ABADDON, a-bad'en (" Destruction "): In the Old Testament a poetic name for the kingdom of the dead, Hades, or Sheol (Job xxvi. 6; Prov. xv. 11, where Abaddon is parallel to Sheol). The rabbis used the name for the nethermost part of hell. In Rev. ix. 11 the " angel of the bottomless pit " is called Abaddon, which is there explained as the Greek Apollyon (" destroyer "); and he is described as king of the locusts which rose at the sounding of the fifth trumpet. In like manner, in Rev. vi. 8, Hades is personified following after death to conquer the fourth part of the earth. In rabbinical writings Abaddon and Death are also personified (cf. Job xxvii. 22).



ABAUZIT, a"bo"zi', FIRMIN: French Reformed scholar; b. of Huguenot parentage at Uzes (20 m. w.n.w. of Avignon), Languedoc, Nov. 11, 1679; d. at Geneva, Mar. 20,1767. After the revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685) an attempt was made to bring him up as a Roman Catholic, but it was frustrated by his mother. After some hardships and sufferings, mother and son settled in Geneva, where Abauzit was educated and where, with the exception of visits to Holland and England in 1698, he spent his long life devoted to study and the service of the city library. He was one of the most learned men of his time, possessed much versatility, and enjoyed the friendship of scholars like Bayle, Jurieu, Basnage, and Newton. Nevertheless, he published practically nothing; and after his death many of his manuscripts were destroyed by his heirs. A volume of OEuvres diverses appeared at Geneva in 1770; and a different edition in two volumes at London and Amsterdam in 1770-73. They include essays against the doctrine of the Trinity as commonly received, upon the Book of Daniel, and the Apocalypse. He rendered much service to a society for the translation of the New Testament into French (published 1726). Many of his theological writings are translated in E. Harwood's Miscellanies (London, 1774), with memoir; and seven essays are reprinted thence in Sparks's Collection Of Essays and Tracts in Theology, vol. i. (Boston, 1823).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. Senebier , Histoire litteraire de Geneve, Geneva, 1786 E. and E. Haag, La France protestante, ed. H. L. Bordier, i. 2, Paris, 1877; A. Gibert. Abauzit et sa Theologie, Strasburg, 1865.


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