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II. WIND INSTRUMENTS.

English. Hebrew and Greek. Description.

Cornet.

(Ps. xcviii. 6;
Dan. iii. 5, 7.)

1. Keren.
σάλπιγξ.

See Trumpet, Keren.

(1 Chron. xv. 28;
2 Chron. xv. 14;
Ps. xcviii. 6;
Hos. v. 8.)

2. Shopher.
οωΦέρ.
σάλπιγξ.
κερατινη.

See Trumpet, Shopher.

(2 Sam. vi. 5.).

3. Mena’an’im.
αυλός.

Mena’an’im only occurs in this passage, and in conjunction with "cymbals," though translated "cornets" in the A.V., and "pipes" in the LXX. The Hebrew word is supposed to be derived from a root meaning "to sway to and fro," or "vibrate;" hence it is thought that the Vulgate rendering, sistra, is more correct, and that it was a rattle (very common in the East), consisting of an oval hoop with a handle, having cross bars of metal rods, on which loose rings are threaded, jingling when shaken, like the plates of a timbrel.

DULCIMER.

(Dan. iii. 5, 10, 15.)

Sumphoniah.
συμΦωνία.

It is only mentioned in this chapter, and wrongly rendered "dulcimer." From a comparison of its name with almost identical forms in Greek and Italian, it would seem to have been a kind of bagpipe, the use of which was known, from remote antiquity, in Persia, Egypt, and Phoenicia. It would have been better translated "sackbut," and the passage read thus: harp (sabbeca), dulcimer (psanterin), bagpipe (symphonia).

Flute.

(Dan. iii. 5, 10, 15.)

Mashrokitha.
σϋριγξ.

It only occurs here, and its species is doubtful. It is variously described as a "double flute," set of "Pan-pipes," and an "organ."

Organ.

(Gen. iv. 21;
Job xxi. 12; xxx. 31;
Ps. cl. 4.)

Ugab.
ψαλτήριον.
ψαλμός.
οργανον.

The ugab of Gen. iv. can hardly be the same instrument as that of Ps. cl. The former was probably a set of reeds or " Pan-pipes," blown obliquely with the mouth; the latter a set of pipes inserted in a wind-box, and blown from it perpendicularly, either by bellows or by mouth. Such an instrument was known to the Egyptians, as was also the use of bellows.

Pipe.

(1 Kin. i. 40;
Is. v. 12; xxx. 29.)

1. Chalil.
αυλός.

1. The most ancient form of this genus. An "oboe," made of reed, and played from a mouth-piece at one end; used for festival processions (Is. xxx. 29), national demonstrations (1 Kin. i. 40), holiday dances (Luke vii. 32), and funeral dirges (Matt. ix. 23). Some think the last were played on a " double pipe." It is rendered "instruments of musick" in Amos vi. 5.

(Ex. xv. 20;
Ps. xxx. ll; cl. 4;
Jer. xxxi. 4, 13.)

2. Machol.
χοροί.
χαρά.

2. Is thought to have been a small "flute," used with the tabret for "dancing" (by which word it is generally translated in the LXX. and A.V.).

(Ps. liii. and lxxxviii.)

3. Machalath.
μαελέθ.

3. This title of two Psalms is thought to refer to the instruments accompanying the song, as it seems to have the same root as the two previous words. Gesenius translates it "lute."

Trumpet.

(Lev. xxiii. 24;
Josh. vi. 5;
1 Chron. xxv. 5.)

1. Keren.
κέρας.
σάλπιγξ
.

The most ancient, formed of a ram's horn, though the Hebrew, jobel-keren, may mean "jubilee-trumpet." The word is Chaldaic; in Dan. iii. it is translated "cornet:" but the word seldom occurs, and only of a horn.

(Ex. xix. 16;
Josh. vi. 4;
Judg. iii. 27; vii. 16;
1 Sam. xiii. 3;
Ps. xlvii. 5; lxxxi. 3; xcviii. 6;
Joel ii. 1.)

2. Shopher.
κερατίνη.
σάλπιγξ.

A very long horn, turned up at the extremity. The national trumpet for rallying the people, and rousing political or religious enthusiasm. It was the token, that God was on their side; and it was probably only blown by one divinely commissioned. In 1 Chron. xv. 28, &c. it is rendered by "cornet," as also in Ps. xcviii. 6, where in the version of the Book of Common Prayer it is rendered "shawm." See Cornet, Mena'an'im.

(Num. x. 2;
2 Kin. xi. 14;
1 Chron. xi. 8;
2 Chron. v. 12;
Ps. xcviii. 6;
Hos. v. 8.)

3. Chatzozerah.
σάλπιγξ.

A straight trumpet of silver, terminating in a bell mouth, made by God's directions to Moses, to call an assembly or proclaim the march. It was rather a sacred than a martial trumpet ; and was blown to herald the approach of a king. It was used by official heralds, who were often followed by a band of Shophers (Ps. xcviii. 6). One hundred and twenty priests blew trumpets from the Temple height, to proclaim the induction of the ark into the Holy Place (2 Chron. v. 12), at Solomon's dedication.

Shawm.

(Ps. xcviii. 6.)

 

See Trumpet, Shopher.

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