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I. STRINGED INSTRUMENTS.

English. Hebrew and Greek. Description.

Harp.

(Gen. iv.21; xxxi. 27;
1 Sam. xvi. 23;
Job xxi. 12; xxx. 31;
Ps. cxxxvii. 2;
Is. v. 12.)

1. Kinnor.
κινύρα.

The most ancient kind, of Syrian origin. A triangular lyre, formed of two flat pieces of wood, whose ends are united, with eight or nine animal strings stretched across them. It was held under the left arm, and played with the fingers or a plectrum.

(I Sam. x. 5;
Neh. xii.27;
Ps.xxxiii.; lxxxi. 2; xcii. 2; cl. 3;
Is. v. 12.)

2. Nebel.
Ψαλτήριον
κιθάρα

A later improvement, of Phœnician origin, having three wooden sides (one curved), and with ten strings. It is translated "psaltery" (Ps. lvii. 8, A.V.), "lute" (do. P.B.), and "viol" (Is. v. 12; Amos v. 23; vi. 5). As it is always coupled with some other instrument, it is thought to have supplied the bass.

(Ps.xxxiii.2; cxliv. 9.)

3. ’Asor.
δεκάχορδον

A smaller instrument, of Assyrian origin, only mentioned in conjunction with nebel, so it is thought to have supplied the treble. Translated, "instrument often strings."

(Dan.iii. 5, 7.).

4. Kaithros.
κιθάρα

A later invention, of Greek, origin (Eng. cithern, guitar), imported into the East. It was a lyre, with four strings.

Lute.

 

 

See Harp, Nebel.

Psaltery.

(1 Chron. xiii. 8; xv. 16; xxv. 1;
2 Chron. v. 12; xxix. 25;
2 Sam. vi. 5.)

1. Nebel.
νάβλα.

In Psalms, Kings, and Chronicles, "psaltery" is the general translation of nebel, which see.

(Dan. iii. 5, 7.)

2. Psanterin.
Ψαλτήριον.

Psanterin (Eng. sawtry) is erroneously rendered "psaltery," from a verbal similarity. It should be "dulcimer," being an instrument formed of strings tightly stretched, by fixed pins and turning screws, over a rectangular sounding-board or box; and was played by hammers struck with the hand against the strings. It is not of the harp genus, but is the germ of the piano.

Sackbut.

(Dan. iii. 5, 7, &c.)

Sabbeca.
σαμβύκη.

A kind of harp, of oriental origin, known to the Greeks as σάμβυξ (sambux); either very small, but of high pitch, or, more probably, very large, with many strings, and of full rich tone. It is improperly translated "sackbut," instead of "harp."

Viol.

(Is. v. 12; xiv. 11, &c.)

Nebel.
Ψαλτήριον..

See Harp, Nebel.

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