; W. Stubbs, Constitutional History of England, vol. i., Oxford, 1880; E. A. Freeman, History of the Norman Conquest, vol i., ib. 1880; A. Bowker, The King Alfred Millenary, London, 1902.ALFRIC, al'fric (IELFRIC) (Alfricus Grammati cus): Anglo-Saxon abbot. He was a scholar and friend of Athelwold of Abingdon, afterward bishop of Winchester (c. 963), and was abbot of Cerne in Dorsetshire and of Ensham (c. 1006). He has been identified, probably with insufficient reason, with Alfric, archbishop of Canterbury (996-1006), and with Alfric, archbishop of York (1023-51). He did much for the education of clergy and people, and his name is second only to that of King Alfred as a writer of Anglo-Saxon prose. He was a strong opponent of the doctrine of transubstantiation. His writings include a grammar with glossary, a collection of homilies, and a translation of the first seven books of the Old Testament. The Elfric Society was founded in London in 1842 to publish his works as well as others. For this society B. Thorpe edited two books of the homilies (2 vols., London, 1844-X16); the third book has been edited by W. Skeat (,Fl fries Lives o f Saints, London, 1881). The grammar may be found in the Sammlung englischer Denk mtller, Berlin, 1880; the Heptateuchus, in C. W. M. Groin, Bibliothek der angelsdcchsischen Prosa, i. (Cassel, 1872).
BIHwoGnAPstY: DNB, i. 164-166; Caroline L. White, di#rie (Yale ,Studies in English, No. ii.), Boston, 1898.
ALGER, dl"zh6', OF LIEGE (ALGER OF CLUNY, Algerus Scholastic=, and Algerus Magister): Theological writer of the twelfth century; d. at Cluny 1131 or 1132. He enjoyed the instruction of the best teachers in the cathedral school of Lidge, which was then the great school of northwestern Germany, and a nursery of high-church notions. Alger, afterward acholasticus at the cathedral, does not seem to have been a champion of this tendency. After the death of Bishop Frederick, in 1121, he retired to the monastery of Cluny, where he lived on very friendly terms with Abbot Peter. He is described as a man of great intellect, a wise counselor, faithful in every respect, of wide learning, yet modest and unassuming. The most noteworthy of his writings are: (i) De 8acramentis tbrporis et aanguinis domini lthri iii., which occupies a prominent place among the rejoinders to Berengar's doctrine of the Eucharist. The first book treats of the doctrine of the substantial presence of Christ in the Eucharist, aiming to prove it from Scripture and tradition; it then treats of the reception of the sacrament, especially of worthy participation. The second book treats of different controversies respecting the matter, form, and efficacy of the sacraments. The third opposes especially those who make the legality and efficacy of the sacrament dependent on the worthiness of the dispenser. The difcult questions are treated clearlyand acutely. In the main Alger follows Guitmund of Aversa, but not without expansion of his doc trine in some points. He was the first to assert the two propositions that the human nature of Christ because of its exaltation above all creatures has the faculty of remaining where it pleases and existing at the same sime undivided in every other place and that the sensual qualities of the elements exist after the transubstantiation as accldentia per se, i.e., without subject. (2) In the Tractatus de misericardia et justitia, important for the history of canon law and Church discipline, Alger attempts to explain and harmonize the apparent contra dictions between the different laws of the Church. Each proposition is given in a brief thesis or title, followed by numerous quotations from Scripture, the Fathers, councils, and genuine and spurious papal decretals as proofs; the authorities which seem to oppose each other, are put in juxtaposition; and a reconciliation is attempted. Many patristic passages as well as many of the explanatory chapter headings are copied from this work in the Decretum Gratiani. Alger, however, was not the only pred ecessor and pattern of Gratian, as the whole de velopment of ecclesiastical and canonical science was in that direction. S. M. DEUTSCH.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Alger's works are in MPL, dsxc. Consult the Histoire littdrairs de la France, xi. 158 sqq.; A. L. Richter, Beitr4ge ear Kenntnisa der Quellcn des kanonischen Rechts, pp. 7-17, Leipsic, 1834; H. Hilffer, Beitr4gs zur Geschichte der Quellen doe Kirchenrechts, pp. 1-66, MOneter, 1862; Wattenbach, DGQ, ii. (1894) 145, 513.ALGER, al'jer; WILLIAM ROUNSEVILLE: Uni tarian; b. at Freetown, Mass., Dec. 30, 1822; d. in Boston Feb. 7, 1905. He was a graduate of Harvard Divinity School, 1847, and held various pastorates (Roxbury, Mass., 1848-55; Boston, as successor of Theodore Parker, 1855-73), but after 1882 lived in Boston without charge. His best-known books are The Poetry of the Orient (Boston, 1856, 5th ed., 1883); The Genius of Solitude (1865, 10th ed., 1884); Friendships of Women (1867, 10th ed., 1884), and particularly A Critical History o f the Doctrine o f a Future Life (Philadelphia, 1863, 12th ed., Boston, 1885), to which Ezra Abbot furnished his famous bibliography of books on eschatology (see ABBOT, EZHA). ALGERIA. See AFMCA, II. ALLARD, al"lilr', PAUL: Layman, French Chris tian archeologist; b. at Rouen Sept. 15, 1841. He was educated at the Collage Libre de Bois-Guillaume (near Rouen) and at the Facultk de Droit of Paris. He was admitted to the bar, and for many years has been a judge in the civil court of his native city. He is a member of the Rouen Academy, as well as of the Academie de Religion Catholiqve and the Acad6mie Ponti f cafe d'Arch,6ologie, both of Rome. He is likewise a corresponding member of the Socigk des Antiquaires do France, and the editor df the Revue ties traditions historiques of Paris. His chief works are: Les Esclaves chraiens depuis lea premiers temps de l1glise jusqu'd la fin de la domination romaine en Occident (Paris, 1876; crowned by the French Academy); L'Art paien sous lea empereurs chrdiens (1879); Esclaves, serfs et mainmortables (1884); Histoire des persecutions
(4 vols., 1882-90); Los Christianisme et t'empire romain de N6ron a Th&dose (1897); Saint Basile (1898); Ettudes d'histoire et d'archdologie (1898); Julian l'Apostat (3 vols., 1900-03; crowned by the French Academy); Les Chraiens et l'ineendie de Rome soul NEron (1903); Les Persdcutions et la critique moderne (1903); and Dix lepons sur le martyrs (1906). He has also made a translation, with additions and notes, of the Roma Sotterranea of Northcote and Brownlow under the title Rome souterraine (Paris, 1873).
ALLATIUS, al-16'ahius or -ahus, LEO (LEONE ALACCI): Roman Catholic scholar; b. on the island of Chios 1586; d. in Rome Jan. 19, 1669. He was brought to Calabria at the age of nine, and in 1600 went to Rome, where he became one of the most distinguished pupils of the Greek College founded in 1577 by Gregory XIII. He studied philosophy and theology, and later also medicine at the Sapienza, and became a teacher in the Greek College and a scriptor in the Vatican library. When Maximilian of Bavaria presented the Heidelberg library to the pope (1622), Allatius was chosen to superintend its removal to Rome, and he spent nearly a year in the work. The death of Gregory XV. just before his return deprived him of a fitting reward; and he was even suspected of having appropriated or given away part of this charge. He was supported by the liberality of some of the cardinals, especially Francesco Barberini, who made him his private librarian (1638). Alexander VII. appointed him keeper of the Vatican library in 1661, and he lived the retired life of a scholar until his death. Allatius's contemporaries regarded him as a prodigy of learning and diligence, though apparently somewhat narrow and pedantic, and without much critical judgment. His literary productions were of the most varied kind. The interests which lay nearest to his heart were the demonstration that the Greek and Roman Churches had always been in substantial agreement, and the bringing of his fellow countrymen to acknowledge the supremacy of Rome. His principal writings, the De ecclesia occidental" et oriental" perpetua consensione (Co logne, 1648), and the smaller De utriuaque ecclesice in dogmate de purgatorio eonsensaone (Rome, 1655), bear upon this subject; his Confutatio fabulae de papissa (1630) aims to vindicate the papacy. He was vigorously opposed by Protestant scholars, such as Hottinger, Veiel, and Spanheim, and some Roman Catholics (as R. Simon) admitted that his treatment of history was onesided. He found an ardent helper in the German convert B. Neuhaus (Nihusius), the pupil and then the opponent of Calixtus. Allatius published many other works of a similar tendency, e.g., on the procession of the Holy Ghost (1658), the Athanasian Creed (1659), the Synod of photius (1662), and the Council of Florence (1674). He also edited, annotated, or translated a number of Greek authors, both ecclesiastical and secular, and contributed to the Paris Corpus Byzantinorum. He left behind him plans and prelimistudies for still more extensive undertakings, eu h as a complete library, of all the Greek authors. His literary remains, and an extensive correspondence, I.-9
comprising more than 1,000 letters in Greek and Latin, came in 1803 into the possession of the library of the Oratorians in Rome. (A. HAUCH.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: S. Gradius, Vita Leonis A llatii, first published in Mai, Nova patrum bibliotheca, vi., part 2, pp. v: xxviii., Rome, 1853; Fabricius-Harles, Bibliotheca Graca, xi. 435 sqq.; J. M. Sehr&ekh, %irchenpeschickte seit der Reformation, ix. 21, Leipsic, 1810; A. Theiner, Die Schenkunp der Heidelberper BZliothek . . mit Oripdnalechri/ten, Munich, 1844; H. Laemmer, De L. AUatii codicibua, Freiburg, 1864; H. Hurter, Nomenclator literarius, ii. 119 sqq., Innsbruck, 1893.
ALLEGORICAL INTERPRETATION. See ExEGEBIB OR HERMENEUTIcs, III., §§ 2-5.ALLEGRI, dl-Wgrf, GREGORIO: Italian com poser; b. in Rome, of the family of the Correggios, most probably about 1585; d. there Feb. 18, 1652. He studied music under Nanini (1600-07), and after 1629 belonged to the choir of the Sistine Chapel. He was one of the first to compose for stringed instruments. His most celebrated work is a Mise rere for two choirs, one of five and the other of four voices, which, as given at Rome during Holy Week, acquired a great reputation. For a long time extraordinary efforts were made to prevent the pub lication of the music; but Mozart at the age of fourteen was able to write it down from memory, and Dr. Charles Burney (author of the History o f Music) procured a copy from another source and published it in La musica the si Banta annualmente nelle funzioni delta settimana santa, nella cappella Pontiftc'ia (London, 1771). The effect of the Mise rere as given in Rome seems to be due to the asso ciations and execution rather than to any inherent quality in the music, as presentations of it else where have proved distinctly disappointing.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: F. Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, Letters from Italy and Switzerland, tranel. by Lady Wallace, pp. 133134, 168-191, Philadelphia, 1863.
ALLEINEE, al'en, JOSEPH: English non-con formist; b. at Devizes (86 m. w. of London), Wiltshire, 1634; d. at Taunton, Somersetahire, Nov. 17, 1668. He was graduated at Oxford in 1653 and became chaplain to his college (Corpus Christi); in 1655 he became assistant minister at Taunton, whence he was ejected for non-conformity in 1662; he continued to preach and was twice imprisoned in consequence, and his later years were troubled by constant danger of arrest. He was a learned man, associated as an equal with the fellows of the Royal Society, and engaged in scientific study and experimentation. He is now remembered, however, as the author of An Alarm to Unconverted Sinners (London, 1672; republished in 1675 under the title A Sure Guide to Heaven). He published several other works, including an Explanation of the AseerMty's Shorter Catwhiem (1656).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: C. Stanford, Companions and Times of Joseph A7leine, London, 1861; DNB, i. 299-,300.
ALLEIAE, RICHARD: English non-conformist; b. at Ditcheat (18 m. s. by w. of Bath) 1611; d. at Frome Selwood (11 m. s. by e. of Bath) Dec. 22, 1681. He was educated at Oxford and was rector of Batcombe (15 m. s. by w. of Bath) from 1641 till ejected for non-conformity in 1662, when he removed to FrOme gelwOOd, only a few miles away, and there preached. His fame rests on his
Vindicice pidatis, or a vindication of godliness, in four parts, each with a different title (London, 1663-68).ALLEMAND, al'Iman' (ALEMAN), LOUIS DI: Archbishop of Arles and cardinal; b. of noble family at the castle of Arbent (in the old district of Bugey, 55 m. n.e. of Lyons), department of Ain, 1380 or 1381; d. at Salon (28 m. w.n.w. of Marseilles), department of Bouches du Rh6ne, Sept. 16, 1450. While quite young he was made canon of Lyons; he became magister and decretorum doctor and as such took part in the Council of Constance; in 1418 he became bishop of Magelone, in 1423 archbishop of Arles, and in 1426 cardinal with the title of St. Cecilia. During the council at Basel, he became the center of the opposition against pope Eugenius IV., and when in 1438 the rupture occurred be tween the council and the pope, Allemand was the only cardinal who remained at Basel and directed the transactions. Eugenius declared that Allemand and all who had taken part in the council had forfeited their dignities, but Allemand continued to work in favor of the council and in the interest of the election of Felix V. When, however, this antipope resigned (1449), and the Fathers of Basel submitted to Pope Nicholas V., Allemand also was restored. He died in the odor of sanctity, and was buried at Arles. Clement VII. beatified him in 1527. PAUL TBCHACKERT.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: A$B, Sept., v. 436 sqq.; G. J. Eggs, Purpura docta, libri iii. and iv., p. 50 sqq., Munich. 1714;D. M. Manni, Della vita a del culto del btato Lodosioo AL: manni, Florence, 1771; KL, i. 473. ALLEN, ALEXANDER VIETS GRISWOLD:
Protestant Episcopalian; b. at Otis, Mass., May 4, 1841. He was educated at Kenyon College, Gambier, O. (B.A., 1862), and Andover Theological Seminary (1865), and was ordained priest in the Protestant Episcopal Church in 1865. He was the founder and first rector of St. John's Chureh, Lawrence, Mass., in 1865-67, and in the latter year was appointed professor of church history in the Episcopal Theological School, Cambridge, Mass., where he still remains. Since 1886 he has been a member of the Massachusetts Historical Society. His principal writings are: Continuity of Christian Thought (Boston, 1884); Life of Jonathan Edwards (1889); Religious Progress (1893; lecture delivered at Yale University); Christian Institutions (New York, 1897); and Life and Letters of Phillips Brooks (1900).
ALLEN, HENRY: Founder of the Allenites; b. at Newport, R. I., June 14, 1748; d. at Northhampton, N. H., Feb. 2, 1784. Without proper training he became a preacher, and while settled at Falmouth, Nova Scotia, about 1778, began to promulgate peculiar views in sermons and tracts. He held that all souls are emanations or parts of the one Great Spirit; that all were present in the Garden of Eden and took actual part in the fall; that the human body and the entire material world were only created after the fall and as a consequence of it; that in time all souls will be embodied, and when the original number have thus passed through a state of probation, all will receive etern?d reward or punishment in their original unembodied state. He denied the resurrection of the body, and treated
baptism, the Lord's Supper, and ordination as matters of indifference. He traveled throughout Nova Scotia and made many zealous converts. The number of these, however, dwindled away after his death.BIBLIOGRAPHY: Hannah Adams, View of Religions, pp. 478- 479, London, 1805. ALLEN, JOHN: 1. Archbishop of Dublin; b. 1476; murdered at Artaine, near Dublin, July 27, 1534, during the rebellion of Lord Thomas Fitz gerald. He studied at boih Oxford and Cambridge; was sent to Rome on ecclesiastical business by Arch bishop Warham, and spent several years there; held various benefices in England, and became an adherent of Cardinal Wolsey and his agent in the spoliation of religious houses; was nominated archbishop of Dublin Aug., 1528 (consecrated Mar., 1529), and a month later was made chancellor of Ireland. He was involved in Wolsey's fall, im poverished by it, and lost the chancellorship. He was a learned canonist, and wrote an Epistola de pallii signi fccatione, when he received the gal lium, and a treatise De consuetudinibus ac statutis in tutoriis causia observandis. He compiled two registers, the Liber niger and the Repertorium virile, which give valuable information regarding his dio cese and the state of the churches.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: G. T. Stokes, Calendar of the " Liber niper Alani," in the Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, sir. 5, iii. (1893) 303-320.2. Dissenting layman; b. at Truro, Corn-
wall, 1771; d. June 17, 1839, at Hackney, where for thirty years he kept a private school. His chief work was Modern Judaism: or a Brief Account of the Opinions, Traditions, Rites, and Ceremonies of the Jews in Modern Times (London, 1816); he published also (1813) what was long the standard English translation of Calvin's Institutes o f the Christian Religion.
ALLEN, JOSEPH HENRY: American Unitarian; b. at Northborough, Mass., Aug. 21, 1820; d. at Cambridge, Mass., Mar. 20, 1898. He was graduated at Harvard in 1840, and at the Cambridge Divinity School in 1843, and became pastor at Jamaica Plain (R,oxbury), Mass. (1843), Washington, D. C. (1847), and Bangor, Me. (1850). In 1857 he returned to Jamaica Plain, and thenceforth devoted himself to teaching and literary work, often supplying the pulpits of neighboring towns, and with brief pastorates at Ann Arbor, Mich. (1877-78), Ithaca, N. Y. (1883--84), and San Diego, Cal. After 1867 he lived in Cambridge and was lecturer on ecclesiastical history in Harvard University, 1878-82. He was editor of The Christian Examiner (1857-69) and of The Unitarian Review (1887-91); with his brother, W. F. Allen, and J. B. Greenough he prepared the Allen and Greenough series of Latin text-books. He translated and edited an English edition of certain of the works of Renan (History of the People of Israel, 5 vols., Boston, 1888-95; The Future of Science, 1891; The Life of Jesus, 1895; Antichrist, 1897; The Apostles, 1898); and published, among other works, Ten Discourses on Orthodoxy (Boston, 1849); Hebrew Men and Times from the Patriarchs to the Messiah (1861); Our Liberal Movement in Theology,
chiefly as shown in recollections of the History of Unitarianism in New England (1882); Christian History in its Three Great Periods (3 vols.,1882-83); Positive Religion (1892); Historical Sketch of the Unitarian Movement since the Reformation (American Church History Series, New York, 1894); Sequel to `Our Liberal Movement ' (Boston, 1897).
ALLEN, WILLIAM: 1. "The cardinal of England; " b. at Rossall (36 m. n. of Liverpool), Lancashire, 1532; d. at Rome Oct. 16, 1594. He entered Oriel College, Oxford, in 1547 (B.A. and fellow, 1550; M.A., 1554), and after the accession of Mary decided to devote himself to the Church. He became principal of St. Mary's Hall, Oxford, and proctor of the university in 1556, canon of York in 1558. His zeal for the Roman religion soon attracted the notice of the authorities under Elizabeth, and in 1561 he left Oxford for the University of Louvain. In 1562 he came home, much broken in health, and spent the next three years in England, constantly encouraging the Catholics and making converts. He left his native land for good in 1565, was ordained priest at Mechlin, and lectured on theology in the Benedictine college there. He conceived the idea of a college for English students on the Continent, and in 1568 opened the first and most famous of such institutions, that at Douai (q.v.). He continued to administer and serve the college till 1588, although in 1585 he had removed to Rome. Pope Sixtus V., raised him to the cardinalate in 1587. Philip II. nominated him archbishop of Mechlin, 1589, but he was not preconized by the pope. Gregory XIV. made him prefect of the Vatican library.
The great aim of Allen's life was to restore England to the Church of Rome. This aim he pursued persistently. Until his fiftieth year he contented himself with persuasive measures alone (" scholastical attempts," in his own words), and met with no inconsiderable success. Had it not been for the missioners who were continually going into the country from his schools, probably the Roman Catholic religion would have perished as completely in England as it did in Scandinavian countries.
About 1582 Allen began to meditate force and to interfere in politics. He was closely associated with Robert Parsons (q-.), was cognizant of the plots to depose Elizabeth, and became the head of the " Spanish party " in England. It was at the request of Philip II. that he was appointed cardinal; and the intention was to make him papal legate, archbishop of Canterbury, and lord chancellor, and to entrust to him the organization of the ecclesiastical affairs of the country, if the proposed invasion of England should succeed. Just before the Armada sailed he indorsed, if he did not write, An Admonition to the Nobility and people of England and Ireland concerning the present wars, made for the execution of his Holiness's sentence, by the King Catholic of Spain (printed at Antwerp), and an abridgment of the same, called A Declaration of the Sentence of Deposition of Elizabeth, the Usurper and Pretensed Queen of England, which was disseminated in the form of a broadside. Both publications were violent and scurrilous, as well asA11emsnd Alliaaoe
treasonable from the English point of view, and roused great indignation in England, even among 'the Catholics, who, unlike Allen, very generally remained true to their country and sovereign. Allen's conduct, however, it should be borne in mind, was consistent with his belief in papal supremacy and with his views concerning excommunication and thl' right of the spiritual authorities to punish. He is described as handsome and dignified in person, courteous in manner, and endowed with many attractive qualities. Stories concerning his wealth and the princely style in which he lived in Rome are not true.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The more important of his many writings are: Certain Brief Reasons Concerning Catholic Faith, Douai, 1564; A Defence and Declaration of the Catholic Church's Doctnne Touching Purgatory and Prayers for the Souls Departed, Antwerp, 1565; A Treatise Made in Defence of the Lawful Power and Authority of Priesthood to Remit Sine, Louvain, 1567; De saeramentis in penere, ds sacramento eucharistiev, de sari ficio mieso;, Antwerp, 1576; and A Brief History of the Martyrdom of Twelve Reverend Priests, 1582. He helped make the English Bible translation known as the Douai Bible, and was one of the commission of cardinals and scholars who corrected the edition (see BIBLE VEBsioNs, B, IV., § 5, A, II., 2, § 5). At the time of his death he was engaged upon an edition of Augustine's works.
On his life consult: First and Second Diaries of the English College, Douay, London, 1878; Letters and Memorials of William Cardinal Allen, 1882 (constituting with the foregoing vols. i. and ii. of Records of the English Catholics, edited by fathers of the Congregation of the London Oratory). The Historical Introductions to these works, by T. F. Knox, give much valuable information, and his life ( n Latin) by Nicholas Fitzherbert, published originally in De antiquitate et continuddone catholicr religionis in Anglia, Rome, 1608, is reprinted in the last-named. pp. 3-20; J. Gillow, Dictionary of English Catholics, i. 14-24, London, 1885; DNB, i. 314-322, gives excellent list of sources.
2. American Congregationalist; b. at Pittsfield, Mass., Jan. 2, 1784; d. at Northhamptoh, Mass., July 16, 1868. He was graduated at Harvard in 1802; was licensed to preach in 1804 and soon after became assistant librarian at Harvard. He succeeded his father as pastor at Pittsfield in 1810. In 1817 he was chosen president of the reorganized Dartmouth College, but two years later the Supreme Court of the United States declared the reorganization invalid. He was president of Bowdoin College, 1820-39. He wrote much and was an industrious contributor to dictionaries and encyclopedic works. His American Biographical and Historical Dictionary (Cambridge, 1809, containing 700 names; 2d ed., Boston, 1832, 1,800 names; 3d ed., 1857, 7,000 names) was the first work of the kind published in America.
ALLEY, WILLIAM: Bishop of Exeter; b. about 1510 at Chipping Wycombe, Bucks, England; d. at Exeter Apr. 15, 1570. He was educated at Eton, Cambridge, and Oxford, espoused the cause of the Reformation, but kept in retirement during the reign of Mary. Elizabeth made him divinity
reader in St. Paul's, and in 1560 Bishop of Exeter. He revised the Book of Deuteronomy for the Bishops' Bible, and published an exposition of I Peter, with notes which show wide reading (2 vols., London, 1565).
ALLIANCE, EVANGELICAL. See EVAXQELaCAL ALLIANCE.
Aims and the following cities, Edinburgh (1877), Achieve- Philadelphia (1881), Belfast .(1884), meats. London (1888). Toronto (1892), Glasgow (1898), Washington (1899), and Liverpool (1904), at all of which questions of doctrine, polity, Home and Foreign Missions, and other forms of Christian activity have been fully discussed, the papers read with the subsequent discussions being published in a volume of proceedings. The Alliance is the rallying-point of the Reformed and Presbyterian Churches of the world, all of these with one or two exceptions having joined its fellowship. Its membership thus embraces not only the English-speaking Churches of Great Britain and America. and the historic Churches of the European Continent, but also the Churches in the colonial and other territories of Great Britain, with the newly formed Churches which are the fruit of missionary labor among nonChriatian peoples. Through the Alliance the special conditions of each Church have become better known to sister Churches than they had been previously, and hence, not only by sympathy and counse , but also by large financial aid, the Alliance has sought to assist the weaker communities.
The General Councils of the Alliance are neither mass-meetings nor conferences open to al , but consist exclusively of delegates appointed by the several Churches; yet neither are they synods or church courts, for they have no legislative authority of any kind and can only submit to all the Churches or to such as may be specially interested, any conclusions which they have reached. For administrative purposes, the Alliance has divided its Executive Commission or Business Committee into an Eastern Section located in Great Britain, and a Western Section located in the United States, but working in harmony with each other by constant, intercorrespondence. As representing about thirty millions of souls, holding a common system of doctrine and adhering to a common polity and whose voluntary contributions for church purposes were reported at the Liverpool Council in 1904 as amounting in the previous year to considerably more than thirty-eight millions of dollars, the Alliance forma to-lay one of the most closely united and influential organizations of Christendom. G. D. MATHaws.BIRLIOORAFH7: The Proceedings and Minutes of each of the General Councils have been published-of the first by J. Thomson, of the second by J. B. Dales and R. M. Patterson, and of the third and succeeding by G. D. Mathews. Con sult also the Quarterly Reputer of the Alliance, 1886 to date.
ALLIES, THOMAS WILLIAM: English Roman Catholic; b. at Midsomer Norton (14 m. n.e. of Glastonbury), Somersetahire, Feb. 12, 1813; d. at St. John's Wood, London, June 17, 1903. He was first class in classics at Oxford, 1832. He took orders in the Anglican Church in 1838, serving for two
years as chaplain to the bishop of London and for ten years as rector of Launton. In 1850 he was received into the Roman Catholic Church by his friend, Cardinal, then Father, Newman. He wrote extensively on theological subjects, his principal works being, St. Peter, his Name and Office (London, 1852); The Formation of Christendom (8 vols., 186195); Per crucem ad ltuem (2 vols., 1879); A Life's Decision 11880); Church and State (1882), a continuation of The Formation of Christendom; and The. Throne o f the Fisherman (1887).
ALLIOLI, al"li-61, JOSEF FRANZ: Roman Catholic; b. at Sulzbach, Austria, Aug.10,1793; d. at Augsburg May 22, 1873. He studied theology at Landshut and Regensburg, and Oriental languages at Vienna, Rome, and Paris. In 1823 he became professor of Oriental languages and Biblical exegesis and archeology at Landshut, and went to Munich when the university was removed thither in 1826. In 1835, being compelled to give up teaching through throat trouble, he became a member of the cathedral chapter at Munich and, in 1838, provost of the cathedral at Augsburg. He was active in charitable work and promoted the Franciscan Female Institute of the Star of Mary. The most noteworthy of his numerous publications was Die heilige Schrift des Alten and Neuen Testaments aus der Vulgata mit Bezug auf den Grundtezt neu iibersetzt and mit kurzen Anmerkungen erldutert (6 vols., Nuremberg, 1830-34), a third edition of an earlier work by H. Braun (ib. 1786). It far surpassed its predecessors, received papal sanction, and has been often reissued.ALLIX, a"lfa', PIERRE: Controversialist of the French Reformed Church; b. at Alengon (118 m. w.s.w. of Paris), Orne dept., 1641; d. in London Mar. 3, 1717. He was educated in the theological. semnary at Sedan, and held pastoral charges at Saint-Agobile in Champagne and at Charenton. On the revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685) he went to England, and James II. allowed him to establish a church in London for the numerous French exiles using the liturgy of the Church of England. In 1690 he was appointed canon of Salisbury. The fame of his learning was so great that both Oxford and Cambridge conferred the degree of doctor upon him, and the English clergy requested him to write a complete history of the councils. This great work was to embrace seven folio volumes, but it never appeared. His pub lished writings, in French, English, and Latin, are mostly of a polemical or apologetic nature, and display a thorough knowledge of Christian antiquity and of the primitive and medieval ecclesiastical writers. In his two books, Some Remarks upon the Ecclesiastical History of the Ancient Churches of Piedmont (London, 1690), and Remarks upon the Eccleainstical History of the Ancient Churches of the Albigenses (1692), he upheld against Bossuet the view that the Albigenses were not dualists, but identical with the Waldenses, and he contributed much to the upholding of this erroneous view. (A. HAUCK.) B.r06$APH7: E. and. Haas, La France prot"ta,tei. 81- 88, Paris 1879; DNB, i. 334-33b; D. C. A. Agnew, Probe eetant Exiles from France, ii. 328-334. Edinburgh, 1886.
ALLON, HENRY: English Congregationalist; b. at Welton (10 m. w. of Hull), Yorkshire, Oct. 13, 1818; d. in London Apr. 16, 1892. He studied at Cheshunt College, Hertfordshire, and from Jan., 1844, till his death was minister of Union Chapel, Islington, London (for the first eight years as associate of the Rev. Thomas Lewis). During his ministry the congregation increased to a membership of nearly 2,000, and a new church building on Compton Terrace, Islingtoh, was opened in Dec., 1877. He was chairman of the Congregational Union in 1864 and also in the Jubilee Year (1881). He was interested in the musical service of public worship and compiled hymn, anthem, and chant books, as well as a volume of hymns for children, which were largely used in the Congregational churches of England. He wrote much for the periodical press, edited the British Quarterly Reriew, 1865-87, and published The Life of Rev. James Sherman (London, 1863).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: W. H. Harwood, Henry AUon The Story of his Minis"with Selected Sermons and A2dreeaee, London, 1894 (by his successor at Islington).
ALL SAINTS' DAY (Lat. Festum omnium sanctorum): The first day of November. The Greek Church as early as the time of Chrysostom consecrated the Sunday after Whitsunday to the memory of all martyrs. The underlying idea of this festival is the same as that of All Saints' Day, although no connection between the two can be shown. The origin of All Saints' Day is obscure. It is said that Boniface IV. (608-615) made the Pantheon at Rome a church of Mary and all martyrs and that the commemoration of this dedication was transferred from May 13 to Nov. 1 (Durand, Rationale, vii., chap. 34). More probable is the view that the festival is connected with the oratory which Gregory III. (731-741) erected in St. Peter's, " in which he laid the bones of the holy apostles and of all the holy martyrs and confessors, just men made perfect in all the world" (Llber pontifacali8, Vita Greg. III., ed. Duchesne, i. 417). Traces of the festival are found in the Frankish kingdom at the time of the Carolingians, it was commended by Alcuin (Epist., lxxv.), and in the ninth century it became general. Luther did not approve of the festival, and Lutheran and Reformed churches do not observe it. The Church of England, however, and its branches retain it. W. CASPAM.ALL SOULS' DAY (Lat. Cammmrloratio omnium f delium de fundorum): The second day of Novem ber. The ancient Church distinguishes between the dead who have died for the Church (martyrs) and those who, while they have not suffered death for the Church, yet have died as fevers. All Souls' Day is dedicated to the memory of the latter. It is founded on the doctrine of the value of prayers and the Eucharist for the dead. Odilo of Cluny (d. 1049) instituted the festival for the Cluniacs
(ASM, atec. vi., i. 585); and in coup of time it was extended to all who had died in the faith. The Missals Romanum prescribes a special requiem -
mass for the day. Luther demanded that the festival be given up, and it soon disappeared among
Protestants. It is not observed in the Church of England. The German rationalists favored a
riosophie, ii., Frankfort, 1817, 432). The litany of the Moravians for Easter morning is a Protestant pendant to All Souls' Day, and the rapid rise and popularity of the festival show that it satisfies a feeling of the Christian mind which the Church would do well to recognize. W. CASPART.
ALMAIN, al"m6n', JACQUES: Gallican theologian; b. at Sens c. 1450; d. in Paris 1515. He was professor of theology in the College of Navarre in Paris, and at the request of Louis XII. prepared a reply to Cardinal Cajetan's work on the superiority of the pope to a general council (Tractatus de auctoritate ecclesim et coneiliorum generalium adversus Thomam de Vio, Paris, 1512; Bee CAJETAN, CARDINAL). A similar work was his Expositio circa deciaiones magistri Guilelmi Occam super potentate Romani pontifieis (1517). He wrote also Moralia (1510) and Dietata super sentential mayistri Helcot (1512).
ALMEIDA, al-mA'i-da, MANOEL: Jesuit missionary; b. at Vizeu (50 m. e.s.e. of Oporto), Portugal, 1580; d. at Goa 1646: He entered the Order of the Jesuits 1595; was sent to the East Indies 1602; lived in Abyssinia 1624-34; returned to Goa and became provincial of the order in the Indies. He left material for a general history of Abyssinia and of the Jesuits there, which was edited and published, in Portuguese, with additions, by Balthazar Tellez (Coimbra, 1660). Almeida's letter from Abyssinia to the general of his order for 1626-27 was published in Italian and French (Rome and Paris, 1629).
ALMONER (Fr. dum6nier; Lat. eleemosyuarius): An office at the French court from the thirteenth century onward, originally filled by one of the court chaplains who was entrusted with the distribution of the royal alms. Later there were several of these almoners, so that from the fifteenth century a grand almoner was named. The first to bear this title was Jean de Rely, later bishop of Angers and confessor of Charles VII. The grand almoner was one of the highest ecclesiastical dignitaries in France, and was charged with the supervision of charitable works in general, and of the court clergy. Nominations to benefices in the king's gift, including bishoprics and abbeys, were made through him. The office was abolished with the monarchy, though it was revived under both Napoleons.
Attached to the British court is the Royal Almonry, which dispenses alms for the sovereign, with these officers:, hereditary grand almoner (the marquis of Exeter, lord high almoner (the lord bishop of Ely), subalmoner (subdean of chapels royal), the groom of the almonry, and the secretary to the lord high almoner. In the papal court the almoner of the pope is prudent of the elimosineria apostolica, a body composed of two clerics and four laymen. There is a similar office at the Spanish court.
ALMS: A gift to which the recipient has no claim and for which he renders no return, made purely from pity and a desire to relieve need. Such a gift has religious value in Buddhism and in Islam. But it was in Judaism that almsgiving
was first highly regarded from a religio-ethical point of view. The Old Testament has a higher conception, based upon the ideas that the land belongs not to individuals but to God, whence all have equal right to its fruits, and that the regulating principle of conduct toward others among God's chosen people must be " thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself " (Lev. xix. 18, 34). Benevolence follows as an ordinary duty. In postcanonical times ahnsgiving almost imperceptibly assumed the character of a voluntary act of merit and even of expiation for sin and assurance of salvation (Tobit iv. 7-11, xii. 8-9; Ecclus. iii. 30, xxix. 1213). Such overvaluation of external acts is rebuked in Matt. vi. The New Testament revelation is a gospel of the voluntary love of God, in which good works can have no efficacy toward justificar tion and salvation. They are, on the contrary, the inevitable result and proof of the renewed life (Matt. vii. 1rr23; Luke x. 33-37). It is from this point of view that the idea of a divine reward finds application to the observance of charity in the New Testament (Matt. vi. 4, xix. 21; Luke xiv. 14; Acts x. 4; II Cor. ix. 7; Gal. vi. 9).
The Judaic conception of almsgiving as an act of merit and satisfaction came into the early Church through the Jewish Christians. A classic expression of Jewish-Christian thought is II Clement xvi. 4: " Almsgiving, therefore, is a good thing, even as repentance for sin. Fasting is better than prayer, but almsgiving than both. And love covereth a multitude of sins; but prayer out of a good conscience delivereth from death. Blessed is every man that is found full of these. For almsgiving lifteth off the burden of sin." The idea is completely dominant in Cyprian (De opere et elesmosynis), and was, indeed, unavoidable, if the Old Testament Apocrypha were accepted as on a par with the canon. Save that propitiatory value was afterward assigned to the sacrament of penance, the position of the Roman Catholic Church has remained essentially that of Cyprian. Augustine conceded influence in the alleviation of purgatorial suffering to almsgiving, and the " Sentences " of Peter Lombard, the dogmatic manual of the Middle Ages, emphasize the idea out of all true proportion.
Poverty was so highly prized by the early Church that the pseudo-Clementine Homilies (XV. vii. 9) declare the possession of property as defilement with the things of this world, a sin. In the fourth century poverty, through monasticism, became a factor in the Christian ideal life. And in the thirteenth century begging, through Francis of Assisi, received a religious idealization, which was in the highest degree pernicious to social good order. The mendicant monk is nothing more nor less than a grossly immoral character. The Reformation rejected all these errors, required some form of labor from the Christian as the basis of his membership in society, and sought to substitute organized care of the poor for the prevalent haphazard methods of giving and receiving alms. Protestant dogmatics grants to alms no share whatever in the doctrine of salvation. Far above any individual instance of almsgiving is the spirit of
BIBLIOGRAPHY: On the historical side, 9. Chaatel, Charity of the Primitive Churches, Philadelphia, 1857; G. Uhlhorn, Christliche Mebesthdtigkwit, 3 vols., Stuttgart, 1895, Eng. transl., Christian Charity in the Ancient Church, New York, 1883. On the practical side, P. Church, The Philosophy of Benevolence, New York, 1836; Systematic Beneficence, comprising " The Great Reform " by A. Stevens, .. The Great Quern" by L. Wright, " Property consecrated " by B. St. J. Fry, NewYork,1856; M. W. Moggridge,Method in Almsgiving, London, 1882. Consult also the books on Christian Ethics and on Socialism.
ALOGI, al'o-jf (Gk. alogoi): A name coined by Epiphanius (Haer., li.) to designate certain people whom he treats as a distinct sect. The account which he gives agrees with that of Philaster (Haer., lx.), because both depend on the Syntagma of Hippolytus. Epiphanius can not have known of them by either oral tradition or personal contact; he speaks of them as a phenomenon of the past, of the time when Montanism vexed the Church of Asia Minor, and is unable to give any answer to the most obvious questions in regard to them. Before his time they have no more definite name than " the heretics who reject the writings of John." Epiphanius was uncertain whether they rejected the epistles of John, and Hippolytus had referred only to their criticism of the Gospel and the Apocalypse. The former justifies the name " Alogi " by the assertion that the sect did not accept the Logos proclaimed by John; but the grounds which he quotes from them for their rejection of the Johannine writings, equally with the indications of Hippolytus and Philaster, fail to support this view of their critical attitude; indeed, in another place Epiphanius contradicts himself. His consequent association of the Theodotians with the Alogi is thus only one of his groundless fancies.
Epiphanius quotes a number of their assertions, e.g., that the books in question were written not by John, but by Cerinthus, and are unworthy to be received in the Church; that they do not agree with the works of the other apostles; and that the Apocalypse is absurd in numerous particulars. The determining motive of their criticism can not be made out from his fragmentary indications. If the name " Alogi " and the notion that this motive was a rejection of the Christdogy of the fourth Gospel are demonstrably groundless inventions of Epiphanius, which moreover fail to explain the contemptuous tone of the sect toward the Apocalypse, it is all the more noteworthy that he not only places them in chronological and geographical relation to the Montanists of Asia Minor, but attributes to them also a denial of the existenceaimsin Alombrados of the charismata in the Church. If he has here, as a comparison with Irenmus (III. xi. 9) shows, repeated confusedly the thoughts of Hippolytus, it follows that the latter found in the passage of Irenfeus referred to an argument against the Alogi, although Irenmus's context only requires him to deal with their rejection of the fourth Gospel and not of the Apocalypse. Thus it may be taken as the opin ion of Irenaeus and Hippolytus that these other wise orthodox people, in their opposition to the Montanists, sought to withdraw from the latter the supports which they found for their doctrine of the Paraclete in the Gospel of John and for their millenarianism in the Apocalypse. The rejection of the Johannine books by the Alogi is evidence that these books were generally received; their ascription to Cerinthus, a contemporary of John, of the belief that they were written in John's life time. This ascription need not involve any special reference to the actual teaching of Cerinthus, which, according to the more trustworthy authority of Irenmus, Hippolytus, and the pseudo-Tertullian (Haer., x.), bore no resemblance to that of the apos tle. (T. ZAHN.)
BrHLIoaSAPHl: The sources are indicated in the text. Con sult: Harnack, Litteratur, II. i. 378 sqq., 870-871, 689691, 692, 695; T. Zahn, Geschichte des neutmtamentlichen Kanone, i. 220-262, ii. 47, 50, 236,967-991, 1021, Leipsic, 1890-91; idem, Porachumen, v. 3b-43, 1892; Neander, Christian Church, i. 526, 583, 682; Moeller,ChristianChurch, i. 158, 223.233; DB, ii. 701, iii. 537, iv. 240; G. P. Fisher, Some Remarks on the Alogi, in Papers of the American Society of Church History, vol. Iii., pt. 1, pp. 1-9, New York, 1890.
ALOMBRADOS, d"lom-bra'dez (modern spelling, ALUMBRADOS; Lat. Illuminati; "Enlightened "): Spanish mystics who first attracted the attention of the Inquisition in 1524 (Wadding, Annalm minorum, under the year 1524), when a certain Isabella de Cruce of Toledo is mentioned as a representative of their quietistic-ascetic teachings and their enthusiastic striving for divine inspirations and revelations. About 1546 Magdalena de Cruce of Aguilar, near Cordova, a member of the Poor Clares, is said to have been accused of spreading immoral antinomian teachings and to have been forced to abjure her heresies; and there are like reports of a Carmelite nun, Catherina de Jesus of Cordova, about 1575, and of a Portuguese Dominican nun, Maria de Visitations, in 1586. The founder of the Society of Jesus, in his student days, was accused of belonging to the Illuminati at Alcala in 1526, and at Salamanca in 1527, and the second time was imprisoned for forty-two days (cf. Gothem, p. 225; see JESUITS). A connection between the Spanish Illuminati of the sixteenth century and the German reformatory movement has often been conjectured, especially by Roman Catholics, but without good reason; nor can influence from Anabaptists like Mfnzer or &hwenckfeld be seriously considered.
An ordinance of the Spanish Inquisition dated Jan. 28, 1558, mentions the following heretical teachings as characteristic of the Illuminati: °° Only inward prayer is well-pleasing to God and meritorious, not external prayer with the lips. The confessors who impose outward acts of repentance are not to be obeyed; the true servants of God
are superior to such discipline and have no need of meritorious works in the common sense; the contortions, convulsions, and faintings, which accompany their inner devotion, are to them sufficient tokens of the divine grace. In the state of perfection the secret of the Holy Trinity is beheld while here below, and all that should be done or left undone is communicated directly by the Holy Spirit. When perfection is attained it is no longer necessary to look to images of the saints, or to hear sermons or religious conversations of the common kind " (J. A. Llorente, Geschichle der spanischen Inquisition, Germ. ed., ii., Stuttgart, 1824, pp. 3-1). A still fuller record of Illuminatic errors is given by Malvasia (Catalogus omnium ha:resium et conciliorum, Rome, 1661, xvi. century, pp. 269-274), who enumerates fifty heretical propositions, including besides these already mentioned the following: " In the state of perfection the soul can neither go forward nor backward, for its own faculties have all been abolished by grace. The perfect has no more need of the intercession of the saints, even devotion to the humanity of Jesus is superfluous for him; he has no more need of the sacraments or to do good works. A perfect man can not sin; even an act which; outwardly regarded, must be looked upon as vicious, can not contaminate the soul which lives in mystical union with God."
The ecclesiastical annalist Spondanus records in the year 1623 an inquisitorial process against Illuminatic mystics in the dioceses of Seville and Granada, in which the grand inquisitor Andreas Pacheco mentions no less than seventy-six heretical propositions, many of them antinomian. Like things are told of the French sect of Illuminta (called also Gu&inets from their leader the AbbB Gu6rin) who were prosecuted in 1634 in Flanders and Picardy: Another sect of Illumines which appeared about 1722 in southern France has more resemblance to the freemasons, and seems to have been a precursor of the Order of Illuminati in south Germany, especially in Bavaria (see IrruminrATl).o. Z6Cx1,~Rt.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: H. Heppe, Ceschidhle der quietiatischen Mystik in der kathodiachen %irche, 41 sqq., Berlin, 1875; M. Menendez y Pelayo, Historia do ioa heterodoxoa EepaAotes, ii. 521, iii. 403, Madrid, 1880; H. C. Lea, Chapters from As Religious History o/ Spain Connected with do 1nquiaition, passim, Philadelphia, 1890; E. Gothein, 1pnatiua roon Loyola and die Gepenrefornaalion, pp. 61-62, 224 sqq., Halle, 1895.
ALOYSIUS, al"ei"shins', SAINT, OF GONZAGA (LUIGI GONZAGA): Jesuit; b. in the castle of Castiglione (22 m. n.w. of Mantua), the ancestral seat of the Gonzaga family, Mar. 9, 1568; d. in Rome June 21, 1591. His father was Marquis of Castiglione and a prince of the Holy Roman Empire, but the boy turned away from the pleasures of courts and devoted himself early to a life of asceticism and piety. In 1585 he renounced his claim-to the succession in order to join the Society of Jesus, and took the vows in 1587. His death was due to his self-sacrificing labors in the care of the sick during the prevalence of the plague in Rome. He was beatified by Gregory XV. in 1621, and canonized by Benedict XIII. in 1726. Devo-
tion to him is wide-spread in the modern Roman Catholic Church, in which he is regarded as a model of the virtue of purity, and an especial patron of young men, particularly those who enter the ecclesiastical state.
BIHmoaBAPHY: V. Cepari, De vita bead. Aloyaii Gonsapa, Cologne, 1608, Eng. tranal. by F. Goldie, London, 1891; C. Papenoordt, Der heilips Aloysius, Paderborn, 1889.
ALPHA AND OMEGA (A, 12): The first and last letters of the Greek alphabet. They are used in a symbolic sense in three places in the Book of Revelation. In i. 8 God describes himself as " Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the ending, which is, and which was, and which is to come, the Almighty." The expression is similarly used in xxi. 6 (cf. Isa. xliv. 6, xlviu. 12). In xxii. 13 the name " Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end, the first and the last " is the designation adopted for himself by Christ, who is also called " the first and the last " in ii. 8. If, as is apparent from the context, these passages express the same symbolic meaning, that of eternity as unlimited duration, it is plain that the use of this name is intended to guarantee the fulfilment of the prophecies mentioned in the passages. Commentators have referred, in explanation of the expression, to the use of the first and last letters of the Hebrew alphabet (K 11) in rabbinical literature, though the parallelism is not acknowledged by all scholars. A long line of early and medieval writers discuss the passages cited from Revelation. Thus Clement of Alexandria has one or more of them in mind when he says (Stromata, iv. 25): " For he [the Son] is the circle of all powers rolled and united into one unity. Wherefore the Word (Gk. Logos) is called the Alpha and the Omega, of whom alone the end becomes the beginning, and ends again at the original beginning without any break." As in this passage, so in Stromata, vi. 16, he explains the prophecies with reference to Christ alone. Tertullian (De monogamia, v.) makes a similar use of the name. Ambrose (In septem visiones, i. 8) says that Christ calls himself the beginning because he is the creator of the human race and the author of salvation, and the end because he is the end of the law, of death, and so on. Prudentius, in his hymn Corde natus ex parentis, paraphrases the words of Revelation. The Gnostics extracted from the letters their characteristic mystical play on numbers; the fact that A and O stood for 801, and the sum of the letters in the Greek word for dove (peristera) amounted to the same, was used by the Gnostic Marcus to support the assertion that Christ called himself Alpha and Omega with reference to the coming of the Spirit at his baptism in the form of a dove (Irenaeus, I. xiv. 6, xv. 1). Later, Primasius played on the numbers in the same way to prove the essential identity of the Holy Ghost with the Father and the Son (on Rev. xxii. 13). An evidence of the place which these letters held in Gnostic speculation is afforded by a piece of parchment and one of papyrus preserved in the Egyptian Museum at Berlin, both originally used as amulets. On the former the letters are found together with Coptic magical formulas and a cross of St. Andrew; tile latter also contains Coptic
formulas, divided by a cross which terminates at each extremity in A or fl.The letters occur much less frequently in the literary sources of Christian antiquity and of the Middle Ages than in monumental inscriptions. With the various forms of the monogram of Christ and of the cross, they belonged to the most popular symbols of early Christian art, which was never tired of reproducing them on all kinds of monu ments, public and private, and in every sort of material. The fact that with but very few excep tions, A and Q are found, as far as is known, on these monuments in connection with figures or symbols of Christ-never of God in the abstract or of God the Father leads to the interesting conclu sion that the popular exegesis of the above-named passages of the Apocalypse referred their meaning to Christ alone, and thus affords a proof that the makers of these monuments were indirectly ex pressing their belief in his divinity. The possibil ity, however, can not be denied that in certain cases motives of a superstitious nature may have led to the employment of these symbols; but it is much less easy to reason with certainty from the monumental remains than from the literature of the time. Modern Christian art, less given to sym bolism, is relatively poor in examples of the use of these letters, though they have reappeared more often in the nineteenth century, as a general rule in connection with the monogram of Christ. Full and detailed descriptions of their early use, with the dates of their appearance in different countries, and classification of their employment alone, with human or animal figures, or (which is much more frequent) with other symbols, may be found in abundance in the archeological works of De Rossi, Garrucci, Hiibner, Le Blant, Kraus, and others, and in the Corpus inacwiptionum Latinaru~n. (NiKoLAus Mt)LLza.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: A vast amount ham been written on the subject; the best single article is in Dictionnaire d'arch& olopie ehritfenne et de litnrpie, fase. i., cola. 1-25, Paris, 1903, and contains diagrams and very full and definite references to the literature.
ALPHZUS, al-ff'os: Father of the second James in all four of the lists of the apostles. He is interesting in so far as he may with probability be identified with the Clopas (A. V. Cleophas) of John xix. 25. Of the two Mart's who stood by the cross with the mother of Jesus, one is called in this passage the wife of Clopas; in Matt. xxvil. 56 and in Mark xv. 40, the mother of James, or James the Less, presumably the second apostle of this name. The question how the use of two different names, Alpha'u8 and Clopas, is to be explained may be answered in two ways. Either B1znrds (e8a,e6lras, a contraction of KAe6rarpos, as 'Avrflras of 'A-hrarpos) was the Greek name which Alpbeeus bore in addition to his Aramaic one; or there are here two alternative Grecized forms, both representing 'B~R. Against the former view is the fact that the contraction KAw for Ko G
names is never found else where· and in favor of the latter is the fact that the initial f1, commonly rendered by the smooth breathing or by %, is sometimes also represented by H. In any caseAlombrados Alsace-Lorraiae
the diversity of names need not prevent the identity of person. This identity would make Alphaeus the uncle, and James, the son of Alphwus, the cousin, of Jesus-a result of some importance for the question as to James (q.v.). (K. SCHMIDT.)
The most probable solution of this muclll vexed problem seems to lie in a ground form '0h, the two modes of pronouncing the first letter of which (as in Arabic) would give rise to the variant names Alphwus and Clopas or Cleophas.G. W. G.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. B. Lightfoot, Galatians, p. 267, London, 1890; T. Keim, Jesus of Natara, iii. 276, London, 1878;J. B. Mayor, Epistle o/ $t. James, pp. xvi: xvii., London, 1897; DB, i. 74-75; BB. i. 122-123.
ALSACE-LORRAINE (Germ. Elsass-Lothringen): An immediate "imperial territory" (Reichsland), forming the extreme southwest of the German empire, bounded on the north by the grand duchy of Luxemburg, Rhenish Prussia, and the Rhine Palatinate (Rhenish Bavaria), on the east by Baden, on the south by Switzerland, and on the west by France. Its area is 5,603 square miles, with a population (1905) of 1,814,630, including 1,375,300 (75.8 per cent.) Roman Catholics, 4(16,100 (22.3 per cent.) Protestants, and 33,130 (1.88 per cent.) Jews. The preponderance of Roman Catholics points back to the political conditions of the' sixteenth century, when the territory for the most part belonged to the house of Austria, the duke of Lorraine, and the bishops of Strasburg. The Reformation found entrance only in the free city of Strasburg and in certain other cities and minor dependencies; and much of the progress there made was lost under the dragoanades and through the work of the Jesuits in the time of Louis XIV.Ecclesiastical matters were little changed by the transfer of Alsace-Lorraine from France to Ger many after the war of 1870-71. The The Church of the Augsburg Confession is Lutheran still constituted according to the law Church. of the first French republic as amended in 1852 after the coup d'dtat of Louis Napoleon. A presbyterial council, chosen by the congregation, under the presidency of the pastor, has general oversight of the spiritual and temporal concerns of each congregation. Its acts and deci sions must be confirmed by the next higher ecclesi astical board, the consistory in some cases repre senting a single congregation, in others a union of several-which is chosen by a highly complicated system. Its functions are in general the same as those of the presbytery-to maintain discipline, to care for the order of divine ,aervice, and to manage Church
property. There are also inspection districts, each having one clerical and two lay inspectors. At the head of the Church is a directory, a standing board, and an upper consistory, which meets yearly. The story consists of two laymen and one of the clerical inspectors appointed by the government, and two lay members chosen by the upper consis_ Cory. It has power to review all acts of presbyteries
and coneietories, manages all Church property, forms the intermediate body between Church and government, and appoints all ministers after consultation with presbyterial councils and
Metz, respectively. Rabbis receive salaries from the State, varying from 1,500 to 1,900 marks.WiL13ELM GOETZ.
ALSTED, elated, JOHANN HEINRICH: Reformed theologian; b. at Ballerabach, near Herborn (43 m. n. of Wiesbaden), Nassau, 1588; d. at Weissenburg (Karlaburg, 240 m. ex.e. of Budapest), Siebenbfirgen, Hungary, Nov. 8, 1638. He studied at Herborn and became professor there in the philosophical faculty in 1610, and in the theological faculty in 1619. In 1629 he went to the newly founded University of Weissenburg. He represented the Church of Nassau at the Synod of Dort (1618-19). He was one of the famous teachers of his time, and compiled a series of compends of pretty nearly every branch of knowledge, which are interesting as showing the scholarly and literary methods and achievements of the seventeenth century. The most remarkable were Curses philosophici encyclopaedia (Herborn, 1620) and Encyclopaedia aeptem tomis distincta (ib. 1630). The first of these comprises two volumes; one a quarto of 3,072 pages, containing: i., qvatuor praecognita philosophies: archelogiat, hexilo&, technologic, didactxcaa; ii., undeeim seientim philosophiem theoretiete: metaphytdea, pneumatics, physicaa, aarathmetaea, geomet-a, a:osmograaphua, -cop-, geographia, opticaa, mus%ca, srehitectonica; iii., quinque Prudentice phiWophicm praeticte: ethics, mconomica, politics, scholastics, historica; vol. ii. gives the septem arks hberalw. The second work, in two folios, includes as its first, third, and fourth divisions the three given above, and adds: ii., philologis, i.e., lexiea, grammatica, rhetories, logica, oraatoria, poetica; v., tree facultates principes: theologis, jurisprudentia, medicina; vi., artea mechanicce; vii., a miscellaneous section, prmcipum farraginm disciplinarum : mnemonita, historica, chronologia, srchiteaortics, critics, maagia, alchymia, magnetogrsphda, etc., including even tabacologia, or the dodnna ale nsturs, vsu et abuse taabaes. Theology is divided into seven branches: natturalis, csteehetica, didactica, polemmica, casuum, prophetica (homiletics), and moraalia. He also wrote a DiaatrZe de mille annia (Frankfort, 1627), in which he fixes the beginning of the millennium at the year 1694.(E. F. KARL MfLER.) BIBLIOGRAPHY: F. W. E. Roth, in Monatshefte der Comeniue-
QeadIachaft, 1895, pp. 29 sqq·; H. F. Criegern, J. A. Co meniue GIs Theolop, pp. 365 sqq., Leipsic, 1881.ALTAR. I. In Primitive Religion. a. To about the year 1000. Altar not Neoeeewilys Form and Structure(I1). Raised Structure (11). Aeries and Orna Altar and Divinity One mentation (§ 2). (§ 2). Number and Varietieeof Altar and Divinity Dif- Altars (5 3). ferentiated (¢ 3). b. From the year 1000 to II. In the Old Testament. 1300. Pre-Deuteronomic and c. From 1300 to the Ref Deuteronomic 0 1). ormation. Poet-Deuteronomic(§2). 2. Since the Reformation. III. In the Christian Church. Lutheran and Reformed 1. Before 'the Reforma- Churches (§ 1). tion. Church of England (§ 2).
L In Primitive Religion: The word "altar," derived ultimately from the Latin alerc, " to nourish," through altu8, derived meaning " high,"
is usually taken to mean a raised structure; but etymology and history are against this. " Altar " is the rendering in the Old Testament of mizbeah (Aram. madhbah), " place of sacrifice," and in the New Testament of thusiasterion, having the same meaning. The Greek word b6mos indeed means a raised structure; but the possession of two words by the Greek suggests development r. Altar not and differentiation. The Latin ara Necessarily means the seat or resting-place, nota Raised " of the victim " (so Andrews, Latin Structure. Lexicon, s.v.), but of the deity; and on that account the word was avoided by the Fathers. The word " altar " has its ultimate root in the actual purport of the early sacrifice (q.v.), viz., a meal of worshipers and worshiped. So far from the place of sacrifice being invariably a raised structure, it was sometimes a trench (e.g., in the celebrated sacrifice of Ulysses described in Odyssey, xi.), while in the famous tombs at Mycenm there were depressions connected by small shafts with the graves, and generally explained as the places of deposit of offerings to the dead. At the ,present day the African places his offering of oil to the tree spirit not on an altar, but on the ground.
To understand the development of the altar it must be recalled that, as is generally conceded, religion has passed through the animistic stage. That is to say, man in his primitive state might regard any object-tree, rock, mountain, fountain, stream, sea, etc.-as the seat of divine power. His mental processes then led him to approach whatever he regarded as divinity as he approached human superiors, namely with gifts, which he applied directly to the objects of his worship, casting his offerings into fountain, stream, sea, or fire, laying them at the foot or on the top of the mountain, or smearing oil or fat, or pouring blood or wine on the divine stone. In other words, these objects were both divinity and altar.
The best Biblical example of this primitive mode of thinking and acting is in the passage Gen. xxviii. 11-18. Jacob had pillowed his head on a stone, and there resulted his dream of the ladder. In accordance with the mental processes of his time, on awakening he conceived the cause of this dream to be the divinity in (or of) the stone-note his exclamation, " this is a Bethel " (a " place or house of God ")-and he " poured oil upon 2. Altar and the stone." In this he paralleled theDivinity custom of the pre-Mohammedan Arabs, One. as proved by W. R. Smith (Rel. of Sem., Lecture v.) and Wellhausen (Heidentum, pp. 99 sqq.). The passages referred to in these two authors demonstrate that such a stone was more than an altar; it was the visible embodi ment of the presence of deity. The same might be shown in the customs of other peoples, as for example, the Samoans (cf. Turner, Samoa, London, 1884, pp. 24, 281). This anointing of sacred stones is a custom followed by the Samoyeds to this day, and was known in Russia and in the west of Ireland in the early part of the last century. The custom is entirely on a par with the superstitious practise, only recently abandoned, in remote parts of Wales and Cornwall, of putting pins and other trifles in
wells and springs reputed to have healing qualities, doubtless in pagan times the seat of worship (cf. Folk-Lore, in which many examples are given). The Greek and Roman custom of pouring a libation to Neptune into the sea at the beginning of a voyage will occur to the reader as a survival from the time when the sea was a deity and not merely the domain of one.
The stone (in the Old Testament the word is often rendered " pillar," q.v.) and cairn " or witness " (Gem. xxxi. 45-54; cf. Josh. xxiv. 26-27 with xxii. 26-27) were almost certainly such embodiments of the presence of deity (note the words, Gen. xxxi. 52, "This heap be witness and this pillar [stone] be witness," and, in Josh., " It [this stone] hath heard "); the covenant and oath were under the protection of the deity there present (cf. Bail-berith = " Baal [protector] of the covenant," Judges viii. 33, and El-berith = " God [protector] of the covenant," Josh. ix. 46, R. V., and the Greek Zeus orkios = " Zeus [protector] of the oath "). In the Genesis passage the covenantmaking feast, at which the clan and the deity were commensals, followed the appeal to the covenantguarding object. And while the fact is not expressly stated, that the pillar of Jacob and Laban was anointed hardly admits of question, in view of the custom attending the holding of such a feastsacrifice. At least in early times, then, the same object was- sometimes both divinity and altar.
The next step shows the differentiation between the two. The later Arabic term for altar is nuab from the same root as the Hebrew mqzebah (" pil lar "). It has been shown by W. R. Smith and Wellhausen in the works already cited that the ansab (pl. of nusb) were stones, the objects of worship, and later merely altars. This shows a development in conception. A similar unfolding took place in Hebrew practise (see II., below), where
stones are shown to have been used 3. Altar and as altars. But often among the He-Divinity brews the stone pillar was retained,
Differen- an altar was erected, and the two tiated. stood side by side (Hos. iii. 4; Isa.
xix. 19). Then the pillars came to be more or less ornate (cf. the Greek Hermw and the two pillars in Solomon's Temple, I Kings vii. 15-22, which last are hard to explain except as a transference to the Temple of the pillars customary at shrines). That the max?ebah represented deity is now generally granted. The old custom of applying the sacrifice to the monolith had become outworn; it was no longer deity but only deity's representative, and the altar was provided on which to place (or, in the case of fire-sacrifices, to consume) the offerings.
That the altars were rude at first, and that the elaborate ones of later times were the product of developed esthetic perceptions, is as clear from archeological investigations as is the development of the house and temple from the simple cave or booth dwellings, and of the elaborate ritual from the simple worship of primitive ages.
The location of altars is implicitly indicated in the foregoing. Wherever deity indicated its presence either by some such subjective manifestation
as a dream, or by terrestrial phenomena such as the issue of a fountain or of subterranean gases, or by such supposed interference in the sphere of human events as by a storm which changed the fortune of battle, or by aerial phenomena such as the formation of thunder-claps with resultant lightning on the crest of a mountain-thither men brought their offerings and there altars were found or placed. Naturally the tops of hills (see HIGH PLACER) and groves were universally adopted; and these passed from early to late possessors of the lands as sacred places. The one test was the supposed residence or frequent attendance of deity at the spot.II. In the Old Testament: The altars of the oldest code were of earth, and therefore simple mounds, or of unhewn stones (Ex. x. Pre-Deu- Rx. 24). (Were the two mules' teronomic burden of earth, II Kings v. 17, for and Deu- an altar?) Sometimes a single boulder teronomic. or monolith sufficed (Josh. xxiv. 26 27; cf. xxii. 26-27; Judges vi. 20; I Sam. vi. 14, xiv. 33; I Kings i. 9). For the cairn as an altar, note Gen. xxxi. 45-54, and cf. xxviii. 18. As late as the Deuteronomic code (Deut. xxvii. 5) undressed stone is specified as the material for the altar, and the height of the altar is limited. The elaboration in form and material of the altars of Solomon (I Kings viii. 64) and of Ahaz (II Kings xvi. 10-11) are directly traceable to contact with outside culture and the develop ment of esthetic perception and desire (see ART, HEBREW). The locations correspond closely with primitive usage and with the fact that early Hebrew worship was in large part derived from or coalesced with Canaanitic practise. " High places," i.e., the tops of hills, were especially used, and there are several traces of tree and fountain altars, e.g., the Paneas source of the Jordan and the Fountain of Mary near Jerusalem.
Post-Deuteronomic means exilic or postexilic and the history of the Hebrew altar is bound up with that of the Temple. The ef-s. Post- fects of contact with advanced cul- Deuter- ture are shown in the elaborated
onomic. structure and equipment, while the differentiation of the altar of burnt offering and that of incense tells the story of advancing elaboration of cult. The " table of showbread " was in form and purpose an altar. GEo. W. GiLMORE.
III. In the Christian Church: The oldest designation of the place of celebration of the " Lord's Supper " is " the Lord's table " (Gk. trapeza kuriou, I Cor. x. 21). This expression or " table " alone or with an adjective (" holy, sacred, mystic table; " trapeza haere, hagia, mystikg, etc.) is used by the Greek Fathers. The general Greek word for altar (thysiast&ion) is less frequently used and b6moa is purposely avoided. -The Latin writers use menaa, altare altarium, but show repugnance to ara.
1. Before the Reformation: a. To about the Year 1000: As the oldest meeting-places of Christian worship, rooms in ordinary dwellings, differed essentially from the Jewish sanctuary in Jerusalem and from the temples of the Greeks and Romans, so also the " table of the Lord " differed from the Jewish
and heathen altars; and it is significant that the absence of altars in the Christian service was especially offensive to the heathen (Minucius Felix, Octavius, 10; Origen, contra Celaum, vii. 64, viii. 17; Cyprian, Ad Demetrianum, 12). The celebration of the agape and the Eucharist required a table, and it was but natural that the first disciples of the Lord, like himself, should celebrate the sacred mead
about and on a table. When the x. Form religious service was transferred from and private houses to special buildings,Structure. the exclusive use of tables for the
celebration of the Eucharist was still continued. The frequent notices that the persecuted sought and found a safe hiding-place beneath the altar or embraced the legs of the altar as a sign of their distress (cf. Schmid, pp. 31-32, 69-70), as well as notices in Gregory of Tours (Miracw Zorum libm: vii., i. 28) and Paulus Silentiarius (Descriptio ecclesia S. Sophia, pp. 752 aqq.), that the altars in St. Peter's at Rome and in St. Sophia at Constantinople were supported by columns, presuppose the table-form of the altar. The recollection of this original form has never been lost in the Church, and to this day the table-altar is the rule in the Greek Church.
When relics first began to be transferred from their original resting-places to churches, their receptacles were placed beneath the altar-seldom before or behind it, and not until the Middle Ages above it. The space was then sometimes walled up, giving the altar a coffin- or chest-like form. Such altars ass found here and there as early as the fifth century, and during the Middle Ages they became usual. The terms martyrium and confessio were applied to such tombs as well as to the cryptlike space which held the coffin (area), to the coffin itself, and to the altar. To make it possible to see and touch the holy contents an opening (fenestrel7a) was left in front with a lattice of metal or marble (trdnsenna) or two doors (regiolce). It must not be assumed that all altars of the Middle Ages were provided with relics. A canopy (ciborium), supported by pillars, was frequently found as early as the time of Constantine. The material used was wood, stone, and metal; gold, silver, and precious stones were sometimes employed.
It was usual in antiquity to spread a table with a cloth in preparation for a banquet, and this custom
was transferred to " the table of the s. Acces- Lord." Optatus of Mileve in the second sories and half of the fourth century is the first to Ornaments- mention such a covering (De achis-tion. mate Donatistorum, vi. 1, 5). Thence-
forth altar-cloths are more frequently mentioned. Their size can not be determined. They seem to have been generally of linen, though other materials, as silk and gold-brocade, were used. Only one such covering was used at first, later the number varied. To this period belongs the corporals (called also palls corporalis, oportorium dominici corporis, Gk. sindan), in which the bread intended for the oblation was wrapped (Isidore of Pelusium, Epiat., i. 123). Later there were two corporalia (or palhe): one spread over the altar-
cloths, on which the holy vessels stood; the other used to cover the cup and the paten. In time the name corporate was restricted to the first of these, and palla was used for the second. Both were of linen. Among the most elaborate and costly of altar-appendages in the Romanesque period were the antependia or frontalia, which were used as decorations for the altar-front; the back and the sides of the altar also were often adorned in like manner. When altars of gold and silver are mentioned it is probable that in most cases metal plates in the front of the altar are meant. The oldest specimens which have been preserved date from the ninth to the twelfth centuries. They represent scenes from Bible history and the lives of saints, usually with the figure of Christ in the center. Precious stones and glass are inserted. Antependia were also made of costly cloths with gold and silver embroidery, and mosaics and reliefs were built into the sides of the altar. Crosses are represented in these decorations, and stood near altars; they were also placed above or hung below the ciborium, but in the first millennium crucifixes did not stand on the altars. In like manner lamps were hung from the ciboria or stood about the altars, but not on them.
At first there was only one altar in the place of worship, symbolic of unity. In a basilica without transepts it stood at the center of the chord of the apse. The Eastern Church retained the single altar; but in the West the number increased under the influence of the custom of private masses and the veneration of relics. A church in Gaul in the
time of Gregory the Great (d. 604) had 3. Number thirteen; the cathedral at Magdeand burg, forty-eight. After the year Varieties 1000 altars received different namesof Altars. according to their position and use.
The main altar was called the altars majus, capita--, cardinals, magistrum, or principale, " high altar "; the others were allaria minors. After Alexander VI. began to grant special indulgences at certain altars the term altars privilegiatum came into use; a mass for the dead read at such an altar brought plenary indulgence. Abbey-churches had an altar dedicated to the holy cross (altars sancta crucis), placed between the choir and the nave, and intended for the lay brothers. Portable altars (altaria viatica, portabilia, itineraria, gestatoria, motoria) are mentioned from the seventh century; they were used by missionaries, prelates, and princes on journeys:
b. From the Year 1000 to 1800: Theincreasing veneration which was paid to relics led early in this period to a desire to place holy remains on the altar -not beneath it or near it as had been done previously. In the thirteenth century, relics on the altar were a part of its regular equipment. When the entire body of a saint was removed from its original resting-place some special provision for its shrine had to be made, and this led to an extension of the altar at the rear (retabulum). Wood or stone was used, and decorations similar to those of altars were provided. In some instances such rdabula took the place of the canopies; where the latter were retained they began to be made in two
stories, the relic-case being put in the upper one. Many such cases have been preserved; they are made of copper, silver, gold, and ivory, and are ornamented with enamel, filigree-work, and gems. Altars were surrounded with columns connected by cross-bars from which curtains hung. Railings fencing off the altar were known to the earlier time, but were not general. They became more common with the growing distinction between clergy and laity, and as the number of the clergy increased, the size of the chancel became greater. From the thirteenth century, crosses, crucifixes, and candles appear on the altar. The position of the cross and the lights was not fixed, and the latter numbered one or two, seldom more. Other articles which belonged to the altar furniture were gospel-books, often in costly binding, flabellay little bells, and thuribles.
a From 1800 to the Reformation: The ciborium altar lasted through the period of Romanesque art and even defied the influence of the Gothic. In France the retabulum was retained till toward 1400, but in Germany before that time it gave way to higher structures built upon the altar. The tendency to regard such additions as mere receptacles for the relic-cases disappeared. The holy remains were again placed within the altar, or, if retained upon it, filled only a subordinate part. Wood came to be more generally used as material. Doors were provided for the shrine. Later both shrine and doors were set upon a pedestal (predellu), which after 1475 became an integral part of the altar. The earlier altars of this period hold rigidly to the Gothic style, but later more freedom is apparent. Carving, sculpture, reliefs, and painting were freely used as decoration.2. Since the Reformation: The Reformed Churches undertook to remove all accessories of medieval worship, including the altar, for which they substituted a simple table. The Lutheran churches, however, aiming merely to do away with that which was contrary to Scripture, opposed only the con ception of the " ° table of the Lord " as a sacrificial altar. The secondary altars were no longer used, but were not always removed from z. Lutheran the churches. The high altar was and generally reserved for the celebration Reformed of the Lord's Supper, the relic-cases Churches. with the monstrance and host being removed, and the decorations with the crucifixes and lights, and the antependia and the like being retained. The relics beneath the altar were sometimes merely covered over, not disturbed. New altars built for evangelical churches during the first half of the sixteenth century fol lowed the general plan and structure of those al ready existing. In the paintings Bible scenes or events of the Reformation took the place of inci dents in saints' lives. Portraits of founders and their families were introduced. The general form and structure were made subordinate to the paint ings,. but in the latter half of the century the archi tectural features sometimes obscured the paintings. During the baroco period altars and all church furniture shared in the generally depraved taste of the time. From the middle of the seventeenth
century the pulpit began to be placed behind the altar, and elevated above it, and then the organ and choir were placed above the pulpit. The result was to dwarf and degrade the altar, and the tasteless pictures and other decorations of the time do not diminish the displeasing effect. The nineteenth century brought a return to the early Christian and Gothic forms. The altars of the latest time are marked by eclecticism and by a striving after novelty which often mixes discrepant elements.(NIKOLAUS MULLER.)
In the Church of England, after the Reformation much stress was laid by many Reformers on bringing the altar down into the body of the church and designating it as the "Holy Table," the name
which it nearly always bears in the The Prayer-book. By the eighteenth cen-Church of tury it had usually assumed the Ahape England. of a small table, frequently concealed from sight by the immense structure of pulpit and reading-desk in front of it; but with the Tractarian and Ritualist movements of the nineteenth century and the increasing frequency and reverence of the celebration of the Eucharist, it gradually resumed its former shape and dignity. In the American Episcopal Church this change was productive of bitter controversy, and about 1850 the retention of a table with legs was considered a sign of unimpeachable Protestant orthodoxy.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: On primitive altars, besides the works mentioned in the text, consult: C. Maurer, De aris Grmcorum plurs'bus deis in commune positis, Darmstadt. 1885; R B. Tylor, Early Hint. of Mankind, London, 1878; idem, Hist, of Civilization, ib. 1891; J. G. Fraser, Golden Bough, 3 vole., ib.1900. On Jewish altars: P. Seholte. G6tsendiewt undZaubaoeaen, Regensburg, 1865; C.-Piepenbring, Histoire des lieuz de culte et du sacerdoce en Israel, in RHR, a3av. (1891)10, 133-186; Bensinger, Archdolopie, § 52; Nowaok, Archdologie, ii., ¢ § 73 eqq.; A. van Hoonacker, Ls lieu du cults dons la l4gielation ritualle des Hebrew, 1894; A. F. von Gall, Altisraelitische Kultsttitte, in ZATW, iii. (1898). On Christian altars: J. Pocklington, Altare Chris0anum, London, 1637; Sven Bring, Diseertatio hisforica de fundatione et dotatione altarium, ib. 1751; J. Blaekburne, A Brie/ Historical Inquiry into the Introduction o/ Stone Altars into the Christian Church, Cambridge, 1844; On the Hitt. of Christian Altars, published by the Cambridge Camden Society, 1845; M. Meurer, Altarschmuck, Leipsie, 1867; A. Schmid, Der chrisaichs Altar and rein Schmuck, Ratisbon, 1871; Charles Rohault de Fleury, La Messe, Etudes archhologiques cur see monuments, 8 vole., Paris, 1883-89 (the most comprehensive collection of the material, with illustrations, to the close of the Romanesque period); E. U. A. Monsenberger and S. Beisel, Zur Kenntnus and Wiirdigung der mittelalterlichsn Altars Deutschlands, 2 vole., Frankfort, 1885-1901; V. State, Gothische Altnre, Berlin, 1886; A. Hartel, Altars and Kan816r des Minelalters and der Neweit, Berlin, 1892; N. Moller, Ueber das deutach-evangeiische Kirchsnpebllude im Yahrhundert der Reformation, Leipsic, 1895; H. D. M. Spence, White Robe of Churches, pp. 210-243, New York, 1900; E. Bishop, History of the Christian Altar, London, 1906. Consult also works on Christian archeology and Christian art, especially Christian architecture.
ALTAR-BREAD: The bread used in .the Roman Catholic and Greek churches in the Sacrament of the Eucharist. It is made from pure wheaten flour, m xed with water, and baked, all conditions being regulated by strict law. The Council of Florence, to meet the contention of Michael Caerularius that the Latins did not possess the Eucharist because of their use of unfermented bread, defined that either kind may be validly employed. Never-
theless, it is unlawful to-day for a Latin priest to use fermented, or for a Greek priest, except in the Armenian and Maronite rites, to use unfermented bread. The practise of the Greeks has always been the same, but in the Western Church both fermented and unfermented bread were employed down to the ninth century. The altar-bread is also called a host, because of the victim whom the sacramental species are destined to conceal. In the Latin Church the host is circular in form, bearing an image of the crucifixion or the letters I. H. S., and is of two sizes; the larger is consumed by the celebrant or preserved for solemn exposition, and the smaller given to the people in communion. The name " particles " given to the smaller hosts recalls the fact that down to the eleventh century communion was distributed to the faithful by breaking off portions of a large bread consecrated by the celebrant. The large host of the Greeks is rectangular in shape, and the small host triangular. Great care is taken in the preparation of altar-breads, many synodal enactments providing that it shall be committed only to clerics or to women in religious communities.JoHx T. CREAGH.
ALTAR-CARDS: Three cards, containing certain prayers of the mass, placed on the altar in Roman Catholic churches, the central card being larger than those placed at either end. Their introduction dates from the sixteenth century, when the middle card began to be employed as an aid to the memory of the celebrant and to relieve him from the necessity of continually referring to the missal. When the reading of the beginning of St. John's Gospel was prescribed, the card on the Gospel side was added, and later, to make the arrangement appear symmetrical, the third card came into use. In masses celebrated by a bishop, the practise anterior to the sixteenth century is maintained by the substitution of a book called the canon, from which are read the prayers usually printed on altar-cards. Since most of these prayers are to be said secretly or inaudibly, altar-cards are sometimes called secret-cards. JOHN T. CREAGH.ALTAR-CLOTHS. See ALTAR, III., 1, a, § 2.
ALTENBURG, COLLOQUY OF. See PHILIPPI$T
ALTENSTEIN, al"ten-stain', KARL FREIHERR VON STEIN ZUM: German statesman,. first minister of public worship in Prussia (1817-40); b. at Anabach (20 m. w.s.w. of Nuremberg), Bavaria, Oct. 1, 1770; d. in Berlin May 14, 1840. He lost his father at the age of nine, and to the fact that his character was formed under the influence of his mother has been attributed his incapacity in after-life for making thoroughgoing and clearcut decisions. He was educated in his birthplace and at the universities of Erlangen and Gdttingen, where he studied law primarily, but found plenty of time for researches in philosophy, especially the philosophy of religion, and the natural sciences. In 1793 he received a minor legal appointment at Anebach, which in the mean time had become Prussian. Here he was under Hardenberg, who recognized his ability and had him transferred to
Berlin in 1799. At the capital he gained the reputation of an authority in financial matters, and was made a privy councilor in the financial department in 1803, succeeding Stein as minister of finance in 1808. Unable to cope with the almost impossible task of satisfying the demands of Napoleon, he retired in 1810. Hardenberg, who had been compelled to join in overthrowing him, tried three years later to bring him back to public life, and in 1817 secured his appointment as head of the newly founded ministry of public worship, education, and medicine. These important branches of public administration had until then formed departments of the ministry of the interior, and had been badly managed.Altenstein took up religious questions as a man who understood and cared for them, though his Christianity had a decidedly rationalistic tinge. Dif ficulties of many kinds beset him during his long tenure of office, arising partly from the determined and obstinate character of his sovereign and partly from demagogic opposition, as well as from the great Halle controversy of 1830 and from the vexed question of the Catholic attitude in regard to mixed marriages. When, in 1824, without his knowledge, the direction of education was taken from Nicolo vius and given to Von Kamptz, Altenstein was on the verge of resigning his post, but he decided that it was hisduty to remain. One of the great achieve ments of his administration was the systematic improvement to a remarkable extent of primary and secondary education. (F. BossE.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Freiherr von Stein, in Deutede Revue, vol. vii., 1882; H. Treitschke, Deutsche Geerhichte in 19. Jahrhundert, Leipsic, 1882; ADS, vol. zaxvi.
ALTHAMER, al'thcm"er, AM)?REAS (sometimes known by the Greek form of his name, Palaiosphyra): German Reformer; b. in the village of Brenz, near Gundelfingen (28 m. n.w. of Augsburg), Wiirttemberg, c. 1500; d. at Ansbach, probably in 1519. He studied at Leipsic and Tilbingen. In 1524 he is found settled as priest at Gm0nd in Swabia, where he was the leader of the evangelical party, and he remained there after he had been deposed and had married. He escaped with difficulty in the reaction of the Swabian League, and fled to Wittenberg, remaining there nine months and proceeding to Nuremberg in the summer of 1526. His Lutheran convictions were now mature, and he maintained a constant literary activity against both the Zwingliane and the Roman Catholics. He was pastor at Eltersdorf, near Erlangen, in 1527, deacon at St. Sebaldus's, Nuremberg, in 1528; he took part as an ardent Lutheran in the disputation at Bern, and in the same year was called to Ansbach to assist in spreading the Reformation in Brandenburg. In November he published a complete catechism, remarkable not only for the clearness and precision of its teaching, but also as being the first work of the kind to take the title of catechism. For the next few years he was the soul of the Protestant party in that part of Germany, and by his untiring energy and gifts of organization did much in the development there of the evangelical religion. Of his theological works may be mentioned his Annotationes in Jacobi
Epistolam (Strasburg, 1527), which carried still further Luther's views of that epistle, though it was modified in the edition of 1533. His notes on the Germania of Tacitus, published in complete form 1536, have preserved his fame as a classical scholar even where the Reformer has been forgotten.(T. KOLDE.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: T. Kolde, Andreas Attharner, der Humanist and Refornaator in Brandenburp-Anabach, Erlangen, 1895 (contains a reprint of his catechism).
ALTHAUS, PAUL: German Protestant; b: at Fallersleben (17 m. n.e. of Brunswick) Dec. 29, 1861. He was educated at the universities of Eflangen and G6ttingen, and held various pastorates from 1887 to 1897, when he was appointed associate professor of practical and systematic theology at the University of Gottingen, becoming full professor two years later. He has written Die historische and dogmatische Grundlage der lutherischen Tauftiturgie (Hanover, 1893) and Die Heilsbedeutung der Taufe im Neuen Testament (Giitersloh, 1897).
ALTING, JOHANN HEINRICH: Reformed theologian; b. at Emden (70 m. w.n.w. of Bremen), East Friesland, Feb. 17, 1583; d. at Groningen (92 m. n.e. of Amsterdam) Aug. 25, 1644. He studied at Groningen and Herborn, acted as tutor for several German princes, and traveled as far as England. In 1613 he became professor of dogmatics at Heidelberg, and in 1616 director of the seminary in the Collegium Sapientite. Leaving Heidelberg because of the disturbances of the Thirty Years' war, he went to Holland, and in 1627 was appointed professor at Groningen. He was one of the delegates from the Palatinate to the Synod of Dort (1618-19) and was a decided but Biblical predestinarian. He collaborated on the Dutch Bible version. He published nothing during his lifetime; after his death his son, Jacob Alting (b. at Heidelberg 1618; d. at Groningen, where he was professor of Hebrew, 1679) published several of his works, the most noteworthy being the Theologia historica (Amsterdam, 1664), a pioneer work on the history of doctrine. (E. F. KARL MtLLER.)
ALTMANN, 81t'man: Bishop of Passau 106591; d. at Zeiselmauer (12 m. n.w. of Vienna), Lower Austria, Aug. 8, 1091. A Westphalian of noble birth, he became first a student and then head of the school of Paderborn. Later he was provost of Aachen, then chaplain to Henry III., after whose death he was attached to the household of the Empress Agnes. In 1064 he made the pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and was chosen bishop of Passau before his return. He adhered steadfastly to Gregory VII. in his conflict with Henry IV., and was the first of the German bishops to proclaim against the king the sentence of excommunication which had been pronounced in Rome. He allied himself with the South German princes, and acted as papal legate in the assemblies at Uhn and Tribur in the autumn of 1076. Rudolf of Swabia had no more faithful partizan. As a result of thin attitude, Altmann had to leave his diocese, which suffered severely (1077-78) from Henry's resentment. He went to Rome early in 1079, and was there whennary. The pope did not see his way to do this, ~ possession of it in 816) and lived some time longer but he called Amahtrius's attention to the Roman as head of a monastery. His writings are a short L-10
BIBLIOGRAPHY: His life, by an anonymous author of the twelfth century, ed. W. Wattenbach, is in MGH, Script., xii. (1856) 226-243; another life by Rupert, abbot of Gottweig (d. 1199), is in MPL, cxlviu.; and there are modern lives by T. Wiedemann, Augsburg, 1851, J. Sttlla. Vienna, 1853, and A. Linsenmeyer, Passau, 1891. Consult C. Mirbt, Die Publiiiatik im Zeitalter Gregors VII., Le'psic, 1894; W. Martens, Gregor VII., ib. 1894; Hauck, KD, iii. 341.ALTMANN, WILHELM: German librarian and historian; b. at Adelnau (65 m. s.e. of Posen) Apr. 4, 1862. He was educated at the universities of Breslau, Marburg, and Berlin (Ph.D., 1885), and was librarian successively at Breslau (1886 89), Greifswald (1889-1900), and Berlin (1900-06), being appointed chief librarian of the musical col lection in the Royal Library of Berlin in 1906. In theology his position is liberal. He has written Wahl Albrechts 11. zum r6mischen Konig (Berlin, 1886); Der Rbmerzug Ludwigs des Baiem (1886); Studien zu Eberhart Windecke (1891); Die Urkun den Kaiser Sigismunds (2 vols., Innsbruck, 1896-99); and Richard W agners Brie f e mach Zeit f olgung urul Inhalt (Leipsic, 1905). He has also edited, among other works, Acta N. Gromis (Breslau, 1890); Ausgewahite Urkunden zur Erlduterung der Ver fassungsgeschiehte Deutschlands im Afittetalter (Ber lin, 1891; in collaboration with E. Bernheim); and Eberhart Windejjes Denkwurdigkeiten zur Geschichte des Zeitallers Kaiser Sigismunds (1893).
ALTRUIST COMMUNITY. See Conmulvlsm, II., 2. ALUMBRADOS. See ALOMBRADG8.ALUMYATE: A term used to denote the po sition of a student in an episcopal or papal semi nary. In order to enter such an institution the candidate must be capable of receiving orders and have the express intention o£ taking them. The seminarist receives the privileges of the clerical state as soon as he is tonsured, even before ordina tion. The alumni of the seminaries and colleges for the training of missionaries have special priv ileges, on condition that when they enter the college they solemnly swear not to join any religious order, but as secular priests to devote their whole lives to missionary work, under the general direction of the Propaganda, to which they are required to make annual reports. (E. FRIEDBERG.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: P. Hinschius, Kirchsnrecht, iv. 503 sqq. 517, Berlin, 1888; O. Meier, Die Propapaada, i. 73 sqq., 225 eqq., Gottingen, 1852.ALVAR OF CORDOVA (called also Paul Alvar):
Spanish Christian champion against the Mohammedans; b. about 800; d. about 861. His ancestors appear to have been Jews, and his family was wealthy. He lived, highly esteemed, upon an inherited estate near Cordova, where he was educated with his lifelong friend Euloaus (q.v.) by the abbot Spemindeo (d. before 852), author of a work against Islam and of a glorification of two Christian brothers who suffered martyrdom under Abd al-Rahman II. From this teacher Alvar and his fellow pupil imbibed a feeling of hatred toward the Mohammedans. Spanish Christians at the time were filled with a fanatical longing for martyrdom and found an easy way to the attainment of their desire by publicly reviling Mohammed, which was forbidden under the penalty of death. Alvar encouraged such proceedings, while Eulogius, after some hesitation, became the soul of the movement. In Alvar's chief work, the IndicOus luminostt8 (854), he undertakes to prove that Mohammed was a precursor of Antichrist and that it was therefore permissible to revile him. That he did not himself seek a martyr's death is explained by the often-repeated assertion of Eulogius, that only such should sacrifice themselves as were ripe for eternal life through personal holiness. The movement died out after Eulogius had suffered (859), and Alvar then wrote his friend's life in a strain of extravagant glorification. His last and most mature work was a Confessio, imitated (but not slavishly) from the Oratio pro correptione vine of Isidore of Seville; in mystico-contemplative form it expresses deep contrition and the longing for salvation. A few of Alvar's Latin poems have been preserved, and a Inter scintillarum, a sort of Christian ethics in the form of a collection of quo-. tations from Biblical and ecclesiastical writers, is ascribed to him with probability by a Gothic manuscript of Madrid (cf. MPL, xc. 94-95). His works are in MPL, exv., exxi.BIBLIOGRAPHY: W. von Baudissin, Eulopius and Alvar. Leipsic, 1872. .
ALYPIUS, SAINT: 1. A saint of the Roman Calendar; b. of a prominent family at Thagaste, Numidia, in the fourth century. He became a pupil of Augustine in Carthage and later one of his most devoted friends, and was converted from Manicheanism by him. He preceded Augustine to Rome to study law and was assessor there to the court of the Italian treasury. When Augustine went to Milan, Alypius accompanied him, attended the preaching of Ambrose, was converted to Christianity, and baptized with Augustine on Easter, 387. With Augustine he returned to Africa and lived with him at Thagaste till in 391 Augustine became bishop of Hippo and Alypius abbot of a monastery at. Thagaste. In 394 he became bishop of Thagaste and survived Augustine. His day is Aug. 15. He is mentioned many times in Augustine's " Confessions" (v'i. 7-16 and elsewhere), and several of Augustine's letters to him have been preserved.
2. A saint of the Greek Calendar; b. at Adrianople about 550. In imitation of Simeon he stood upon a pillar, hence was called The Stylite. He
is said to have died at the age of 108, and to have spent his last fifty years on his pillar. His day is Nov. 26. See STyLrrEs.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: 1. ASB, Aug., iii. 201-208. 2. $imeon Metaphrastes, Vita sandi Alypii Cionitaa, ed. L. suriue, in De probatis sandomm hiatoriie, Nov., vi. 688-595, Cologne, 1575.ALZOG, ai'tBO$, DOHA" BAMST: Roman Catho:ic; b. at Ohlau (17 m. 9.e. of Breslau), Sile sia, June 29, 1808; d. at Freiburg-im-Breisgau Mar. 1, 1878. He studied at Breslau and Bonn, served as private tutor, and was ordained priest in 1834. He became professor of church history and exegesis at Posen (1836), Hildesheim (1845), and Freiburg (1853). While at Posen he supported his archbishop, Martin von Dunin (q.v.) in his measures against mixed marriages. In 1869 he became a member of the commission on dogma in the preparation for the Vatican Council, and was the only member of the commission who held the declaration of papal infallibility as wholly inoppor tune. His chief works were: Universalgeschichte der chrwtlwhen Kirche vom kathdiachen Stand punkte (Mainz, 1841; 10th ed. by F. X. -Kraus, Handbuch der allgemeinen Kirchengeschichte, 2 vole., 1882; Eng. transl., from 9th ed., 3 vols., Cincinnati, 1874-78, new ed., 1903; it is said that the English translation does not faithfully repro duce the original, being less candid and reliable); Grund-s der Palrologie oder die altern christ lichen Litterargeschidtte (Freiburg, 1866); Die deuG schen Plenarien im 16ten and zu An f ang den 16" Jahrhunderts (1874).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: F. %. Kraus, t#edachtnisarede out johannes Aiw, Freiburg, 1879.
AMADEISTS, See FuANcis, SAINT, oh Assisi, AND THE FRANCISCAN ORDER, III., § 7.AMALARIUS, am-a-18'r^I-us, OF METZ (AMA LARIUS SYMPHOSIuS): Liturgical writer of the ninth century; b. about 780; d. 850 or 851. In his youth he enjoyed the instruction of Alcuin, and Metz has commonly been regarded as the place of his principal activity. He appears as a deacon at the Synod of Aachen in 817, and was mainly responsible for the patristic part of the Regula Aquisgranensis, which imposed the canonical life upon the clergy of the empire. In 825, now a chorepiscopus, he was in Paris for the synod called by Louis in connection with the iconoclastic con troversy, and was selected by the emperor, with Halitgar of Cambrai, to accompany the papal envoys to Constantinople about this matter. The authorities do not relate whether he accomplished the mission, but it is certain that he once visited Constantinople. His principal work (written not earlier than 819) was De eccWiadicis o fciis, in which he discusses all liturgical usages, the festivals and offices of the Church, and the vestments of the clergy down to the smallest detail, from the stand point of mystical symbolism. The diversities between the German antiphonaries next drew his attention; and in 831 he went to Rome to ask Gregory IV. to issue an authorized Roman antipho nary. The pope did not see his way to do this, but he called Amalarius's attention to the Roman L-10
antiphonaries at the abbey of Corbie. He came home to revise his earlier book in the light of new sources, and compile an antiphonary based on the Frankish ones together with these Roman texts; the commentary on this forms his work De ordine antiphonarii. After the restoration of Louis to the throne, the rebellious archbishop of Lyons, Agobard (q.v.), was deposed, and Amalarius was put in charge of his diocese. Here he used his power to bring about a sweeping change in the liturgy, but aroused strong opposition, led by the deacon Florus, a warm partizan of Agobard, who worked against Amalarius unceasingly, and finally accused him of heresy at the Synod of Quiercy in 838. The synod condemned some of his expressions, and Agobard, shortly afterward returning to Lyons, began to undo all that he had done in regard to the liturgy. Nothing is known of his later life, except that in the controversy over Gottschalk's teaching he wrote in support of Hincmar. He is said to have been buried in the abbey of St. Arnulf at Metz., His writings give an insight into the liturgical forms of the early ninth century, and are especially illuminating on the relation of the Gallican liturgies to the Roman, which was gaining steadily in the Frankish empire. To its permanent conquest over the Gallican, Amalarius's work undoubtedly contributed. He is also important from his influence on later medieval liturgiologists, many of whom follow his mystical method, and most of whom quote him extensively. He shows a wide knowledge of Scripture and the Fathers, with praiseworthy diligence and conscientiousness in the use of his authorities. His works are in MPL, cv. (RUDOLF SABRE.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: R. M6achmeyer, Amalar von Metz, sein iAUri and seine Schnftm manater, 1893; Hiatoire uuB. raire de la France, vol. iv.; Ceillier, Auteura aacrh, vole. xviii., xix., Paris, 1752,1754; Hefele, ConeilisnWeachiehu, vol. iv.; R. 8ahre, Der Liturpiker Amnlarius, Dresden, 1893.
AMALARIQS OF TREVES (AMALARIUS FORTUNATUS): Archbishop' of Treves. Little is known of his life, but he is not the same as the liturgiologist Amalarius of Metz, with whom he has been identified. He became archbishop about 809, and is supposed to be the Bishop Amalharius whom Charlemagne commissioned about 811 to consecrate the newly erected church at Hamburg. In the spring of 813 he set out for Constantinople with Abbot Peter of Nonantula, to bring to a conclusion the negotiations for peace between the Frankish and Byzantine courts. The envoys, learning that Michael, to whom they were accredited, had been succeeded by Leo V., remained eighty days in Constantinople, and returned in company with two Byzantine ambassadors, to find Charlemagne's son Louis on the throne. This is the last known fact in Amalarius's life. There is no solid foundation for the assumption that he died in 814 or 816. Certain passages in a letter of his to Hilduin, abbot of Saint-Denis (ed. G. Meier, in Neues Archiv ftir 4ltere deutsche Geschichtskunde, xiii., 1887, 307-323), have led to the supposition that he resigned his see (his successor Hetti was in possession of it in 816) and lived some time longer as head of a monastery. His writings are a short
treatise on baptism, formerly ascribed to Alcuin, in answer to a letter of inquiry addressed by Charlemagne to the archbishops of his empire (in MPL, xcix. 887-902), and the 0doporicum or Versus marini, a poem of eighty hexameters, giving an account of his journey to Constantinople (MPL, ci. 1287-88, among the works of Alcuin; ed. E. Dummler, in MGH, Poette lat. nevi Carol., i. 426-428, 1881; cf. Addenda, ii. 694).(RUDOLF SAH$E.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Rettberg, KD, i. 428-428; J. Marx, Goachichte des Ersstifts Trier, Trier, 1858--82; Hauck, KD, ii. 192. 'AMALEK, am'a-lek, AMALEKITES, am'-alek aits: A Bedouin people who are somewhat prom inent in the older history of Israel. Their terri tory was the steppes south of the hill-country of Judea and the Sinaitic desert (the modern Tih; Gen. xiv. 7; Ex. xvii. 8; Num. xiii. 29, xiv, 25, 43, 45; I Sam. xv. 4-7, xxvii. 8). From Judges v. 14 and xii. 15 it has been conjectured that they once dwelt in Palestine and were gradually driven to the south. Neither the Old Testament nor extra-Biblical sources give satisfactory informa tion concerning their ethnographical relations (cf. NSldeke, Ueber die Amalekiter and einige andere Nachbarvolker der Israeliten, G6ttingen, 1864). Israel is said to have gained a great victory over them at Rephidim while on the way to the prom ised land, and Yahweh then commanded the ex tirpation of this people (Ex. xvii. 8-16; cf. Deut. xxv. 17-19; I Sam. xv. 2-3). Again when cer tain of the Israelites attempted, against Yahweh's command, to enter Canaan from Kadesh, they fell into the hands of the Amalekites (Num. xiv. 45). In post-Mosaic time the Kenites lived in the southern part of the wilderness of Judah among nomad Amalekites (Judges i. 16, LXX.). They are said to have made forays against Israel in the narratives of Ehud and Gideon (Judges iii. 13, vi. 3, 33, vii. 12), but it is doubtful if Amalekites were expressly named in the sources from which these narratives are drawn. At Samuel's command Saul made war upon them and gained a great victory; because he did not carry out the injunc tion to destroy them utterly he was rejected by the prophet (I Sam. xv.). Their king, Agag, is here named, and their sheep, oxen, and other possessions are mentioned, as well as a " city of Amalek," which is not referred to elsewhere. David attacked them after they had made a raid upon Ziklag, and only those who had camels es caped (I Sam. xxx.). Thenceforth the Amalek ites disappear from history except for the notice, in I Chron. iv. 42, that a band of Simeonites (prob ably in the time of Hezekiah) exterminated the last remnant of them, dwelling on Mont Seir. That Haman is called an Agagite in Esther iii. .1 (" an Amalekite," Josephus, Ant., XI. vi. 5) has no significance, owing to the character of the book. (F. BUHL.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. Dillmann, Commentary on Genesis, on chaps. x. and xxxvi., 2 vole., Edinburgh, 1897 (beet); T. Ngldeke, Ueber die Amaiekiter and einips andere Nacbbmroclker der Israeliten; Gottingen. 1884; A. H. 8syee, Races of the Old TeetamenC London, 1891; DB, i. 77-78; RD. i. 128-131.
AMALRIC, a-mal'rik (Fr. Amaury), OF BENA AND THE AMALRICIANS, a-mal-rish'ans: A notable representative of pantheism in the Middle Ages and his followers. Amalric was born at Bena, near Chartres, and toward the end of the twelfth century lectured in Paris on philosophy and theology. He enjoyed the reputation of a subtle dialectician, and the favor of the Dauphin, afterward King Louis VIII. How far he carried his pantheism in the public teaching can not now be determined; but his doctrine of the membership of believers in the body of Christ was so pantheistic in tendency that it aroused suspicion, and he was accused of heresy by the chancellor of the diocese, who exercised an official oversight over the schools of Paris. In 1204 he was summoned to Rome to give an account of his teaching before Innocent III., who decided against him. Returning to Paris, he was forced to recant. Soon afterward he died, and received churchly burial at St: Martin-des-Champs (1 m. e. of Morlaix, Finistiire). After his death traces of a sect formed by him were discovered, and a synod was called in Paris in 1209 to take measures for its suppression. Amalric's teaching was condemned, and he himself was excommunicated; nine ecclesiastics together with William the Goldsmith, one of the seven prophets of the sect, were burned at the stake. At the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215, Innocent III. renewed the condemnation of Amalric's teaching.
There is no doubt that Amalric took up the teaching of Johannes Scotus Erigena, and developed it into a thoroughgoing pantheism. Only three propositions can certainly be ascribed to Amalric himself: (1) that God is all things; (2) that every Christian is bound to believe himself a member of Christ, and that none can be saved without this faith; and (3) that no sin is imputed to those who walk in love. The teaching of his disciples is an expansion of these theses. God, they said, has revealed himself thrice, and each time more completely. With the incarnation in Abraham the epoch of the Father begins; with the incarnation in Mary, that of the Son; with the incarnation in the Amalricians, that of the Holy Spirit. As the coming of Christ set aside the Mosaic law, so the sacraments and ordinances of the second dispensation were now abolished. The sect called the veneration of the saints idolatry; the Church, the Babylon of the Apocalypse; the pope, Antichrist. The revelation of the Holy Ghost in the hearts of the believers takes the place of baptism, and is indeed the resurrection of the dead and the kingdom of heaven; no other is to be expected; nor is there any hell but the consciousness of sin. Their doctrine, that the spirit, which is God, can not be affected by the deeds of the flesh, or commit sin, became a cover for manifold excesses, proven not only by contemporary records, but also by numerous testimonials as to the Brethren of the Free Spirit, who were the direct successors of the Amalricians. (A. HAucg.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sources are: G. Armoricus, De pesos PhilippiAupusN, in Bouquet, Reeuea, xvii. 83; B. Guido, VitaInnocentii papa, in Mansi, Concilia, xxii. 801-809, 988; C. Baumker. Sin Traktat pepen die Amalricianer aus dem An- tanp des XIII. Jahrhunderts, Paderborn . 1895. Consult
C. Hahn. Geschichte der Ketser in Mittelalter, iii. 178 eqq., Stuttgart, 1845; Kronlein, Amalrich von Bena and David van Dinart, in TSK, xii. (1847) 271 aqq.; W. Preger, Gewhichts der deutachen Mystik im Mi#dalter, i.166 aqq., 173 eqq., Leipaic, 1874; A. Jundt, Hiatoire du panthHame populaire au =*yen dgs, p. 20, Paris, 1875; H. Renter, GeachiAte der relipiesen Autklarunp in Mittalalter, ii. 218 sqq., Berlin, 1877.AM"AA SOCIETY. See Colansurllsiu, lI., 3.
AMANDUS, a-man'dus: Bishop and missionary of the Franks; d. at the abbey of Elno, near Toumai, Feb. 6, 661 (?). He was a man of rank from Aquitania, took holy orders in early youth against the will of his father, and lived in a cell in the city-wall of Bourges till he was induced by a vision of St. Peter to give himself up to missionwork in Friesland. He preached and baptized near Ghent. The Frankish government neglected to protect the mission near the frontier, and the hostility of the haughty Friealanders hindered the work. Amandus therefore went to Carinthia and Carniola to seek a better field among the Slavic invaders, south of the Danube. Here, however, he was not successful; and he returned to Ghent, where he founded two monasteries, Blandinium and Gundarum, and a third, Elno, near Tournai. From these the Friesian mission-work was carried on with more success. Amandus was made bishop of Maastricht, and in this position he helped to carry through the Roman resolutions against the Monothelites, and tried to reform the clergy. As the latter showed themselves obstinate, he retired from his see between 647 and 649, entered the abbey of Elno, and worked to the end of his life for the conversion of the Frankish and Basque heathen. He was said to have performed miracles, and it was believed that miracles occurred at his tomb, which became a place of pilgrimage.A. WERNER.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Baudemund and Milo wrote accounts of his life which with other sources are in ASR, Feb., i. 815-903. Consult Gosae. Esaai cur St. Amend, 1868; J. J. de Smedt, Vie de St. Amend Ghent, 1881; Rettberg, KD, i. 554. ii. 507-508; Friedricl, KD, ii. 322; J. Deeilve, De schola Elnonenei S. Amandi, Louvain, 1890; Hauck, KD, i . 269 sqq.
AMANDUS, JOHANNES. See ALBERT oh PRus slw, § 2.AMARRA TABLETS. I. Tell el-Amarna. IV. Value of the Tablets. II. The Tablets. Historical ($ 1). III. Authors and Contents. Geographical ($ 2). Linguistic ($ 3). I. Tell el-Amarna: The Amarna tablets are a collection of cuneiform documents, so called from Tell el-Amarna, the name by which the place where the tablets were discovered is gen erally known outside of Egypt. It is really a conventionalized word, compounded of the Arab tell, "mound," and a word formed either from the name of the Arabic tribe Amran or from a place near Amarieh. The place is 160 miles above Cairo, between Thebes and Memphis, or, more closely, between Assiout and Beni-Harass. The mound is the site of the city built by Amenophis IV., known otherwise as the heretic king Elm-en-ate n, that he might there develop untrammeled by the hostile priesthoods his favorite cult of the disk of the sun (alert) with which he hoped to supersede
all other cults and to unify the religion of Egypt (see EaYrr, L). His attempt was of course opposed byall the priesthoods of all the other cults, and after his death his name was held accursed because of his efforts in that direction. His position in Egypt was very like that of Julian " the Apostate " among the Christians of Rome. The place which he built for his capital was allowed to fall into ruins, not being occupied after his death by any other king. It is this fact which accounts for the presence of the tablets there and also for their preservation. The foreign office of his reign with its archives was located there, and when the palace was disused, the chamber where the tablets were kept was covered by the dBbris of the disintegrating buildings. These facts constitute one of the strongest proofs of the genuineness of the documents, which indeed is established beyond all question. The mound was excavated in 18912 by W. M. F. Petrie and a corps of assistants under the auspices of the Egypt Exploration Fund. The finds made were most valuable, although the site had been rifled by Arabs and travelers. The entire reign of the king whose capital was there was illuminated by the finds, and the activities, religious, political, and industrial, were laid bare. That excavation was the result, however, not the cause, of the finding of the tablets. One of the hopes was that other tablets would be discovered, a hope which largely stimulated the search but was not realized.
II. The Tablets: The discovery was accidental. In 1887 a peasant woman while searching in the ruins for antiquities to sell to travelers discovered the place of deposit within the palace enclosure. The tablets were all taken out, naturally without the extreme care which skilled excavators would have used, were conveyed down the river, and sold. Eighty-two letters and fragments came into the possession of the British Museum, 160 went to Berlin, the Gizeh museum has sixty, while a few are in private hands. In all, about 320 documents of the aeries are known. Some fragments were afterward found in the place of deposit by Petrie, verifying the location as given by the peasants, but adding hardly anything to the knowledge already gained. The tablets are different in many respects, particularly in shape, from those recovered from Babylonian and Assyrian mounds. Most of them are rectangular, a few are oval, some are flat on both sides, some convex on both, some pillow-shaped, some are kiln-dried, others sundried. Many of them confirm by the texture of the clay the assertions of the inscriptions as to their sources. Six of them are the largest known of this species of tablet, measuring ten inches by eight. The language, except in three of the documents, is the neo-Babylonian, closely related to Assyrian, Aramaic, Hebrew, and Arabic, approximating most closely the Assyrian. One letter is in the Hittite language but in the cuneiform script. Sometimes a Sumerian ideograph is used, of which the explanation occasionally follows either in Atisyrian or in Canasnitic. In all but half a dozen tablets the general character of the writing is inferior, showing the work of unskilled scribes.
III. Authors and Contents: With the exception of some fragments of a bilingual dictionary, compiled by order of the Pharaoh, and a mythological fragment, the tablets are letters, most of which deal with the political situation of Syria, Palestine, and Philistia. The most noteworthy are the following: One letter is from Amenophis . III. to Yallima-Sin of the Babylonian Kasshite dynasty, asking the latter for a daughter as a wife and replying to the latter's insinuation that there was no information that a former wife, sister of KAVima-Sin, was yet alive and well-treated. Four letters from Kallima-Sin to Amenophis III. complain that a Babylonian envoy was kept in Egypt six years, and when sent back brought only a small quantity of gold, and that of inferior quality. He asks more and better gold, which is needed at once for a building which he is erecting; he asks for a daughter of Amenophis as a wife, or if not that, then some one whom he can palm off as a daughter of the Pharaoh. One of the letters shows that he is sending his daughter to the harem of Amenophis. There are six letters of Burnaburiash of Babylon to Amenophis IV., assuring the latter of the former's fraternal feelings, asking presents and promising others in return, also seeking help against his " vassal " Asshur-uballit of Assyria who revolts against the suzerain power. There is also a letter of Asshur-uballit to Amenophis IV., seeking presents, including gold for the decoration of a palace, similar to those which had been sent to his father Asshur-nadin-ahi, and promising others in return. Some of the finest, longest, and best-written are from Tushratta, king of Mitanm (see Assxau), to Amenophis IV., one of whose wives is a sister of Tushratta. One of these promises a daughter of the writer to the Pharaoh, but it is expected that a great deal of gold (not alloyed like the last that was sent) will be returned for her. After considerable delay and, apparently, bargaining also the daughter was sent. This series tells too, of a victory of Tushratta over the Hittites, and
might be taken to prove that Mitanni was not a Hittite kingdom. Three from the same person to Amenophis IV. include in their contents condolence upon the death of the Pharaoh's father, for which consolation is found by the writer in the fact that the son of that father succeeds to the throne; friendly relations are promised; two golden statuettes which have been promised are asked for (not wooden one likes those which have been sent); complaints are made about the detention of ambassadors in Egypt; and gold is requested. Tushratta also writes a letter to the queen dowager Ti, asking her good offices with the Pharaoh in urging the latter to fulfil the engagements entered into.
The rest of the tablets contain correspondence from petty kings and governors of Amoritic, Syrian, Palestinian, and Cypriote (7) cities to the Pharaohs, telling of revolts and assaults upon the Pharaoh's authority, and of invasions by the Hittites and Habiri; or they make accusations against other of the Pharaoh's governors, or defend themselves as loyal subjects of Egypt. The most noteworthy of these are a series from Alashia (either a district in north Syria or Cyprus); fifty-seven from RibAddi of Gebal (Byblos) to the Pharaoh, and eight to Egyptian officers high in position; eight from Abi-Milki of Tyre (the name compounded of the name of the god for which " Moloch " was given in the Old Testament; see Mozocn); seven from Abd-,hsba of Jerusalem (the latter spelled U-ruaha-lim, " city of peace "; Winckler, Tell,I-Amarna LeUers, Letter 180, line 25), which tell of a confederation formed by Geser, Ashkelon, and Lachish against Jerusalem, and asking help against them and the Robin; two are from Ammunim of Beirut.
IV. Value of the Tablets: The results gained from the study of the documents are threefoldhistorical, geographical, and linguistic.
The most remarkable result of the discovery is the fact that the correspondence even between Egypt and its vassals was carried on not in Egyptian, but in an Asiatic tongue, and that the cuneiform. This implies that the entire area covered by the correspondence outside Egypt was controlled in culture by Babylonia. This control was so thoroughgoing that governmental
r. Histor- transactions and diplomatic interical. course were nerily carried on in the tongue of the lower Euphrates. The royal correspondence reveals the relations between the court of Egypt, on the one side, and the courts of Babylonia, Assyria, and Mitanni, on the other, consisting of intermarriages, with Egypt as the haughtier power in the earlier period, this strain of superiority giving way later to one of equality. The Pharaohs entered into marriage relations with the daughters of Asiatic regal houses, but at first refused and afterward granted the request for reciprocity in this respect. This division of the documents shows the kings making requests of each other for bakshish and complaining of the quality of that formerly given. Egypt seems the source of gold, and from the plaints appears guilty of attempting to cheat by alloying heavily the
metal which it sent as a present, in one case the proportion of pure gold being only six parts in twenty. The relation of Assyria to Babylonia receives side-light in the fact that the Babylonian asks help against his " vassal " Asahur-uballit of Assyria, who, however, seems to be in friendly relations with Egypt; a second point in this connection is contained in the reference in the Tushratta correspondence to the sending of the image of Ishtar of Nineveh to Egypt, which implies that Nineveh was then a part of Mitanni (see A88YRIA, vi., 2, and cf. C. Niebuhr, Studim . . . zur Geschichte des alter Orients, Leipsie, 1894, p. 92).
But the most important results historically are those which relate to the connections of Egypt with Syria and Palestine. Thothmes III. had carried the arms of Egypt as far as the Taurus Mountains. A period of Egyptian quiescence had followed, and, as a consequence, in the period of the letters Egyptian hegemony was threatened in three ways: first by revolts of the cities under governors who had been appointed by the Pharaoh or by the governors who were unfaithful; second, by a Hittite advance from the north and northeast; third, by the Habiri from the east. The correspondence abounds in charges by governors who claim to be faithful to the Pharaoh against other governors; and again and again they beg for help from him which apparently is not sent, though the news of continuous loss of territory is the burden of the letters. Some of the men charged with rebellion protest their fidelity and make countercharges, but in many cases practically confess their disloyalty by their excuses for not rendering service due or required. The whole situation is one of the weakening of Egyptian influence as its leadership and control slips away under the battering of the triplex adverse forces. The mention of the advance of the Hittites is most illuminating, showing the beginning of the empire established in the century following. The question raised by the frequent mention of the Habiri has been answered in three ways: (a) they were the Hebrews of the.Exodun just arriving from the wandering; (b) they were Hebrews, but not those of the Exodus, representing rather the Abrahamic-Lot tribes prior to the settlement in Egypt which is described in the last Chapters. of Genesis; (c) they were not Hebrews at all, but people of nomadic strain whose exact affiliations are unknown. The first of these three answers is not now supported by any prominent authority; the other two are still under debate. In favor of the second is the single Egyptian inscription (Meneptah's; see EGYPT) which plainly mentions the Hebrews as already in Canaan during the reign in which most modern scholars place the Exodus and before the tribes under Moses could have entered the land.
The geographical information can not be given here at length, since almost every item would require extended discussion. A large number of known cities or localities is named, such as Tyre, Sidon, Bybloa, Beirut, Ajalon, Accho, Megiddo, Kadesh, Gath, Lachish, Jerusalem, Mitanni, and Edom, Other places are mentioned in such connections that the approximate locality is recognized,
such as Tunip, south of Aleppo. Still other placenames appear in the correspondence, the exact or even approximate location of which is undetermined, such as ,Katna and Irkata. a. Geo- One hundred and thirty towns in all graphical. are mentioned. But the existence of these places is made known and their relative importance often appears from the character of the passage in which the names occur. For the political geography of the region and the time, these tablets are of the first importance.The linguistic data given in the letters afford a means of comparison of the Babylonian and Assyrian with earlier and with later forms, and so constitute a standard of comparison in what had been a dark period for both. For Aramean and Canaanitic the data are the earliest 3. Linguis- known and, therefore, of the highest tic. value. These letters show the Sem itic languages represented as differing only dialectically, and as in all probability mutually intelligible to the inhabitants of the different regions. GEo. W. GILMORE.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: H. Winckler, Der Thontafeifund room ElAmarna, in Schrader, KB, v. 1. Berlin, 1896; idem, Tet-elAmarna Letters, New York, 1896 (transliterated text and tranel. in Germ. and Eng.); C. Besold, Oriental Diplomacy, London,.1893; C. R. Conder, Tel-e4Amarna Tablets, ib. 1893 (transL and discussion of the tablets in the British Museum); W. M. F. Petrie, Tel-el-Amarna, ib. 1894 (account of the excavation and its results); idem, Telal-Amarna Letters, ib. 1898; C. Niebuhr, Die AmarnaZeit. d'pypten and Vorderaaen um IWO eor Christus nach dem Thontafelfunde eon ehAmarna, Leipsic, 1899; Assyrian and Babylonian Literature, New York, 1901 (gives tranel. of selected letters). The discussion in periodicals has been very full; consult Presbyterian Review, x. (1888) 476-481; PSBA. x. (1888) 540-569; Babylonian and Oriental Record, iii . (1889) 286-288, v. (1891) 114-119; Bibliotheea Sacra, 1. (1893) 696; Thinker, ix . (1894) 408; Nation, lix. (Jan. 5, 1894).AIIIAZIAH, am"a-za'ia: Eighth king of Judah. He was the son of Joash, and reigned 838-810 B.c., according to the old computation; 797-792, ac cording to Duneker; 800-792, according to Wellhau sen; 796-778, according to Kamphausen; 799-773, according to Hommel. At the age of twenty-five he succeeded his father, who had been murdered by his servants, and his first act was to put the conspirators to death; in harmony with Deut. xxiv. 16, however, he spared their children. He attacked the Edomites, gained a victory over them, and captured a stronghold known as " the Rock," to which he gave the name " Joktheel." He may also have taken and destroyed Elath, which his son Uzziah rebuilt (11 Kings xiv. 22). He next began war against Joash of Israel, but was defeated, and Jerusalem was taken and pillaged. Like his father, Amaziah was slain by conspirators, whose motive is not known. He was buried with royal honors at Jerusalem. The prophetic writers of the Book of Kings reckon him among the better kings of Judah, but the Chronicler ascribes his downfall to idolatry and apostasy from Yahweh. (W. Lorz.)
BIBLIOGBAPHT: His history is in II Binge xiv. 1-20; II Chron. xxv. Consult the works mentioned under AHAB.
AMBO: A sort of raised platform in early Christian churches, used for a variety of purposes.
With the beginning of the Middle Ages, the mention of the ambo becomes frequent. Among the services of Pope Sixtus III. to the Church, Platina notes that he adorned the ambo or suggestus in the Basilica Liberiana, ubi evangelium et epistola canitur. The so-called liturgy of St. John Chrysostom contemplates the reading of the gospel in that place by the deacon. The use of the ambo for psalm-singing is evidenced, e.g., by the fifteenth canon of the Council of Laodicea (341?) which reads: "Besides the appointed singers, who mount the ambo and sing from the book, others shall not sing in the Church." While in primitive times the bishop was the only preacher, and taught the people from his throne or from the altar, in the succeeding centuries the cases grow more numerous in which he commits the office to other clergy, who choose the ambo from which to speak. Pastoral letters of the bishops were read from the same place. The ambo of St. Sophia in Constantinople had a special use, serving for imperial coronations. With all the variety of use the Middle Ages did not forget the original purpose of the ambo. Innocent III., commanding that the deacon shall go up into it to read the gospel, draws a parallel between it and the mountain from which the Lord taught the people. He prescribes two entrances; one for the deacon, the other for the subdeacon. It was considered proper that the gospel should be read from a higher step than the epistle, to show, as Hugh of St. Victor says, that the teaching of Christ is far higher than that of his apostles.
The early rule was to have only one ambo in each church, and this continued in the Middle Ages, except in the largest churches. The position of the ambo in the primitive and early medieval churches can not be positively determined; presumably it stood in the nave, in front of the division between nave and choir. Where there were two, they were placed one on each side against the columns dividing nave from aisles. Sometimes, as in St. Clement's at Rome, the ambo formed an integral part of the screen dividing the clergy from the laity. As to material, the ambo was frequently made of wood. That which Abbot Suger of St. Denis restored about the middle of the twelfth century was decorated with tablets of ivory, and Emperor Henry II. gave one to the cathedral of Aachen which had not only ivory, but precious atones and gilded copper-plates set in the wood. Most of the extant older ambos are of marble, frequently adorned with mosaics or reliefs on the sides toward the congregation. As far as it is possible to form a general conception of their structure, they consisted of a flat base, either square, oblong, hexagonal, or circular, supported by columns or a plinth, sometimes, however, resting on figures of lions or men. Access to the ambo was given by one or two flights of steps, and it was railed around in front and occasionally surmounted by a canopy. Decoration was mainly used on the surface of the front, and was of infinite variety, and frequently of great richness. Especially beautiful are the marble reliefs with Biblical and allegorical scenes made for the churches of northern and central Italy by the artists of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, with Niccolo Pisano at their head. Most of the ambos now extant are in Italy; notable northern examples are that already mentioned at Aachen, one at Halberstadt, and one at Windisch-Matrei. With the development of Gothic architecture the place of the ambo was taken in a general way by the rood-loft above the choirscreen, and the modern lectern and pulpit serve the same purpose. See PULPIT.(NICKOLAUS MULLER.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: R. de Fleury, La Messe: etudes archeologiques sur ses monuments, iii. 1 sqq., and plans, Paris, 188. Consult the works on Christian archeology and art.
Calvin College. Last modified on 10/03/03. Contact the CCEL.