Relation to England (§2).
Church and State. General Statistics (§3).
Anglican Church (§4).
Other Protestants (§5).
Roman Catholics (§6).
Non- Christian Religions (§7).
Missions Among Aborigines (§8).
Australia is a continent and a federal commonwealth that includes, for administrative purposes, the island of Tasmania; it consists of five states, with a population of about 3,670,000 in 1901, in addition to the 172,000 inhabitants of Tasmania. In 1788 Sydney, in the present state of New South Wales, was founded, chiefly as a penal settlement, but the immigration of freemen continued side by side with that of criminals until 1840, while after 1835 the latter class of settlers entered the colony in considerable numbers. In the present Western Australia and Queensland penal settlements were established at King George Sound and Brisbane in 1825 and 1826, while Adelaide and South Australia were settled in 1836. In consequence of the rich discoveries of gold Victoria was formed into a new colony in 1851, and Queensland was separated from New South Wales eight years later. These districts enjoyed the utmost independence, especially after 1855, but the need of union was increasingly felt, so that on Jan. 1, 1901, a confederation of all the colonies and Tasmania was formed under the name of the Commonwealth of Australia. The administration consists of the Governor-General, seven ministers, a senate of six members from each of the allied states, and a house of seventy-six representatives. In addition to this, each state has its own parliament and president.
The legal bond of Australia with the mother country is extremely loose, since the power of the English Governor-General is restricted to a temporary veto with regard to foreign affairs. On the other hand, by far the greater majority of the population recognize themselves as united with the mother country by descent, language, and religion, so that Australia and England are knit together by internal bonds other than political. The import and export trade, moreover, is carried on chiefly with England, which is also the principal creditor of the national debt of Australia. The immigrants naturally transplanted their ecclesiastical tendencies and institutions into their new home, and the religious communities of Australia are vitally connected with those of the mother country as well as with other British colonies, thus further cementing the internal union of Australia and England.
An external union of Church and State was long maintained in Australia, the state finances paying the greater part of the salaries of the clergy and contributing largely to the building of churches and parish expenses until the seventh decade of the nineteenth century. The dissolution of this relation, begun by New South Wales in 1862, brought little disadvantage to the larger denominations, and of the smaller sects only the Lutherans (chiefly Germans) suffered severely by the change.
The following table gives results of the census of 1901, to which figures
for 1891 are added for comparison:
(TABLE INSERTED HERE)
To the figures for 1901 are to be added 1,240 Quakers, 3,100 Unitarians, 22,050 who reported themselves simply as Protestants (the majority probably Germans), 11,660 "Christians," and 24,200 adherents of smaller bodies. The Salvation Army numbered 31,150. The sum total of the Protestant population of the Commonwealth is therefore in the neighborhood of two and three quarter millions.
The Roman Catholics are also strong in Australia, as is shown by the following table:
|New South Wales||Queensland||South Australia||Tasmania||Victoria||West Australia|
|1901 . . .||847,150||120,700||52,200||30,350||260,050||40,800|
|1891 . . .||286,950||92,800||47,200||25,900||240,800||12,500|
Adding 6,200 who designated themselves simply as "Catholics," the sum total is 857,450.
The ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the religious bodies naturally conforms to the political boundaries of the states, although, as in case of the states, unions, either temporary or permanent, have been formed. The oldest and most prominent Protestant body in Australia is the Anglican Church, with a membership of 1,498,750. Services were held as early as 1788, although the bishopric of Australia (includingTasmania and New Zealand) was not created until 1836. In 1847 three new bishoprics were created and the former bishop of Australia became bishop of Sydney and metropolitan of
5. Other Protestants. The Presbyterians, who numbered 427,000 in the Commonwealth in 1901, belong to several branches. Their first minister was installed at Sydney in 1823. The synod of each state and the general assembly meet annually. The Australian Methodists in 1901 were 506,000 strong. After the census of that year, which showed seven branches of Methodists in New South Wales, the union of the entire denomination was effected by the establishment of the "Methodist Church of Australia," first in three colonies, and in 1902 in the remainder. The first Wesleyan service in Australia was held in 1821, but a. Methodist conference was not established until 1854; it was at first affiliated with the British conference, becoming independent in 1876. An annual conference is held in each colony, and the general conference meets triennially, while every ten years the Australian Methodists take part in the international Methodist Ecumenical Conference. The Baptists of Australia numbered 91,700 in 1901, although they did not begin to increase rapidly until after 1852, their gains being due primarily to their missionary activity in cooperation with the larger denominations already mentioned. The Congregationalists, including the Independents, numbered 75,350 in 1901, but can scarcely be considered a united and influential religious community on account of their basal principle.
6. Roman Catholics. The Roman Catholic Church in the commonwealth, with 857,450 members, is divided into five provinces. Although Roman Catholic priests were in Australia as early as 1803, it was not until 1820 that the Church came to a vigorous development with the aid of State subvention of clergy and buildings. In 1834 Sydney became the seat of a vicar apostolic with twenty-five priests, and eight years later was elevated into an archbishopric and the seat of a metropolitan for Australia and the islands, Hobart and Adelaide being suffragan sees, although they did not remain in the province of Sydney, which now includes Maitland (1847), Armidale (1862), Goulburn (1862), Bathurst (1865), Lismore (formerly Grafton; 1887), and Wilcannia (1887). The second oldest archbishopric is Melbourne, which was created a diocese in 1847 and elevated to an archdiocese in 1874. To it belong the bishoprics of Sandhurst (1874), Ballarat (1874), and Sale, the southeastern part of Victoria (1887). In 1887 Adelaide and Brisbane (founded as bishoprics in 1842 and 1859) were made archbishoprics. The province of the former comprises the dioceses of Perth (1845); Victoria, formerly Palmerston, in the north, opposite Melville Island (1847); Port Augusta, on Spencer Gulf (1887); and Geraldton (1898); also the abbacy of New Norcia (founded on Moore River in 1867) and the apostolic vicarship of Kimberley (1887). Brisbane includes the bishopric of Rockhampton (1881) and the apostolic vicarships of Cooktown (founded in 1876 and placed for the most part in the charge of the Augustinians for missionary purposes) and Queensland (1887). The fifth province is Hobart (Tasmania), founded as a bishopric in 1842, raised to metropolitan rank in 1888. Many of these dioceses contain but few Roman Catholics, and were poor in ecclesiastical institutions and churches at the time of their creation. With the rapid increase of immigration after the seventh decade of the nineteenth century, however, and in the determination to resist the propaganda of Protestant denominations, orders and congregations were brought to Australia at an early period, and were particularly active in missions and parochial schools. The most extensive settlements were those of the Jesuits, the Marists, the Dominicans, and the Brothers of the Christian Schools, although the Benedictines were the first to arrive. The most active female orders are the Sisters of Charity, the Sisters of the Good Shepherd, and the Sisters of St. Joseph. Roman Catholic associations flourish in all the cities, and schools of all kinds, especially intermediate, are under ecclesiastical control, while Roman Catholic newspapers and weeklies promote the interests of this Church. Synods of the Roman Catholic clergy of Australia have thrice been held, the first being in 1844.
7. Non-Christian Religions. The number of Jews in Australia is relatively small; there were in 1901 only 14,850, of whom 6,450 were in New South Wales and 5,910 in Victoria. Mohammedans, chiefly from India and the Sunda Islands, numbered scarcely 4,500, chiefly in Queensland. Confucians and Buddhists were not carefully distinguished in every colony, as is clear from the grave discrepancy between the number of Chinese immigrants and
8. Missions Among Aborigines. Polytheists and fetish-worshipers come from the islands of the Pacific, the Philippines, and the Sunda Islands; it is uncertain how large a proportion of this category is made up of the aborigines. By far the greater number of Australian blackfellows have been converted to Christianity by missionary activity in their behalf, although the precarious conditions of life and the poverty of nature in the interior render it extremely difficult to reach the natives in that region, and the obstacles are augmented by their spiritual and moral degradation. Nevertheless, not only the larger denominations, but also the smaller, such as the Lutherans and the Quakers, are engaged in missionary activity among the aborigines. There are, in addition, special societies under the auspices of the Anglican Church and unions of several denominations, such as the Aborigines' Protection Mission, the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, the Free Mission (in New South Wales), and the Australian Board of Missions (in Victoria). The missions of the Roman Catholic Church are chiefly in the north. The number of unconverted Australian aborigines is estimated between 10,000 and 20,000. Several missions have also been established for workmen in the gold mines. The number of those who profess to be without a religion, such as freethinkers and the like, is inconsiderable, the census returning less than 24,000 of this class; to this group, however, should doubtless be added many of those who declined to answer the question concerning their religion, so that the number can probably be doubled.
9. Education. The public schools of Australia underwent an important change in the eighth decade of the nineteenth century, when obligatory gratuitous instruction was introduced into all the colonies. While many schools are still maintained by religious denominations, all citizens contribute to the support of the public schools. The intermediate schools, on the other hand, are, for the most part, under denominational control and of denominational origin. Popular Christian education is also furthered by the Sunday-schools, which are well attended. --WILHELM GOETZ.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: G. W. Rusden, History of Australia, 3 vols, London,
1883; T. A. Coghlan, Statistical Account of the Seven Colonies of Australia,
1891; R. R. Garran, The Coming Commonwealth; a Handbook of Federal Government,
ib.1897; P. F. Moran, Hist of the Catholic Church in Australasia, ib.
1897; W. Westgarth, Half a Century of Australian Progress, London,
1899; Australian Handbook,
ib. 1902; W. H. Moors, Constitution
of the Commonwealth of Australia, ib. 1902;
Supple ment, s.v.
I. The Roman Catholic, Greek, and Armenian Churches.
The Concordat of 1855 ( §1).
Effects of the Concordat (§2).
Theological Education (§3).
Archdioceses and Dioceses (§5).
Societies and Charities (§6).
Greek and Armenian Christians (§7).
II. The Protestant Churches.
The Evangelical Church and its Organisation (§1).
Changes of Confession (§2).
Theological Education (§4).
Financial Status of the Evangelicals (§5).
Societies and Charities (§6).
Minor Denominations and Non-Christians (§7).
Religious Distribution and Statistics (§8).
Austria is an empire of southern Europe, forming with the kingdom of Hungary (which is not included in the present article; see HUNGARY) the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. Excluding also the former Turkish provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina (q. v.), the area is 115,903 square miles, the population (1900) 26,107,304.
I. The Roman Catholic, Greek, and Armenian Churches: During the period of the Reformation, Protestantism made much progress among the people and gave rise to a considerable number of sects, especially in Bohemia. But the government remained Roman Catholic and by force and law freed the Church from heresy and then began to rule it. Long before the reign of Joseph II (1780-90) Gallican and Jansenist teachings were introduced and were intensified by Febronianism (see HONTHEIM, JOHANN NIKOLAUS),and Joseph transformed the Austrian Church into a body which was almost schismatic. An ecclesiastical government was formed which regulated the minutest details by state law, sparing scarcely any department of activity, legislation, or administration. (see JOSEPH II).
1. The Concordat of 1855. A new period began with the concordat of 1855 (see CONCORDATS AND DELIMITING BULLS, VI, 2, §§ 6, 8). The imperial patent of Mar. 4, 1849 and the imperial enactments of Apr. 18 and 23, 1850, laid the foundation of the complete independence of the Church and in 1853 negotiations were begun with the Curia for carrying out the new provisions. The result was the concordat of Aug. 18, 1855, which was promulgated by a bull of the pope and by an imperial patent, both dated Nov. 5 of the same year. A definite agreement in regard to all ecclesiastical matters was enacted in thirty-six articles. The jurisdiction and administration of the Church, so far as its internal interests were concerned, were placed entirely under church control, in this category falling the relations between the bishops, the clergy, the laity, and the Holy See; the education and ordination of the clergy; diocesan administration; the arrangement of public prayers, processions, pilgrimages, funerals, provincial councils, and diocesan synods; the superintendence and giving of instruction to the Roman Catholic youth, and all religious instruction from the theological faculties to the public schools; the ecclesiastical right to censor books; jurisdiction
2. Effects of the Concordat. The results of the concordat, though it was actually enforced in but few points, were especially noteworthy in two phases of public life. The marriage laws hitherto prevailing were subjected to a rigid scrutiny, and by the imperial patent of Oct. 8,1856, the Roman Catholics received a new law corresponding in all respects to the decrees of the Council of Trent, placing divorce under the control of the newly created episcopal divorce court. Seminaries for boys were established in all dioceses,. and received children of lawful birth immediately after they left the public schools, giving them, in addition to their gymnasium traiping, preparation for later theological studies, thus forming places of education for the future clergy. The expenses of these seminaries were partly covered by ecclesiastical funds and partly by the income from benefices. The influence of the State was limited to the supervision of their financial relations and the superintendence of instruction so far as it concerned the State. The result was an increase in the number of Roman Catholic theological students from 1,804 in 1861 to 3,286 in 1868, after which began a period of decline, due especially to the law of Dec. 5, 1868, which abrogated the previous exemption of theological students from military service, an additional factor being the school laws of 1868 and 1869, which made admission to study in a faculty conditional on the possession of a diploma from a gymnasium. The breach with the concordat widened steadily, and the law of May 25, 1868, repealed the imperial patent of Oct. 8, 1856. The former regulations concerning marriage were again enforced, divorces being referred to state tribunals and civil marriage being again permitted. Finally, by a despatch of July 30,1870, Austria abrogated the concordat altogether.
3. Theological Education. The theological training of the Roman Catholic clergy is given partly by the faculties of the various universities and partly by the diocesan seminaries. Theological faculties exist in the universities of Vienna, Gras, Innsbruck, Prague (two), Lemberg (for both the Latin and Greek rites), Czernowitz, and Cracow, in addition to two independent theological faculties, not affiliated with any university, in Salzburg and Olmutz. The course given by the diocesan seminaries corresponds essentially to that given by the university faculties, but they are forbidden to confer academic degrees and the bishop is in absolute control. Certain orders provide for the education of their own members in twenty monastic schools, yearly courses being given in successive years in different monasteries in the Tyrol. In 1895 the Roman Catholic Church had 16,132 priests, the Greek Catholic 2,649, and the Greek Oriental 475.
4. Revenues. In cases where a living has no canonical claims to a definite income, the revenues of the Church, and even the State, come to its assistance. The claim to such an income, either from the property of the living or from the benefice, begins with ordination to the priesthood, but if religious foundations and monasteries desire to give a title to such income to one who does not belong to their own number, they are required to secure the consent of the government. The endowment of the Church has come from the monasteries secularized in the reign of Joseph II and later, abandoned churches, and suppressed communities, canonries, benefices, and ecclesiastical feoffs. It is continually augmented, moreover, by the intercalaries (the income of vacant positions), the auxiliary taxes of dioceses and orders, and, in Bohemia, by a certain percent of the sale of salt. This fund, when the property has been sold, is invested in state bonds which belong to the ecclesiastical province or diocese, the income being administered by the government with the cooperation of the bishop or bishops. It is charged with the defrayal of certain expenses (the cathedral chapters of Budweis, Salzburg, Trent, and Brixen drawing their entire income from it), as well as with the payment of all other disbursements which are not obligatory on a third party. The revenues are devoted to the defrayment of patronage, the income and endowment of new parish, the building of churches, the increase in the income of livings, the salary of chaplains, the malting good of deficits, the support of mendicant orders, the salaries of teachers at the state schools, and the maintenance of theological faculties and seminaries. A second fund is that for students, which is derived from the estates of the Jesuit monasteries suppressed by Maria Theresa on Dec. 23, 1774, and is devoted to defraying the expenses of Roman Catholic education in intermediate and higher institutions of learning. Since the passage of the new school law, this fund is also used for undenominational public schools, since the estates of the Jesuit monasteries are not regarded as the property of the Church. For the value of the livings and the income of the religious orders no recent data are at hand, but in 1875 the former amounted in all parts of the empire to 7,644,611 florins, and the latter to 4,100,375 florins.
5. Archdioceses and Dioceses. Austria is divided into nine ecclesiastical provinces as follows: (1) the archdiocese of Vienna for Upper and Lower Austria, with the two suffragan dioceses of St. Polten and Linz; (2) Salzburg for Salzburg, Styria, Carinthia, Tyrol, and Vorarlberg, with the five suffragan dioceses of Secksu, Lavant, Gurk, Brixen, and Trent; (3) Gurz for Carniola, Kustenland, and the island of Arbe, with the four suffragan dioceses of Laibach, Triest-Capo d'Istria, Parenzo-Pola, and Veglia-Arbe; (4) Prague for
6. Societies and Charities. Austria, like Germany, has countless Roman Catholic societies, institutions, and foundations. In almost every parish there are brotherhoods and societies far prayer, associations of both sexes and all ages, societies of priests, congregations of Mary, Franciscan Tertiaries, the Society of the Holy Family (with 25,000 families in the diocese of Lavant alone), societies for pilgrimage and for the building and adornment of churches, church music, home missions, brotherhoods of St. Michael, political Roman Catholic societies, and general Roman Catholic social organizations with 40,000 members in the single province of Upper Austria. Children and youth are cared for in protectories, kindergartens, orphan asylums, refectories, boarding-schools, refuges, training-schools for apprentices, and the like, while the great Roman Catholic school-union has about 40,000 members. Popular education is promoted by reading clubs and societies for the dissemination of educational literature, as well as by reading-rooms and libraries for the clergy and laity, while Roman Catholic science, literature, and art are advanced by the Leo-Gesellschaft, the Czech society Vlast, and by various periodicals. Countless institutions are devoted to charity, including almshouses, memorial foundations, poor gilds, hospitals of the most various characters, and funds for the feeding of the poor in monasteries. There are likewise insurance societies for the protection of masters, partners, apprentices, peasants, workmen, credit and other purposes of economic nature, but clubs of Roman Catholic students are still only in embryo.
7. Greek and Armenian Christians. There is a large number of Greek and Armenian Christians, some being Uniates and some non-Uniates. The Uniate Greeks, or Greek Catholics, form a special ecclesiastical province with the archdiocese of Lemberg and the suffragan diocese of Przemysl. The Uniates of the Armeno-Catholic rite also have an archbishopric of Lemberg, the archbishop likewise ruling over the non-Uniate Armenians of Galicia and Bukowina. The non-Uniate Greeks of the Greek Oriental rite have a patriarchate at Carlowitz with ten bishoprics or eparchies, of which seven are in Hungary, one in Czernowitz (Bukowina), one at Hermannstadt (Transylvania), and one at Sebenico (for Dalmatia and Istria), in addition to the community at Vienna. The patriarch is chosen by the national congress of Servia, which must remain in session sufficiently long for its candidate to receive the sanction of the emperor, after which the formal consecration takes place. The non-Uniate Armenians of the Armeno-Oriental rite control the Mekhitarist monastery in Vienna (see MEKHITARISTS) and are accordingly subject to the Uniate Armenian archbishop of Lemberg. The Old Catholics have three parishes at Vienna, Warnsdorf, and Ried, and in 1902 built two new churches at Schonlinde and Blottendorf. The Philippones, or Lippowanians, expelled from Russia, have formed scattered communities in Galicia and Bukowina.
II. The Protestant Churches:
1. The Evangelical Church and its Organization. Austria is essentially Roman Catholic, and the number of Evangelical Protestants in the Empire has declined from a tenth of the population at the time of their greatest expansion in the sixteenth century to a fiftieth. A patent of toleration was issued in their favor on Oct. 13, 1781, and the Protestant patent of Apr. 8, 1861, conferred upon them full equality before the law. At the same time the political, civil, and academic disabilities of the non-Catholics were removed, and they were no longer required to contribute to the support of another Church, while they were now permitted to adorn their churches, to celebrate their feasts, and to exercise pastoral care. On the day after the patent was issued (Apr. 9), a preliminary church constitution was drawn up, but one which was substituted on Jan. 6 (23), 1866, canceled important rights of self-government, and from this the present constitution of Dec. 9, 1891, differs only in minor details. The Evangelical Church, divided into parishes, seniories, superintendencies, and synods, is unrestricted in respect to its confession, its books, the creation of societies for ecclesiastical and educational purposes, and its relations to foreign religious bodies. It forms a national Church, of which the emperor may be regarded as the bishop, his prerogatives in its control being distinguished from the corresponding functions of the Roman Catholic German sovereigns in degree, not in kind. His position is due, however, to his constitutional relation to the Evangelical Church, and not, as in the case of the German princes, to his ecclesiastical relation. The lawful administration of Evangelical funds, as well as revenues and assessments, is guaranteed by the State.
The Austrian Evangelical Church is divided into ten superintendencies, six of the Augsburg Confession, three of the Helvetic Confession, and one mixed. Those of the Augsburg Confession are: (1) Vienna, with the seniories of Lower Austria, Triest, Styria, the region south of the Drave in Carinthia, and the region north of the Drave and in the Gmund valley in Carinthia; (2) Upper Austria, with an upper and a lower seniory; (3) Western Bohemia; (4) Eastern Bohemia; (5) Asch (also in Bohemia); (6) Moravia and Silesia, with the seniories of Brunn, Zauchtl, and Silesia. The superintendencies of the Helvetic Confession are: (1) Vienna; (2) Bohemia, with the seniories of Prague, Chrudim, Podiebrad, and Czaslau; and
2. Changes of Confession. While in the last decade of the nineteenth century the increase of Roman Catholics was but 9.12 per cent, the Evangelicals of the Augsburg Confession showed an increase of 15.17 per cent, as against 9.28 in the preceding decade;. and the Helvetic Confession a gain of 6.67 per cent, as contrasted with the more rapid accretion of 9.05 in the ten years previous. In Bohemia the Evangelical gain was 20.06 per cent, in Styria 25.9 per cent, and in Lower Austria 37.01 per cent. In Silesia and Galicia alone the increase of Evangelicals failed to keep pace with. the gain in population, this being due to the increasing emigration from the German districts of West Silesia and the German colonies in Galicia, an additional factor being the immigration of Galician workmen to Silesia to work in the coal mines.
No statistics are available for a classification of the Austrian Protestants according to language, nor are the figures sufficiently complete to afford a safe basis to determine the changes caused by immigration and emigration. The Los von Rom movement, which began in 1898, resulted by 1900 in the loss of more than 40,000 members to the Roman Catholic Church, some 30,000 becoming Evangelicals, several thousand Old Catholics, an undetermined number joining the Moravians and Methodists, while some broke entirely with denominational Christianity. Many, however, returned to the Roman Catholic Church. A hundred new chapels were erected, and seventy-five preachers, chiefly from Germany, entered upon the work (see LOS VON ROM).
3. Schools. Religious instruction is given in the primary and secondary schools by the minister of the parish, or, in certain cases, by secular teachers of religion, either in the school or in "stations." By a law of June 17, 1888, an allowance was given or a special teacher of religion was appointed in the higher classes of primary or secondary schools of more than three classes, and more than 160 teachers of this description are active in over 560 "stations." The Church also provides for religious instruction in normal and intermediate schools, although state aid is given only when the total number of Evangelical scholars in such an institution is more than twenty. National, district, and local school boards are entrusted with the administration and supervision of normal and intermediate schools in each province, and in almost all the boards the Evangelical Church has a vote (at least advisory) and representatives. In consequence of the rivalry of the state undenominational schools, however, the Evangelical schools tend to become more or less ultramontane, and are gradually decreasing as a result of the double taxes levied on the Evangelicals. In 1869 there were 372 Evangelical schools, a number which has since decreased by two-thirds. An Evangelical normal school exists in Bielitz for the training of Evangelical teachers, while in Czaslau there is a Czech Evangelical Reformed seminary for Bohemia and Moravia.
4. Theological Education. The education of the Evangelical clergy is confined to the Evangelical theological faculty maintained at the expense of the State in Vienna. Though desired by the estates for this purpose in the sixteenth century, it was first founded as a theological institute after the separation of the empire from Germany and the prohibition to attend German universities (Apr. 2, 1821). On Oct. 8, 1850 (July 18, 1861) it was made a faculty with the right to confer degrees, but although the only Evangelical theological school in all Austria, clerical intrigues, Protestant narrowness, and the disfavor and indifference of the Liberals have prevented it from being incorporated with the university and securing the rooms allotted to it in the new buildings. The school consists of six professors and two privatdocents; teaching Augsburg and Helvetic dogmatics separately. The course of study is at least six semesters, two of which must be spent at Vienna. Since the formation of the dual monarchy in 1861, which denies to Hungary all Austrian subventions, and as a consequence of the Hungarian legislation and the national excitement, the number of students at the theological school has diminished. In 1904-05, however, fifty-one were studying there, although the meager salaries attached to the majority of the parishes gives little hope of an increased student body. In 1901 a small national denominational Utraquist home was established at Vienna by private contributions for the aid of students without means, and is conducted by an inspector and an ephor.
5. Financial Status of the Evangelicals. In view of the necessity of maintaining their churches, schools, and charitable organizations, the congregations have the right to claim State aid, but this is asked reluctantly, despite the heavy debts of most of the congregations, especially in Galicia. Outside assistance is, therefore, absolutely necessary. The oldest and most generous benefactor is the Gustav Adolf Verein (q.v.) which has spent millions of florins, and which is divided in Austria into a main society with fifteen branch societies, in addition to thirty societies for women, forty-nine for children, and 324 local organizations. This is followed by the Lutherischer Gotteskasten and, more recently, by the Evangelischer Bund (see GOTTESKASTEN, LUTHERISCHER, BUND, EVANGELISCHER), as well as by many societies and priirate benefactors in Switzerland and Holland. The property of the individual superintendencies is administered by committees of the districts concerned, while the foundations and funds of the superintendencies and seniories are controlled by committees appointed from these bodies, and also by the supreme church council
and the Gustav Adolf Verein. These funds are devoted to many purposes, such as general ecclesiastical interests, the support of ecclesiastical officials and their widows and orphans, candidates for the ministry and theological students, general educational objects, teachers with their widows and orphans, religious instruction, charities, and burials. The Evangelical Church likewise provides pensions for superannuated pastors and teachers, as well as for their widows and orphans.
6. Societies and Charities. Societies and charitable organizations are extremely numerous among the Evangelicals of Austria. Women's clubs exist in many city congregations, and institutions for those intending to be confirmed are also popular. Orphan asylums exist at Biala, Bielitz, Goisern, Graz, Krabschitz, Russic, Stanislau, Teleci, Ustron, Weikersdorf (Gallneukirchen), Waiern, and Vienna (St. Polten). Summer homes are provided by the Erster Evangelischer Unterstutzungsverein fur Kinder, while the Oberosterreichischer Evangelischer Verein fur Innere Mission cares for the sick, maintaining in Gallneukirchen, in addition to a house of deaconesses, asylums for the sick and insane, as well as homes for convalescents. The deaconesses trained at . Gallneukirchen find employment at Gablonz, Graz, Hall, Marienbad, Meran, and Vienna, while in Aussig and Teplitz they have been placed in charge of the municipal hospital after the expulsion of the nuns. Closely connected with this society is that of the Verein fur die Evangelische Diakonissensache in Wien with its home, summer sanitarium, and hospital. In 1901 a third house of deaconesses was established at Prague, and a number of other Evangelical homes and hospitals also exist. Provision is made for the dead and their survivors by the Evangelischer Leichenbestattungsverein in Vienna and by the Sterbekasse fur Evangelische Pfarrer und Lehrer Oesterreichs. Educational institutions abound, while devotion is fostered by libraries of various types, "evenings at home," church concerts, Sunday-schools, Young Men's Christian Associations, and young women's societies. The Czech "Comenius Society," the "Evangelical Literary Society of the Augsburg Confession", and the "Comenium," as well as the German Evangelischer Volksbildungverein, the first three at Prague and the last at Teschen, are literary in character. The only scientific Evangelical magazine, however, is the Jahrbuch der Gesellschaft fur die Geschichte des Protestantismus in Oesterreich, founded in 1879 for the investigation and presentation of the history of Evangelical Protestantism.
7. Minor Denominations and Non-Christians. Among other Protestant denominations, State recognition is accorded only to the Moraviana, beginning with 1880. Baptista, Irvingites, Mennonites, Methodists, Congregationalists, the Scotch New Free Church in Vienna, and the Free Evangelical Church in Bohemia are regarded as undenominational, and are allowed to worship only in private. The Jews are now represented in all provinces of Austria, although previous to 1848 no Jew was allowed to reside in Salzburg, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Istria, Tyrol, and Vorarlberg. The Mohammedans in the army thus far have places of worship only in the barracks.
8. Religious Distribution and Statistics. With regard to the distribution of various confessions in Austria, it may be said that the Greek Uniates are found chiefly in Galicia, the Armenian Uniates in Galicia and Bukowina, the Greek Catholics of the Oriental rite in Bukowina and Dalmatia, the Armenian Catholics of the Oriental rite in Bukowina and Galicia, the Jews in Lower Austria, Galicia, and Bukowina. The Evangelicals of the Augsburg Confession are far more evenly distributed than those of the Helvetic Confession, who are centered chiefly in Bohemia and Moravia. Almost half of those professing no creed are in Lower Austria. The religious statistics of the empire on the basis of the census of Dec. 31, 1900, are summarized on page 381. --GEORG LOESCHE.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: K. Kuzmany, Lehrbuch des allgemeinen und osterreichischen
evangelisch-protestantischen Kirchenrechtes, Vienna, 1856; J. A. Ginsel,
des neuesten in 0esterreich geltenden Kirchen-Rechtes, 3 vols., Vienna,
1856-62; Sammlung der allgemeinen kirchlichen Verordnungen der kaiserlichen
kirchlichen evangelischen Oberkirchenrates (published continuously
since 1873); Statistische Monatschrift (published at Vienna by the
Central Commission for Statistics since 1875); M. Baumgarten,
Kirche unserer Zeit und ihre Diener in Wort und Bild, 3 vols., Munich,
1897-1902; G. A. Skalsky, Zur Geschicte der evangelischen Kirchenverfassung
in Oesterreich, Vienna, 1898; G. Loesche, Jahrbuch der Gesellschaft
fur die Geschichte des Protestantismus in Oesterreich (published since
1883 in Vienna); Oesterreichische Statistik (edited under the Central
Commission for Statistics, in Vienna), especially vols. lxii-lxii, 1902;
the Quellen und Forschungen zur osterreichischen Kirchengeschichte
begun publication under the care of the Leo-Gesellechaft in Vienna, 1906.
AUTHORITY, ECCLESIASTICAL (Potestas ecclesiastica):
Pre-Reformation and Roman Catholic View. The vested power of the Church over its members, by virtue of a divine commission (mandatum divinum) in the foundation of the Church. According to the pre-Reformation view and according to the same view as conserved by the Roman Catholic Church to-day, this authority is vested only in the pope and the bishops; so that any others can exercise it merely in their name, as their commissioned agents. Indeed, strictly regarded, according to the sense of the curia, it devolves exclusively upon the pope, so that even the bishops possess none but a derivative power from him; and in so far as this conception of the matter is fundamental to the Vatican, it must accordingly be regarded as the sense which officially Obtains in the Roman Catholic church to-day.
Intrinsically, to be sure, the power of the Church is a salutary and spiritual power even according to the pre-Reformation doctrine. But the commission also carries with it everything which appears expedient in the sight of the Commissioned themselves, with reference to the interests and cure of souls, toward the appertaining regulation of external conduct. Within limits affecting the cure of souls, then, the Church is also empowered with civil functions and prerogatives. In this
respect, the pre-Reformation doctrine distinguishes two sides or directions of ecclesiastical authority: an internal power (potestas ordinis or sacramentalis) and an external (potestas jurasdictionis or jurisdictionalis), the former acting upon the so-called forum internum, the latter upon the externum.
Protestant View. The Evangelical Church, Lutheran and Reformed alike, puts a narrower construction upon ecclesiastical authority, interpreting the potestas ecclesiastica exclusively as the power of administering the word and sacraments in the widest sense of the term; which includes the cure of souls under these instrumentalities, but not at all the external regulation of conduct by the exercise of legal compulsion. The exclusion of the ungodly from the congregation is to be brought about without human power, solely through the word of God; and so this jurisdiction is only an act of verbal execution. Not infrequently in the Evangelical confessional writings, ecclesiastical authority is mentioned comprehensively as the "power of the keys" (see KEYS, POWER OF THE). As such it is attributed not to a single estate in the Church, but to the Church as a whole. The power of the Church is thus committed immediately to the Church; intermediately and for practical operation the persons thereunto adopted receive it from the Church.
Views of Luther and Other Reformers. Thus the Evangelical conception of ecclesiastical authority assigns to the secular powers, or as modernly expressed, the State, a different province in relation to the control of church affairs, from that of pre-Reformation times and likewise that of the Roman Catholic Church to-day. The Schwabach articles of 1528 declare "the power of the Church is only to choose ministers and to exercise the Christian ban," and to provide for the care of the sick; "all other power is held either by Christ in heaven, or by temporal powers on earth." The reiterated expressions of Luther and other Reformers, to the effect that this temporal power has no ecclesiastical jurisdiction and may not interfere in church government, mean consistently this alone, that the temporal power has no spiritual jurisdiction and may not intermeddle with the cure of souls. The matter of control in the external affairs of the Church, that is, what we nowadays call church government, was deferred by Luther even so early as his tract to the German nobility, and at a later period constantly so, to the temporal powers directly; and the same is true of the other German Reformers. In particular, they claim for the Church no manner of legislative prerogative; the Reformation ecclesiastical law subsists rather, in so far as it was formulated by new legislation, entirely upon State enactments (see CHURCH ORDER). Only since the established reformation Church has come to be superseded more and more by the organized union Church on a presbyterial-synodical basis, has the latter, apart from the absolute administration of word and sacraments, been also empowered by the State with the jus statuendi; and this it exercises within forms and limits determined by the State; as it also exercises the right of independent church government according to its constitutional latitude under this organization. In both instances, however, this is done not upon any fundamentally intrinsic ground, but solely on historic grounds; and therefore, in so far as no unwholesome ideas come into play, without conflict with the State authorities. --E. SEHLING.
In the free Churches of Great Britain, in the British colonies, and in the United States, there is no assumption of ecclesiastical authority by the civi government, its sole function being to protect the Churches in their right to hold property and to carry on their work. In many cases church property and in some communities where an income tax prevails ministers' salaries are exempted from taxation. Individuals are protected by the civil courts from injustice at the hands of a Church. Ministers may, e.g., sue for their salaries or for wrongful dismissal, and excommunicated members for malicious or unjust treatment; but even in such cases, the courts are careful to interfere as little as possible with the authority of the Churches. In each religious body the question of authority is determined by its polity. In episcopal bodies much authority is vested in individual bishops and boards of bishops, in presbyterial bodies in synods, in congregational bodies in the local church. See CHURCH GOVERNMENT; POLITY. ---A. H. N.
AUTHORIZED VERSION OF THE ENGLISH BIBLE. See BIBLE VERSIONS, B, IV, 6..
AUTO DA FE (Portuguese, "Judgment [Judicial Decision] of the Faith," from Latin, actus fidei): The public announcement and execution of the judgment of the Inquisition upon heretics and infidels; also called sermo publicus, or generalis, de fide, because a sermon on the Catholic faith was delivered at the same time. It was not to take place on Sunday or in a church, but on the street. At sunrise of the appointed day, those condemned with the hair shaved off, and variously dressed, according to the different degrees of punishment, were led in a solemn procession, with the banners of the Inquisition at the head, to some public place. When the secular authorities, whose duty it was to be present, had sworn to stand by the Inquisition, and execute its orders, the sermon was delivered, and then judgments against the dead as well as the living were pronounced. Next the backsliders, and those who refused to recant, were expelled from the Church and given over to the secular authorities for punishment, and then the procession again began to move. The bones of the dead who had been condemned were carried on sledges to the place of execution. Those condemned to death rode on asses, between armed men, and wore coats and caps, called in Spanish sanbenito, painted over with devils and flames. Not only the mob and the monks, but also the magistrates, and sometimes even the king and the court were present at the spectacle. There were, however, differences in the solemnization of autos da fe in Southern France, in Spain, in Italy, and in the Portuguese colonies in India. After the middle of the eighteenth century they disappeared, and the verdicts of the Inquisition were executed in private.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Exhaustive articles are to be found in P. Larousse, Grand dictionnaire universel, i, 980-981, Paris, 1866, and in Bertholet, La Grande Encyclopedie, iv, 756 - 758; consult also H. C. Lea, History of the Inquisition, i, 389-391, ii, 200, New York, 1888; L. Tanon, Histoire des tribunaux de l'inquisition de France, Paris, 1893. The article in JE, ii, 338-342, is very full and is most valuable for the abundant literature there cited.
AUTPERTUS, AMBROSIUS: Abbot of St. Vincent at Benevento; d. probably in 781, though the date 778 has generally been accepted. He is chiefly memorable for his comprehensive commentary on the Apocalypse, which also gives the most reliable information as to his life. The brief autobiography which terminates it states that he was born in the province of Gaul, and that he began and finished his commentary in the days of Pope Paul I (757-767), Desiderius, king of the Lombards, and Arichis II, duke of Benevento. In this work, for which he obtained the special protection of Stephen III (752-757) against the attacks of the ignorant, he follows the Fathers, especially Augustine and Jerome; his principal purpose is the attempt to discover the mystical sense of the apocalyptic imagery. He is as much attracted by the method of spiritual interpretation offered by the Donatist Ticonius as was his predecessor, the "obscure" Primasius (q.v.), in working over this heretic in an orthodox sense; Ticonius's seven rules [cf. DCB, iv, 1026], especially the sixth, de recapitulatione, governed the ecclesiastical exegesis of the time. But Autpertus added moral and devotional considerations of his own, and aimed at imitating the transparent clearness of Gregory the Great. The commentary as a whole made such an impression on Alcuin that in his own exposition of the Apocalypse he scarcely attempted to do more than make extracts from it. An uncritical eleventh century biography of Autpertus, contained in the Chronicon Vulturnense, mentions a number of other writings-commentaries on Leviticus, the Psalms, and the Song of Solomon, a treatise De conflictu vitiorum, homilies on the Gospels, and lives of the founder and first abbots of his monastery; these lives are poor in historical material, and are really an ideal picture of monastic life as a stimulus to the zeal of his fellow monks. Autpertus's own rule as abbot did not last long. His election provoked a schism in the monastery; he was the choice of the Frankish monks, while one Potho was elected by the Lombards. The contest was referred to Charlemagne through an accusation of treason brought against Potho. The king asked Adrian I to decide, and both competitors were summoned to Rome; Autpertus died on the way, and Potho was acquitted. Both the letters written by Adrian to Charles on the subject are addressed "nostro spiritali compatri", which seems to fix their date after Adrian had baptized Charles's youngest son in Rome (April 15, 781), and thus to place the death of Autpertus later than the date given by the Chronicon Vulturnense, July 19,778. His works are in MPL, lxxxix. --J. HAUSSLEITER.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: C. U. J. Chevalier, Repertoire des sources historiques du moyen-dge, pp. 96-97, Paris, 1877; Histoire litteraire de France, iv, 141-161; J. C. F. Bahr, Geschichte der rumischen Litteratur im karolingischen Zeitalier, pp. 191-192, 293-295, Carlsruhe, 1840; Hauck, KD, xi, 133, 138.
AUTUN, o"tun': A town of France, department of Saone-et-Loire, 160 m. s.e. of Paris. It is the old Bibracte, the capital of the AEdui in Caesar's time, whose name was changed under the emperors to Augustodunum. It was one of the principal towns of Gallia Lugdunensis; its walls had a circumference of over two miles. The few inscriptions preserved from its early Christian period show that the Greek language was used in the Christian community there, side by side with the Latin, as late as the fourth century. The first bishop of whom we have certain knowledge was Reticius, who was present at the First Synod of Arles (316). In the seventh century Bishop Leodegar held a provincial synod there, whose decrees have only in part survived. The first canon contains one of the earliest distinct mentions of the Athanasian Creed; the fifteenth shows the progress already made in the Frankish kingdom by the Benedictine rule. --A. HAUCK.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: MGH, Legum, Sectio III, Concilia, vol. i, Concilia aevi Merovingici, i (1893), 220; Hefele, Conciliengeschichte, iii, 113, Eng. transl., iv, 485.
AUXERRE, o"sar', SYNOD OF: A diocesan synod held by Bishop Aunachar in the Burgundian city of Auxerre, the old Autessiodorum or Altisiodorum in Gallia Lugdunensis, 105 m. s.s.e. of Paris. Thirty-four priests, three deacons, and seven abbots were present. Its date can be only approximately fixed, since all we know of Aunachar is that he took part in the Synod of Paris in 573 and the two Synods of Macon in 583 and 585. It must accordingly have been held between 570 and 590. Forty-five canons were passed, which have a certain importance as contributing to our knowledge of the pagan superstitions still surviving at the period and condemned in several canons. --A. HAUCK.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: MGH, Legum, Sectio III, Concilia, vol. i, Concilia aevi Merovingici, i (1893), 178; Hefele, Conciliengeschichte, iii, 42-47, Eng. transl., iv, 409- 114.
AUXIL'IUS: German clerical author; d. after 911. He went to Rome in the pontificate of Formosus (891-896) to receive holy orders from him, as, he tells us, was common custom at the time. He remained in Italy, perhaps at first in Rome, but probably later in or near Naples, with whose bishop Stephen and archdeacon Peter he appears in relation. It is at least not impossible that he finally became a monk at Monte Cassino. We still possess four treatises of his, which all bear directly or indirectly on the controversy about Pope Formosus (q.v.). That In defensionem sacrae ordinationes papae Formosi, written in 908 or 909, describes the events leading up to the pontificate of Formosus, to show that these afford no ground for contesting the legitimacy of his episcopate, and those which followed his death, to prove how unjust was the sentence upon him. The aim of Auxilius is to prove the validity of orders conferred by Formosus, and the object of the three other treatises is the same. The second, Libellus in defensionem Stephani episcopi, gives not a little information about the checkered career of the Stephen mentioned, proving the validity of his Neapolitan episcopate, though he was enthroned by Benedict IV (900-903), who was or-
dained by Formosus. The third and fourth bear directly upon the validity of these ordinations. The works are in MPL, cxxix, 1053-1100, and E. Dumnler, Auxilius und Vulgarius (Leipsic,1866), pp. 59-116. The Liber cujusdam requirentis et respondentis, in MPL, cxxix,1101-12, is not genuine. --A. HAUCK.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Watttenbach, DGQ, i (1894), 305.
AVA: The first German poetess; d. at Melk (on the Danube, 50 m. w. of Vienna), or a neighboring convent of Lower Austria, Feb. 8, 1127. A number of poems are ascribed to her, of which the most important and most certainly genuine is described in one of the manuscripts as treating of "the life, passion, and resurrection of the Lord, and of the Holy Spirit, according to the gospels; of the Last Judgment and Antichrist, and of the delights of heaven."
A later manuscript includes the life of John the Baptist. Two sons are said to have helped in its composition, who are thought to have been two poets known from other works, named Hartmann and Heinrich. The former was educated for the priesthood at Passau, became prior of St. Blasien in 1094, then abbot of Gottweih, founded the monastery of Lambrecht in 1096, and died in 1114. The latter was a layman and probably survived Hartmann. Ava was a reclusa, but conjectures as to her sinful early life and later ascetic practises are based upon the doubtful works and are hardly justified by these. The poem as preserved is not composite. It displays real poetic gifts and, in the choice of incidents as well as in their treatment, indicates that the author was a woman, with no trace, however, of feminine enthusiasm. The material is drawn from the gospels and the Acts, for the presentation of Antichrist and the Last Judgment from Rev. xvii-xx. The aim seems to have been to present a simple narrative in poetic form of the great deeds of God in the new covenant similar to treatments of Genesis, Exodus, and other parts of the Pentateuch which are known to have been already in existence. There is no homiletical coloring, and moral reflections and allegory are avoided. The separation of the good and the bad at the Last Judgment gives opportunity for a brief but instructive picture of social conditions of the time, which indicates personal familiarity with the sins of the higher classes. The time of composition was probably about 1120. --A. FREYBE.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. Diemer, Deutsche Gedichte des xi und xii Jahrhunderte, aufgefunden im regulierten Chorherrenstifte zu Vorau in der Steiermark, Vienna, 1849; W. Scherer, Giestliche Poeton der deutschen Kaiserseit, ii, in Quellen und Forschungen sur Sprache und Culturgeschichte der germanischen Volker, vii, pp 73-77, Stuttgart, 1875; and especially A. Langguth, Untersuchungen uber die Gedichte der Ava, Budapest, 1880.
AVARS, THE: A tribe related to the Huns, who from the middle
of the sixth century came into contact with the Christian nations -- first
with the Byzantine empire, and then with the Frankish kingdom; but they
learned Christianity from neither of these. Virgil of Salzburg seems to
have been the first to attempt their conversion, and Charlemagne supported
him. Duke Tassilo of Bavaria summoned them to Germany as allies
against him; in 788 they attacked the Frankish kingdom from two sides, but were repulsed on both, and the struggle ended with their complete subjugation in 796, when they accepted Christianity as one of the conditions of peace. The territory thus won for Charlemagne and Christian missions extended from the Enns and the slopes of the Styrian Alps to the Danube. It was divided between the dioceses of Aquileia, Salzburg, and Passau. The Avars, however, soon afterward disappeared from history, probably being absorbed by the Slavic population which formed a majority in their territory. --A. HAUCK.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Schiefner, Versuch uber das Awarische, St. Petersburg, 1862; Hauck, KD, ii, 419.
AVE MARIA. See ROSARY.
AVE MARIA BRETHREN. See SERVITES.
AVENARIUS, JOHANNES. See HABERMANN, JOHANN.
AVENGING OF THE SAVIOR. See APOCRYPHA, B,I,7.
AVERCIUS, a-ver'shiUs (AVIRCIUS, ABERCIUS), OF HIEROPOLIS (in the Glaucus valley, not Hierapolis on the Lycus): A Phrygian, the inscription on whose gravestone is preserved in a legendary life, written probably about 400, and was found, in part, on a portion of the actual stone by W. M. Ramsay in 1883 at the warm baths near Hieropolis. The inscription, with restorations, may be rendered as follows:
I, the citizen of a noble city, have made this (monument) in my lifetime that I might have here a resting-place in the eyes of men for my body, Avercius by name, the servant of a holy shepherd who pastures flocks of sheep upon the hills and meadows; whose eyes are large and all-seeing; for he taught me . . . writings worthy of faith. To Rome he sent me that I might see the king and the queen in golden apparel with sandals of gold. But I saw a people there bearing a shining seal. I saw likewise the plains of Syria and all its cities (as well as) Nisibis, after I had crossed the Euphrates. But everywhere I had a companion, for Paul sat in the chariot with me. And Faith led the way (as guide) and in all places set before me as food a fish from the spring, gigantic, pure, which a holy virgin had caught. And this (fish) he (Faith) gave at all times as food to friends,(Faith) who has good wine, giving mixed drink and bread. This have I, Avercius, while I stood by, ordered to be written down; seventy-two years old was I when it was done. You who understand the meaning of this, pray for Avercius, every one that is of the same mind. In my grave let no one lay another. But if any one do so, he shall pay to the treasury of the Romans 2,000, and to the loved native city Hieropolis 1,000, pieces of gold.
From this wording G. Ficker concludes that Avercius was a priest of Cybele, while Harnack would make him out the member of a sect partially Gnostic, partially heathen, wherein pagan mysteries were combined with one of the mysteries of the Christian faith, namely, the Lord's Supper. The weight of authority, however, is in favor of the Christian character of the inscription. It must be dated somewhere about 200, -- a time when it was not safe to make too open profession of Christian faith; hence Avercius phrases his confession in mysterious language which has a double meaning, yet is easily intelligible to one "who understands." The life already referred to supports this view, being based apparently on a well-established local legend corroborative in many details of the writing
387 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Ave,
on the tombstone. Possibly the author may have been the Avercius Marcellus, a native of Phrygia, to whom a work against the Montanists was dedicated about the year 193 (Eusebius, Hist. eccl., v, 16). As internal evidence, are cited the unmistakable allusion to the Lord's Supper, to baptism (the " shining seal "), and the reference to Paul, which may be taken to mean either that Avercius had the works of the apostle with him on his travels or compared his own journey to that of Paul from Damascus to the west. The inscription is now in the Lateran museum at Rome. (T. ZAHN.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The life is in MPG, exv. Consult J. B. Pitra, Spieaegium Solesmense, iii, 532-533, Paris, 1855; idem, Analecta sacra, ii (1884), 180-187; W. M. Ramsay, in the Journal o/ Hellenic Studies, iv (1883), 424-427; idem, in The Expositor, ix (1889), 156-180, 253-272; idem, The Cities and Bishoprics of PArypia, vol. i, part 2, 709-715, 722-729, Oxford, 1897; G. B. de Rossi, Inecriptiones Christianm, ii, pp. xu-xxv, Rome. 1888; J. B. Lightfoot, The Apostolic Fathers, ii. part 1, 493-501, London, 1889; T. Zahn, Forechungen, v, 57-99, Leipsic, 1892; G. Ficker. in Sitzungsberichle der Berliner Akademie, 1895, 87-112; A. Harnack, TU, xii, 4, Leipsic, 1895.
AVER, HENRY DAMEREL: Protestant Episcopalian bishop of Mexico; b. in Huron Co., O., July 10, 1853. He was educated at Kenyon College, Gambier, O. (Ph.B., 1878), the Cincinnati Law School (1879-80), and the theological seminary attached to Kenyon College (B.D., 1883). He was then rector successively at St. Paul's, Mt. Vernon, O. (1883-84); St. John's, Cleveland (1884-92); and Christ Church, Houston, Tex. (1892-1904). In 1904 he was consecrated bishop of Mexico.
AVIGNON, d"vi"Ryan': The capital of the department of Vaucluse, southern France, situated on the Rhone, about 400 m. s.s.e. of Paris, and 50 m. n.n.w. of Marseilles. .It became the papal residence in 1309, at which time it was under the rule of the kings of Sicily (the house of Anjou); in 1348 Pope Clement VI bought it from Queen Joanna I of Sicily for 80,000 gold gulden, and it remained a papal possession till 1791, when, during the disorders of the French Revolution, it was incorporated with France. Seven popes resided there,-Clement V, John XXII, Benedict XII, Clement VI, Innocent VI, Urban V, and GregoryXI; and duringthisperiod (1309-77; the so-called Babylonian Captivity of the popes) it was a gay and corrupt city. The antipopes Clement VII and Benedict XIII continued to reside there, the former during his entire pontificate (1378-94), the latter until 1408, when he fled to Aragon. Avignon was the seat of a bishop as early as the year 70, and became an archbishopric in 1476. Several synods of minor .importance were held there, and its university, founded by Pope Boniface VIII in 1303 and famed as a seat of legal studies, flourished until the French Revolution. The walls built by the popes in the years immediately succeeding the acquisition of Avignon as papal territory are well preserved. The papal palace, a lofty Gothic building, with walls 17-18 feet thick, built 1335-64,.long used. as a barrack, is now to be turned into a museum.
AVILA, la'vt-la, JUAN DE: Ascetic writer, called the apostle of Andalusia; b. at Almodovar del Campo (16 m. s.w. of Ciudad Real) in the
archdiocese of Toledo, between 1494 and 1500; d. in Montilla (18 m. s.e. of Cordova) May 10, 1569. In 1516 he entered the University of Salamanca to study law, but soon retired to his home and lived a strict ascetic life for three years. Then he studied theology at Alcala under Domingo de Soto. Having been admitted to orders, he con tinued his ascetic life and won fame as a preacher in different places. Through envy he was brought before the Inquisition and refused to defend him self, but was acquitted for his exemplary life. At the age of fifty he went into retirement, broken in body by his exertions in preaching and ascetic practises; thenceforth he addressed smaller circles and devoted himself to writing. He declined a profferred appointment as canon in Grenada, as well as the bishopric of Segovia and the arch bishopric of Grenada. His tomb in the Jesuits' Church at Montilla bears the inscription, Magistro Johanni Avilte, Potri optima, Viro integerrimo, Deigtce amantiasimo, Filii ejus in Christo, Poa [ueruntl His writings were collected in nine volumes at Madrid, 1757; the chief were Audi filia and the Carta& espiritualm (in vol. xiii of the BZlioteca de Autores Espaswlm, Madrid, 1850). K. BENRATH.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Life in Spanish by Luis de Grenada (d. 1588) in vol. iii, pp 451-486, of his works, Madrid, 1849; N. Antonio, BiblWdem H~epana nova, i, &39-842, Madrid, 1783; L. degli Oddi, fire of the Blessed Master John of Avila, trans]. from the Italian, Quarterly Series, vol. xcvii, London, 1898.
AVITUS, a-vai'tos, ALCIMUS ECDICIUS: Bishop of Vienne; d. Feb. 5, 518. He was born of a distinguished Romano-Gallic family, connected with the Emperor Avitus (455-456); his father, Hesychius, was bishop of Vienne, where the son seems to have been educated, probably in the involved and fanciful rhetorical style of Sapaudus, who was then teaching there. In 494 we find him mentioned as his father's successor in the see; and until the death of Gundobad (516) he exercised a predominant influence on the Church of Burgundy, and through it on the civil government. He induced Gundobad's son, Sigismund, to renounce Arianism, and the old king himself listened gladly to Avitus and seemed disposed to follow this example. In the contest over boundaries between the metropolitan sees of Vienne and Arles, Avitue won a decisive victory under Pope Anastasius II (496-498). He was a zealous supporter of the close connection between the south of Gaul and the Roman see which was restored in 494, and did his best to promote the power of the · latter. His political influence was far from salutary; since it was exercised mainly for ecclesiastical ends. His theology was dominated by his opposition to Arianism and other kindred heresies; otherwise he appears to have been chiefly interested in questions of ritual and church law. His last great success was to call and preside over the Burgundian council at Epao in 517, some of whose canons show his authorship, even in their wording. His prose writings consist partly of sermons, partly of letters, which, as was customary at that time, attain the dimensions of complete tractatas. The have
some historical value, which would be greater if we could establish a more secure chronology for them. The most famous is Epist. xlvi (xli), addressed to Clovis in the beginning of 497. Epist. xxxiv (xxxi) is important for the light which it throws upon his attitude in regard to ecclesiastical polity. Here he speaks for the Gallic episcopate in relation to the Roman contest arising out of the charges against Pope Symmachus. This noteworthy manifesto unfolds an entire ultramontane programme, addressed to the senators Faustus and Symmachus, probably at the end of 501. Some of his oratorical productions are interesting, but more important is his poetical work, an epic dealing with the origin of the human race, and a didactic poem. The former is called by Ebert "at least in regard to its plan, the most significant contribution to the poetical treatment of the Bible in early Christian literature." It seems to have been composed in the last decade of the fifth century, and consists of 2,522 hexameter verses, divided into five books which carry the history of the world from its creation through the fall of man (in which Satan is drawn as an imposing figure reminding of Milton) to the Flood and the Exodus. It is much more than a bald transcript of the Biblical text, and frequently goes off into long typological trains of thought. --F. ARNOLD.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The works are in MPL, lix, and ed. R. Peiper in
Auct. Ant., vol. vi, part 2, 1883; also, (Euvres completes de St.
Avit, ed. U. Chevalier, Lyons, 1890. Consult A. Charaux, St. Avite
. . . sa vie, ses auvres, Paris, 1876; P. Parizel, St. Avite, sa
vie et ses ecrits, Louvain, 1859: A. Ebert, Geschichte der Litteratur
des Mittelaltere, i, 393-402, Leipsic, 1889; W. S.. Teuffel, Geschichte
der rumischen Literatur, p. 1219, No. 5, Leipsic, 1890; C. F. Arnold,
von Arelate und die gallische Kirche seiner Zeit, pp. 191 sqq., 202-215,
578, Leipsic, 1894.
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