Public Worship. Direction as to Intercessions for All Men, since Christ Is
a Ransom for All. The Duties of Men and
Women Respectively in Respect to Public Prayer. Woman's Subjection; Her
Sphere of Duty.
1. therefore—taking up again the general
subject of the Epistle in continuation (2Ti 2:1). "What I have therefore to say to thee
by way of a charge (1Ti 1:3, 18), is," &c.
that, first of all … be
made—Alford takes it, "I
exhort first of all to make." "First of all," doubtless, is to
be connected with "I exhort"; what I begin with (for special
reasons), is … As the destruction of Jerusalem drew near, the
Jews (including those at Ephesus) were seized with the dream of freedom
from every yoke; and so virtually "'blasphemed" (compare 1Ti 1:20) God's name by "speaking evil of
dignities" (1Ti 6:1; 2Pe 2:10; Jude 8). Hence Paul, in opposition, gives
prominence to the injunction that prayer be made for all men,
especially for magistrates and kings (Tit 3:1-3) [Olshausen]. Some professing Christians looked down
on all not Christians, as doomed to perdition; but Paul says all
men are to be prayed for, as Christ died for all (1Ti 2:4-6).
supplications—a term implying the
suppliant's sense of need, and of his own
intercessions—properly the coming
near to God with childlike confidence, generally in behalf of
another. The accumulation of terms implies prayer in its every form
and aspect, according to all the relations implied in it.
2. For kings—an effectual confutation of
the adversaries who accused the Christians of disaffection to the
ruling powers (Ac 17:7; Ro 13:1-7).
all … in authority—literally,
"in eminence"; in stations of eminence. The "quiet" of Christians was
often more dependent on subordinate rulers, than on the supreme king;
hence, "all … in authority" are to be prayed for.
that we may lead—that we may be
blessed with such good government as to lead … ; or rather, as
Greek, "to pass" or "spend." The prayers of Christians
for the government bring down from heaven peace and order in a
quiet—not troubled from
peaceable—"tranquil"; not troubled
from within [Olshausen]. "He is
peaceable (Greek) who makes no disturbance; he is
quiet (Greek) who is himself free from disturbance"
in all godliness—"in all (possible
… requisite) piety" [Alford]. A distinct Greek word, 1Ti 2:10, expresses "godliness."
honesty—Greek, "gravity" (Tit 2:2, 7), "decorum," or propriety of
conduct. As "piety" is in relation to God, "gravity" is
propriety of behavior among men. In the Old Testament the Jews were
commanded to pray for their heathen rulers (Ezr 6:10; Jer
29:7). The Jews, by Augustus'
order, offered a lamb daily for the Roman emperor, till near the
destruction of Jerusalem. The Jewish Zealots, instigated by Eleazar,
caused this custom to cease [Josephus,
Wars of the Jews, 2.17], whence the war originated, according to
3. this—praying for all men.
in the sight of God—not merely
before men, as if it were their favor that we sought (2Co 8:21).
our Saviour—a title appropriate to the
matter in hand. He who is "our Saviour" is willing that all should
be saved (1Ti 2:4; Ro 5:18); therefore we should meet the will of
God in behalf of others, by praying for the salvation of all men. More
would be converted if we would pray more. He has actually saved
us who believe, being "our Saviour." He is willing that
all should be saved, even those who do not as yet believe, if they will
believe (compare 1Ti 4:10; Tit 2:11).
4. "Imitate God." Since He wishes that all
should be saved, do you also wish it; and if you wish it, pray for it.
For prayer is the instrument of effecting such things [Chrysostom]. Paul does not say, "He wishes to
save all"; for then he would have saved all in matter of
fact; but "will have all men to be saved," implies the possibility of
man's accepting it (through God's prevenient grace) or rejecting it
(through man's own perversity). Our prayers ought to include all,
as God's grace included all.
to come—They are not forced.
unto the knowledge—Greek, "the
full knowledge" or "recognition" (See on 1Co
13:12; Php 1:9).
the truth—the saving truth as it is
in, and by, Jesus (Joh 17:3, 17).
5. For there is one God—God's
unity in essence and purpose is a proof of His comprehending all
His human children alike (created in His image) in His offer of grace
(compare the same argument from His unity, Ro 3:30; Ga
3:20); therefore all are to
be prayed for. 1Ti 2:4 is
proved from 1Ti 2:5;
from 1Ti 2:4. The one
God is common to all (Isa 45:22; Ac 17:26). The one Mediator is mediator between
God and all men potentially (Ro 3:29; Eph 4:5, 6; Heb
8:6; 9:15; 12:24). They who
have not this one God by one Mediator, have none: literally, a
"go-between." The Greek order is not "and one mediator,"
but "one mediator also between … While God will have all
men to be saved by knowing God and the Mediator, there is a legitimate,
holy order in the exercise of that will wherewith men ought to receive
it. All mankind constitute, as it were, ONE
MAN before God [Bengel].
the man—rather "man," absolutely and
genetically: not a mere individual man: the Second Head of
humanity, representing and embodying in Himself the whole human race
and nature. There is no "the" in the Greek. This epithet is
thus the strongest corroboration of his argument, namely, that Christ's
mediation affects the whole race, since there is but the one Mediator,
designed as the Representative Man for all men alike (compare Ro 5:15; 1Co 8:6; 2Co 5:19; Col 2:14). His being "man" was necessary to His
being a Mediator, sympathizing with us through experimental knowledge
of our nature (Isa 50:4; Heb 2:14; 4:15). Even in nature, almost all blessings
are conveyed to us from God, not immediately, but through the mediation
of various agents. The effectual intercession of Moses for Israel
(Nu 14:13-19, and De 9:1-29); of Abraham for Abimelech (Ge 20:7); of Job for his friends (Job 42:10), the mediation being PRESCRIBED by God while declaring His
purposes of forgiveness: all prefigure the grand mediation for all by
the one Mediator. On the other hand, 1Ti 3:16 asserts that He was also God.
6. gave himself—(Tit 2:14). Not only the Father gave Him
for us (Joh
3:16); but the Son
gave Himself (Php 2:5-8).
ransom—properly of a captive slave.
Man was the captive slave of Satan, sold under sin. He was unable to
ransom himself, because absolute obedience is due to God, and therefore
no act of ours can satisfy for the least offense. Le 25:48 allowed one sold captive to be redeemed
by one of his brethren. The Son of God, therefore, became man in order
that, being made like unto us in all things, sin only excepted, as our
elder brother He should redeem us (Mt 20:28; Eph 1:7; 1Pe
1:18, 19). The Greek
implies not merely ransom, but a substituted or
equivalent ransom: the Greek preposition, "anti,"
implying reciprocity and vicarious substitution.
for all—Greek, "in behalf of
all": not merely for a privileged few; compare 1Ti 2:1: the argument for praying in behalf
of all is given here.
to be testified—Greek, "the
testimony (that which was to be testified of, 1Jo 5:8-11) in its own due times," or
seasons, that is, in the times appointed by God for its being
testified of (1Ti 6:15; Tit 1:3). The oneness of the Mediator, involving
the universality of redemption (which faith, however, alone
appropriates), was the great subject of Christian testimony [Alford] (1Co 1:6; 2:1; 2Th 1:10).
7. Whereunto—For the giving of which
I am ordained—literally, "I was set":
the same Greek, as "putting me," &c. (1Ti 1:12).
preacher—literally, "herald" (1Co 1:21; 9:27; 15:11; 2Ti 1:11; Tit 1:3). He recurs to himself, as in 1Ti 1:16, in himself a living
pattern or announcement of the Gospel, so here "a herald and
teacher of (it to) the Gentiles" (Ga 2:9; Eph 3:1-12; Col
1:23). The universality of
his commission is an appropriate assertion here, where he is arguing to
prove that prayers are to be made "for all men" (1Ti 2:1).
I speak the truth … and lie
not—a strong asseveration of his universal commission,
characteristic of the ardor of the apostle, exposed to frequent
conflict (Ro 11:1; 2Co 11:13).
in faith and verity—rather, "in
the faith and the truth." The sphere in which his
ministry was appointed to be exercised was the faith and the
truth (1Ti 2:4):
the Gospel truth, the subject matter of the faith [Wiesinger].
8. I will—The active wish, or
desire, is meant.
that men—rather as Greek, "that
the men," as distinguished from "the women," to whom he has
something different to say from what he said to the men (1Ti 2:9-12; 1Co 11:14, 15; 14:34, 35). The emphasis, however, is
not on this, but on the precept of praying, resumed from 1Ti 2:1.
everywhere—Greek, "in every
place," namely, of public prayer. Fulfilling Mal 1:11, "In every place … from the
rising of the sun even unto the going down of the same … incense
shall be offered unto My name"; and Jesus' words, Mt 18:20;
Joh 4:21, 23.
lifting up holy hands—The early
Christians turned up their palms towards heaven, as those craving help
do. So also Solomon (1Ki 8:22; Ps 141:2). The Jews washed their hands before
26:6). Paul figuratively
(compare Job 17:9; Jas 4:8) uses language alluding to this custom
here: so Isa 1:15, 16. The Greek for "holy" means hands
which have committed no impiety, and observed every sacred
duty. This (or at least the contrite desire to be so) is a needful
qualification for effectual prayer (Ps 24:3, 4).
without wrath—putting it
away (Mt 5:23, 24; 6:15).
doubting—rather, "disputing," as the
Greek is translated in Php 2:14. Such things hinder prayer (Lu
9:46; Ro 14:1; 1Pe 3:7).
Bengel supports English Version
(compare an instance, 2Ki 7:2; Mt 14:31; Mr
11:22-24; Jas 1:6).
9, 10. The context requires that we understand
these directions as to women, in relation to their deportment in
public worship, though the rules will hold good on other
in modest apparel—"in seemly guise"
[Ellicott]. The adjective means
properly. orderly, decorous, becoming; the noun in secular
writings means conduct, bearing. But here "apparel." Women are
apt to love fine dress; and at Ephesus the riches of some (1Ti 6:17) would lead them to dress luxuriously.
The Greek in Tit 2:3 is a
more general term meaning "deportment."
shamefacedness—Trench spells this word according to its true
derivation, "shamefastness" (that which is made fast by an honorable
shame); as "steadfastness" (compare 1Ti 2:11, 12).
sobriety—"self-restraint" [Alford]. Habitual inner self-government [Trench]. I prefer Ellicott's translation, "sober-mindedness": the
well-balanced state of mind arising from habitual self-restraint.
braided hair—literally, "plaits," that
is, plaited hair: probably with the "gold and pearls" intertwined
3:3). Such gaud is
characteristic of the spiritual harlot (Re 17:4).
"promising": engaging to follow.
with good works—The Greek
preposition is not the same as in 1Ti 2:9; "by means of," or "through good
works." Their adorning is to be effected by means of good works:
not that they are to be clothed in, or with, them (Eph 2:10). Works, not words in public, is
their province (1Ti 2:8, 11, 12; 1Pe 3:1). Works are often mentioned in
the Pastoral Epistles in order to oppose the loose living, combined
with the loose doctrine, of the false teachers. The discharge of
everyday duties is honored with the designation, "good works."
11. learn—not "teach" (1Ti 2:12; 1Co
14:34). She should not even
put questions in the public assembly (1Co 14:35).
with all subjection—not "usurping
authority" (1Ti 2:12).
She might teach, but not in public (Ac 18:26). Paul probably wrote this Epistle from
Corinth, where the precept (1Co 14:34)
was in force.
12. usurp authority—"to lord it over the
man" [Alford], literally, "to be an
13. For—reason of the precept; the
original order of creation.
Adam … first—before Eve, who was
created for him (1Co 11:8, 9).
14. Adam was not deceived—as Eve was
deceived by the serpent; but was persuaded by his wife.
Ge 3:17, "hearkened unto … voice of
… wife." But in Ge 3:13, Eve
says, "The serpent beguiled me." Being more easily deceived, she
more easily deceives [Bengel], (2Co 11:3). Last in being, she was first in
sin—indeed, she alone was deceived. The subtle serpent
knew that she was "the weaker vessel" (1Pe 3:7). He therefore tempted her, not Adam.
She yielded to the temptations of sense and the deceits of
Satan; he, to conjugal love. Hence, in the order of God's
judicial sentence, the serpent, the prime offender, stands first; the
woman, who was deceived, next; and the man, persuaded by his wife, last
3:14-19). In Ro 5:12, Adam is represented as the first
transgressor; but there no reference is made to Eve, and Adam is
regarded as the head of the sinning race. Hence, as here, 1Ti 2:11, in Ge 3:16, woman's "subjection" is represented as
the consequence of her being deceived.
being deceived—The oldest manuscripts
read the compound Greek verb for the simple, "Having been
seduced by deceit": implying how completely Satan
succeeded in deceiving her.
was in the transgression—Greek,
"came to be in the transgression": became involved in the
existing state of transgression, literally, "the going beyond a
command"; breach of a positive precept (Ro 4:15).
15. be saved in
childbearing—Greek, "in (literally, 'through')
(her, literally, 'the') child-bearing." Through,
or by, is often so used to express not the means of her
salvation, but the circumstances AMIDST which it has place. Thus 1Co 3:15, "He … shall be saved: yet so as
by (literally, 'through,' that is, amidst) fire": in spite of
the fiery ordeal which he has necessarily to pass through, he
shall be saved. So here, "In spite of the trial of childbearing
which she passes through (as her portion of the curse, Ge 3:16, 'in sorrow shalt thou bring
forth children'), she shall be saved." Moreover, I think it is
implied indirectly that the very curse will be turned into a
condition favorable to her salvation, by her faithfully performing her
part in doing and suffering what God has assigned to her, namely,
child-bearing and home duties, her sphere, as
distinguished from public teaching, which is not hers, but man's
2:11, 12). In this home
sphere, not ordinarily in one of active duty for advancing the kingdom
of God, which contradicts the position assigned to her by God, she will
be saved on the same terms as all others, namely, by living faith. Some
think that there is a reference to the Incarnation "through THE child-bearing" (Greek), the bearing
of the child Jesus. Doubtless this is the ground of women's
child-bearing in general becoming to them a blessing, instead of
a curse; just as in the original prophecy (Ge 3:15, 16) the promise of "the Seed of the
woman" (the Saviour) stands in closest connection with the woman's
being doomed to "sorrow" in "bringing forth children," her very
child-bearing, though in sorrow, being the function
assigned to her by God whereby the Saviour was born. This may be an
ulterior reference of the Holy Spirit in this verse; but the primary
reference required by the context is the one above given. "She shall be
saved ([though] with childbearing)," that is, though suffering her part
of the primeval curse in childbearing; just as a man shall be saved,
though having to bear his part, namely, the sweat of the brow.
if they, &c.—"if the women
(plural, taken out of 'the woman,' 1Ti 2:14, which is put for the whole sex)
continue," or more literally, "shall (be found at the judgment to) have
faith and charity—the essential way to
salvation (1Ti 1:5).
Faith is in relation to God. Charity, to our fellow man.
Sobriety, to one's self.
sobriety—"sober-mindedness" (see on 1Ti 2:9, as contrasted with the unseemly forwardness
reproved in 1Ti 2:11).
Mental receptivity and activity in family life were recognized in
Christianity as the destiny of woman. One reason alleged here by Paul,
is the greater danger of self-deception in the weaker sex, and the
spread of errors arising from it, especially in a class of addresses in
which sober reflectiveness is least in exercise [Neander]. The case (Ac 21:9) was doubtless in private, not in