Design in Having Left Timothy at Ephesus, Namely, to Check False Teachers; True Use of the Law; Harmonizing with the Gospel; God's Grace in Calling Paul, Once a Blasphemer, to Experience and to Preach It;
Charges to Timothy.
1. by the commandment of God—the
authoritative injunction, as well as the commission, of God. In
the earlier Epistles the phrase is, "by the will of God." Here
it is expressed in a manner implying that a necessity was laid on him
to act as an apostle, not that it was merely at his option. The same
expression occurs in the doxology, probably written long after the
Epistle itself [Alford] (Ro 16:26).
God our Saviour—The Father (1Ti 2:3; 4:10; Lu 1:47; 2Ti 1:9; Tit
1:3; 2:10; 3:4; Jude 25). It
was a Jewish expression in devotion, drawn from the Old Testament
(compare Ps 106:21).
our hope—(Col 1:27;
Tit 1:2; 2:13).
2. my own son—literally, "a
genuine son" (compare Ac 16:1; 1Co 4:14-17). See Introduction.
mercy—added here, in addressing
Timothy, to the ordinary salutation, "Grace unto you (Ro 1:7; 1Co
1:3, &c.), and peace." In
Ga 6:16, "peace and mercy" occur.
There are many similarities of style between the Epistle to the
Galatians and the Pastoral Epistles (see Introduction); perhaps owing to his there,
as here, having, as a leading object in writing, the correction of
false teachers, especially as to the right and wrong use of the
law (1Ti 1:9). If
the earlier date be assigned to First Timothy, it will fall not long
after, or before (according as the Epistle to the Galatians was written
at Ephesus or at Corinth) the writing of the Epistle to the Galatians,
which also would account for some similarity of style. "Mercy" is grace
of a more tender kind, exercised towards the miserable, the
experience of which in one's own case especially fits for the Gospel
MINISTRY. Compare as to Paul himself
(1Ti 1:14, 16; 1Co 7:25; 2Co 4:1; Heb 2:17) [Bengel]. He did not use "mercy" as to the churches,
because "mercy" in all its fulness already existed towards them; but in
the case of an individual minister, fresh measures of it were
continually needed. "Grace" has reference to the sins of men;
"mercy" to their misery. God extends His grace to men as
they are guilty; His "mercy" to them as they are miserable [Trench].
Jesus Christ—The oldest manuscripts
read the order, "Christ Jesus." In the Pastoral Epistles "Christ" is
often put before "Jesus," to give prominence to the fact that the
Messianic promises of the Old Testament, well known to Timothy
3:15), were fulfilled in
3. Timothy's superintendence of the Church at
Ephesus was as locum tenens for the apostle, and so was
temporary. Thus, the office of superintending overseer, needed for a
time at Ephesus or Crete, in the absence of the presiding apostle,
subsequently became a permanent institution on the removal, by death,
of the apostles who heretofore superintended the churches. The first
title of these overseers seems to have been "angels" (Re 1:20).
As I besought thee to abide still—He
meant to have added, "so I still beseech thee," but does not
complete the sentence until he does so virtually, not formally,
at Ephesus—Paul, in Ac 20:25, declared to the Ephesian elders, "I
know that ye all shall see my face no more." If, then, as the
balance of arguments seems to favor (see Introduction), this Epistle was written
subsequently to Paul's first imprisonment, the apparent discrepancy
between his prophecy and the event may be reconciled by considering
that the terms of the former were not that he should never visit
Ephesus again (which this verse implies he did), but that
they all should "see his face no more." I cannot think with
Birks, that this verse is compatible
with his theory, that Paul did not actually visit Ephesus, though in
its immediate neighborhood (compare 1Ti 3:14; 4:13). The corresponding conjunction to "as"
is not given, the sentence not being completed till it is virtually so
I besought—a mild word, instead of
authoritative command, to Timothy, as a fellow helper.
some—The indefinite pronoun is
slightly contemptuous as to them (Ga 2:12; Jude 4), [Ellicott].
teach no other doctrine—than what I
have taught (Ga 1:6-9).
His prophetic bodings some years before (Ac 20:29, 30) were now being realized (compare 1Ti 6:3).
4. fables—legends about the origin and
propagation of angels, such as the false teachers taught at Colosse
2:18-23). "Jewish fables"
1:14). "Profane, and old
wives' fables" (1Ti 4:7; 2Ti 4:4).
genealogies—not merely such civil
genealogies as were common among the Jews, whereby they traced their
descent from the patriarchs, to which Paul would not object, and which
he would not as here class with "fables," but Gnostic genealogies of
spirits and aeons, as they called them, "Lists of Gnostic emanations"
[Alford]. So Tertullian [Against Valentinian, c. 3], and
Irenæus [Preface]. The
Judaizers here alluded to, while maintaining the perpetual obligation
of the Mosaic law, joined with it a theosophic ascetic tendency,
pretending to see in it mysteries deeper than others could see. The
seeds, not the full-grown Gnosticism of the post-apostolic age,
then existed. This formed the transition stage between Judaism and
Gnosticism. "Endless" refers to the tedious unprofitableness of their
lengthy genealogies (compare Tit 3:9). Paul opposes to their "aeons," the
"King of the aeons (so the Greek, 1Ti 1:17), whom be glory throughout the aeons of
aeons." The word "aeons" was probably not used in the technical
sense of the latter Gnostics as yet; but "the only wise God" (1Ti 1:17), by anticipation, confutes the
subsequently adopted notions in the Gnostics' own phraseology.
questions—of mere speculation (Ac 25:20), not practical; generating merely
curious discussions. "Questions and strifes of words" (1Ti 6:4): "to no profit" (2Ti 2:14); "gendering strifes" (2Ti 2:23). "Vain jangling" (1Ti 1:6, 7) of would-be "teachers of the law."
godly edifying—The oldest manuscripts
read, "the dispensation of God," the Gospel dispensation of God
towards man (1Co 9:17),
"which is (has its element) in faith." Conybeare translates, "The exercising of the
stewardship of God" (1Co 9:17). He
infers that the false teachers in Ephesus were presbyters, which
accords with the prophecy, Ac 20:30.
However, the oldest Latin versions, and Irenæus and Hilary, support English Version reading.
1:5, "faith unfeigned."
5. But—in contrast to the doctrine of
the false teachers.
the end—the aim.
the commandment—Greek, "of the
charge" which you ought to urge on your flock. Referring to the same
Greek word as in 1Ti 1:3, 18; here, however, in a larger sense, as
including the Gospel "dispensation of God" (see on 1Ti 1:4; 1Ti 1:11), which was
the sum and substance of the "charge" committed to Timothy wherewith he
should "charge" his flock.
charity—LOVE; the sum and end of the
law and of the Gospel alike, and that wherein the Gospel is the
fulfilment of the spirit of the law in its every essential jot and
13:10). The foundation is
faith (1Ti 1:4), the
"end" is love (1Ti 1:14; Tit 3:15).
out of—springing as from a
pure heart—a heart purified by faith
(Ac 15:9; 2Ti 2:22; Tit 1:15).
good conscience—a conscience cleared
from guilt by the effect of sound faith in Christ (1Ti 1:19; 1Ti 3:9; 2Ti 1:3; 1Pe 3:21). Contrast 1Ti 4:2; Tit
1:15; compare Ac 23:1. John uses "heart," where Paul would use
"conscience." In Paul the understanding is the seat of
conscience; the heart is the seat of love [Bengel]. A good conscience is joined with
sound faith; a bad conscience with unsoundness in the faith (compare
faith unfeigned—not a hypocritical,
dead, and unfruitful faith, but faith working by love (Ga 5:6). The false teachers drew men off from
such a loving, working, real faith, to profitless, speculative
"questions" (1Ti 1:4) and
jangling (1Ti 1:6).
6. From which—namely, from a pure heart,
good conscience, and faith unfeigned, the well-spring of love.
having swerved—literally, "having
missed the mark (the 'end') to be aimed at." It is translated, "erred,"
1Ti 6:21; 2Ti 2:18. Instead of aiming at and attaining the
graces above named, they "have turned aside (1Ti
5:15; 2Ti 4:4; Heb 12:13)
unto vain jangling"; literally, "vain talk," about the law and
genealogies of angels (1Ti 1:7; Tit 3:9; 1:10); 1Ti 6:20, "vain babblings and oppositions." It is
the greatest vanity when divine things are not truthfully discussed
7. Sample of their "vain talk" (1Ti 1:6).
Desiring—They are would-be
teachers, not really so.
the law—the Jewish law (Tit 1:14; 3:9). The Judaizers here meant seem to
be distinct from those impugned in the Epistles to the Galatians and
Romans, who made the works of the law necessary to justification in
opposition to Gospel grace. The Judaizers here meant corrupted the law
with "fables," which they pretended to found on it, subversive of
morals as well as of truth. Their error was not in maintaining the
obligation of the law, but in abusing it by fabulous and
immoral interpretations of, and additions to, it.
neither what they say, nor
whereof—neither understanding their own assertions,
nor the object itself about which they make them. They
understand as little about the one as the other [Alford].
8. But—"Now we know" (Ro 3:19;
law is good—in full agreement with
God's holiness and goodness.
if a man—primarily, a teacher;
then, every Christian.
use it lawfully—in its lawful place in
the Gospel economy, namely, not as a means of a "'righteous man"
attaining higher perfection than could be attained by the Gospel alone
(1Ti 4:8; Tit 1:14), which was the perverted use to which
the false teachers put it, but as a means of awakening the sense of sin
in the ungodly (1Ti 1:9, 10; compare Ro 7:7-12; Ga 3:21).
9. law is not made for a righteous
man—not for one standing by faith in the righteousness of
Christ put on him for justification, and imparted inwardly by the Spirit
for sanctification. "One not forensically amenable to the law" [Alford]. For sanctification, the law
gives no inward power to fulfil it; but Alford goes too far in speaking of the righteous man
as "not morally needing the law." Doubtless, in proportion as he is
inwardly led by the Spirit, the justified man needs not the law, which
is only an outward rule (Ro 6:14; Ga 5:18, 23). But as the justified man often does
not give himself up wholly to the inward leading of the Spirit, he
morally needs the outward law to show him his sin and
God's requirements. The reason why the ten commandments have no power
to condemn the Christian, is not that they have no authority
over him, but because Christ has fulfilled them as our surety (Ro 10:4).
subject"; insubordinate; it is translated "unruly," Tit 1:6, 10; "lawless and disobedient" refer
to opposers of the law, for whom it is "enacted" (so the
Greek, for "is made").
ungodly and …
sinners—Greek, he who does not reverence God,
and he who openly sins against Him; the opposers of God,
from the law comes.
unholy and profane—those inwardly
impure, and those deserving exclusion from the outward
participation in services of the sanctuary; sinners against the third
and fourth commandments.
murderers—or, as the Greek may
mean, "smiters" of fathers and … mothers; sinners against
the fifth commandment.
manslayers—sinners against the sixth
10. whoremongers, &c.—sinners
against the seventh commandment.
men-stealers—that is, slave dealers.
The most heinous offense against the eighth commandment. No stealing of
a man's goods can equal in atrocity the stealing of a man's liberty.
Slavery is not directly assailed in the New Testament; to have done so
would have been to revolutionize violently the existing order of
things. But Christianity teaches principles sure to undermine, and at
last overthrow it, wherever Christianity has had its natural
development (Mt 7:12).
liars … perjured—offenders
against the ninth commandment.
if there be any other thing—answering
to the tenth commandment in its widest aspect. He does not particularly
specify it because his object is to bring out the grosser forms
of transgression; whereas the tenth is deeply spiritual, so much so
indeed, that it was by it that the sense of sin, in its subtlest form
of "lust," Paul tells us (Ro 7:7), was
brought home to his own conscience. Thus, Paul argues, these
would-be teachers of the law, while boasting of a higher
perfection through it, really bring themselves down from the Gospel
elevation to the level of the grossly "lawless," for whom, not for
Gospel believers, the law was designed. And in actual practice the
greatest sticklers for the law as the means of moral perfection, as in
this case, are those ultimately liable to fall utterly from the
morality of the law. Gospel grace is the only true means of
sanctification as well as of justification.
wholesome (1Ti 6:3; 2Ti 1:13; Tit 1:13; 2:2), as opposed to sickly,
morbid (as the Greek of "doting" means, 1Ti 6:4), and "canker" (2Ti 2:17). "The doctrine," or "teaching, which is
according to godliness" (1Ti 6:3).
11. According to the glorious gospel—The
Christian's freedom from the law as a sanctifier, as well as a
justifier, implied in the previous, 1Ti 1:9, 10, is what this 1Ti 1:11 is connected with. This exemption of the
righteous from the law, and assignment of it to the lawless as its true
object, is "according to the Gospel of the glory (so the
Greek, compare Note, see on 2Co
4:4) of the blessed God." The Gospel manifests God's glory (Eph 1:17;
3:16) in accounting
"righteous" the believer, through the righteousness of Christ, without
"the law" (1Ti 1:9); and
in imparting that righteousness whereby he loathes all those sins
against which (1Ti 1:9, 10) the law is directed. The term,
"blessed," indicates at once immortality and supreme
happiness. The supremely blessed One is He from whom all
blessedness flows. This term, as applied to God, occurs only here and in 1Ti 6:15: appropriate in speaking here of the
Gospel blessedness, in contrast to the curse on those under the
law (1Ti 1:9; Ga 3:10).
committed to my trust—Translate as in
the Greek order, which brings into prominent emphasis
Paul, "committed in trust to me"; in contrast to the kind of
law-teaching which they (who had no Gospel commission), the
false teachers, assumed to themselves (1Ti 1:8; Tit
12. The honor done him in having the Gospel
ministry committed to him suggests the digression to what he once was,
no better (1Ti 1:13)
than those lawless ones described above (1Ti 1:9, 10), when the grace of our Lord (1Ti 1:14) visited him.
And—omitted in most (not all) of the
I thank—Greek, "I have (that
is, feel) gratitude."
enabled me—the same Greek verb
as in Ac
9:22, "Saul increased the
more in strength." An undesigned coincidence between Paul and Luke, his
companion. Enabled me, namely, for the ministry. "It is not in
my own strength that I bring this doctrine to men, but as strengthened
and nerved by Him who saved me" [Theodoret]. Man is by nature "without strength"
(Ro 5:6). True conversion and calling
confer power [Bengel].
for that—the main ground of his
he counted me faithful—He foreordered
and foresaw that I would be faithful to the trust committed to me.
Paul's thanking God for this shows that the merit of his
faithfulness was due solely to God's grace, not to his own natural
strength (1Co 7:25).
Faithfulness is the quality required in a steward (1Co 4:2).
putting me into—rather as in 1Th 5:9, "appointing me (in His sovereign
purposes of grace) unto the ministry" (Ac 20:24).
13. Who was before—Greek,
"Formerly being a blasphemer." "Notwithstanding that I was
before a blasphemer," &c. (Ac 26:9, 11).
one who acts injuriously from arrogant contempt of others. Translate,
Ro 1:30, "despiteful." One who added
insult to injury. Bengel translates, "a
despiser." I prefer the idea, contumelious to others [Wahl]. Still I agree with Bengel that "blasphemer" is against God,
"persecutor," against holy men, and "insolently injurious"
includes, with the idea of injuring others, that of insolent
"uppishness" [Donaldson] in relation to
one's self. This threefold relation to God, to one's neighbor,
and to one's self, occurs often in this Epistle (1Ti 1:5,
9, 14; Tit 2:12).
I obtained mercy—God's mercy, and
Paul's want of it, stand in sharp contrast [Ellicott]; Greek, "I was made the object of
mercy." The sense of mercy was perpetual in the mind of the apostle
(compare Note, see on 1Ti 1:2). Those who
have felt mercy can best have mercy on those out of the way (Heb 5:2, 3).
because I did it
ignorantly—Ignorance does not in itself deserve
pardon; but it is a less culpable cause of unbelief than pride and
wilful hardening of one's self against the truth (Joh 9:41; Ac
26:9). Hence it is Christ's
plea of intercession for His murderers (Lu 23:34); and it is made by the apostles a
mitigating circumstance in the Jews' sin, and one giving a hope of a
door of repentance (Ac 3:17; Ro 10:2). The "because," &c., does not imply
that ignorance was a sufficient reason for mercy being bestowed;
but shows how it was possible that such a sinner could obtain mercy.
The positive ground of mercy being shown to him, lies solely in the
compassion of God (Tit 3:5). The
ground of the ignorance lies in the unbelief, which
implies that this ignorance is not unaccompanied with guilt. But there
is a great difference between his honest zeal for the law, and a wilful
striving against the Spirit of God (Mt 12:24-32; Lu 11:52) [Wiesinger].
14. And—Greek, "But." Not only so
(was mercy shown me), but
the grace—by which "I obtained mercy"
was exceeding abundant—Greek,
"superabounded." Where sin abounded, grace did much more abound" (Ro 5:20).
with faith—accompanied with
faith, the opposite of "unbelief" (1Ti 1:13).
love—in contrast to "a blasphemer,
persecutor, and injurious."
which is in Christ—as its element and
home [Alford]: here as its source whence
it flows to us.
15. faithful—worthy of credit, because
"God" who says it "is faithful" to His word (1Co 1:9; 1Th 5:24; 2Th 3:3; Re 21:5; 22:6). This seems to have become an
axiomatic saying among Christians the phrase, "faithful saying,"
is peculiar to the Pastoral Epistles (1Ti 2:11; 4:9; Tit 3:8). Translate as Greek,
"Faithful is the saying."
all—all possible; full; to be received
by all, and with all the faculties of the soul, mind, and heart. Paul,
unlike the false teachers (1Ti 1:7),
understands what he is saying, and whereof he affirms; and by
his simplicity of style and subject, setting forth the grand
fundamental truth of salvation through Christ, confutes the false
teachers' abstruse and unpractical speculations (1Co 1:18-28;
acceptation—reception (as of a
boon) into the heart, as well as the understanding, with all gladness;
this is faith acting on the Gospel offer, and welcoming and
appropriating it (Ac 2:41).
Jesus—as manifested [Bengel].
came into the world—which was full of
sin (Joh 1:29; Ro 5:12; 1Jo 2:2). This implies His pre-existence. Joh 1:9, Greek, "the true Light
that, coming into the world, lighteth every man."
to save sinners—even notable sinners
like Saul of Tarsus. His instance was without a rival since the
ascension, in point of the greatness of the sin and the greatness of
the mercy: that the consenter to Stephen, the proto-martyr's death,
should be the successor of the same!
I am—not merely, "I was chief" (1Co 15:9;
Eph 3:8; compare Lu 18:13). To each believer his own sins must
always appear, as long as he lives, greater than those of others, which
he never can know as he can know his own.
chief—the same Greek as in
1:16, "first," which alludes
to this fifteenth verse, Translate in both verses, "foremost."
Well might he infer where there was mercy for him, there is
mercy for all who will come to Christ (Mt 18:11; Lu 19:10).
16. Howbeit—Greek, "But";
contrasting his own conscious sinfulness with God's gracious visitation
of him in mercy.
for this cause—for this very
that in me—in my case.
first—"foremost." As I was "foremost"
(Greek for chief, 1Ti 1:15) in sin, so God has made me the
"foremost" sample of mercy.
show—to His own glory (the middle
Greek, voice), Eph 2:7.
all long-suffering—Greek, "the
whole (of His) long-suffering," namely, in bearing so long with me
while I was a persecutor.
a pattern—a sample (1Co 10:6, 11) to assure the greatest sinners of
the certainty that they shall not be rejected in coming to Christ,
since even Saul found mercy. So David made his own case of pardon,
notwithstanding the greatness of his sin, a sample to encourage other
sinners to seek pardon (Ps 32:5, 6). The Greek for "pattern" is
sometimes used for a "sketch" or outline—the filling up to take
place in each man's own case.
believe on him—Belief rests ON Him as the only foundation on which faith
to life everlasting—the ultimate aim
which faith always keeps in view (Tit 1:2).
17. A suitable conclusion to the beautifully
simple enunciation of the Gospel, of which his own history is a living
sample or pattern. It is from the experimental sense of grace that the
doxology flows [Bengel].
the King, eternal—literally, "King of
the (eternal) ages." The Septuagint translates Ex 15:18, "The Lord shall reign for ages and
beyond them." Ps 145:13,
Margin, "Thy kingdom is an everlasting kingdom," literally, "a
kingdom of all ages." The "life everlasting" (1Ti 1:16) suggested here "the King
eternal," or everlasting. It answers also to "for ever
and ever" at the close, literally, "to the ages of the ages" (the
countless succession of ages made up of ages).
immortal—The oldest manuscripts read,
"incorruptible." The Vulgate, however, and one very old
manuscript read as English Version (Ro 1:23).
invisible—(1Ti 6:16; Ex 33:20; Joh 1:18; Col 1:15; Heb 11:27).
the only wise God—The oldest
manuscripts omit "wise," which probably crept in from Ro 16:27, where it is more appropriate to the
context than here (compare Jude 25).
"The only Potentate" (1Ti 6:15; Ps 86:10; Joh 5:44).
for ever, &c.—See note, above. The
thought of eternity (terrible as it is to unbelievers) is delightful to
those assured of grace (1Ti 1:16)
18. He resumes the subject begun at 1Ti 1:3. The conclusion (apodosis) to the
foregoing, "as I besought thee … charge" (1Ti 1:3), is here given, if not formally,
at least substantially.
This charge—namely, "that thou in them
(so the Greek) mightest war," that is, fulfil thy high calling,
not only as a Christian, but as a minister officially, one
function of which is, to "charge some that they teach no other
doctrine" (1Ti 1:3).
I commit—as a sacred deposit (1Ti 6:20;
2Ti 2:2) to be laid before
according to—in pursuance of; in
the prophecies which went before on
thee—the intimations given by prophets respecting thee at thy
ordination, 1Ti 4:14 (as,
probably, by Silas, a companion of Paul, and "a prophet," Ac 15:32). Such prophetical intimation, as well
as the good report given of Timothy by the brethren (Ac 16:2), may have induced Paul to take him as
his companion. Compare similar prophecies as to others: Ac 13:1-3, in connection with laying on of hands;
11:28; 21:10, 11; compare
1Co 12:10; 14:1; Eph 4:11. In Ac 20:28, it is expressly said that "the Holy
Ghost had made them (the Ephesian presbyters) overseers." Clement of Rome [Epistle to the
Corinthians], states it was the custom of the apostles "to make
trial by the Spirit," that is, by the "power of discerning," in order
to determine who were to be overseers and deacons in the several
churches planted. So Clement of
Alexandria says as to the churches near Ephesus, that the
overseers were marked out for ordination by a revelation of the Holy
Ghost to St. John.
by them—Greek, "in them";
arrayed as it were in them; armed with them.
warfare—not the mere "fight" (1Ti 6:12;
2Ti 4:7), but the whole
campaign; the military service. Translate as Greek, not
"a," but "the good warfare."
19. Holding—Keeping hold of "faith" and
"good conscience" (1Ti 1:5); not
"putting the latter away" as "some." Faith is like a very
precious liquor; a good conscience is the clean, pure glass that
contains it [Bengel]. The loss of
good conscience entails the shipwreck of faith.
Consciousness of sin (unrepented of and forgiven) kills the germ of
faith in man [Wiesinger].
which—Greek singular, namely,
"good conscience," not "faith" also; however, the result of putting
away good conscience is, one loses faith also.
put away—a wilful act. They thrust it
from them as a troublesome monitor. It reluctantly withdraws, extruded
by force, when its owner is tired of its importunity, and is resolved
to retain his sin at the cost of losing it. One cannot be on friendly
terms with it and with sin at one and the same time.
made shipwreck—"with respect to THE faith." Faith is the vessel in
which they had professedly embarked, of which "good conscience" is the
anchor. The ancient Church often used this image, comparing the course
of faith to navigation. The Greek does not imply that one having
once had faith makes shipwreck of it, but that they who put away
good conscience "make shipwreck with respect to THE faith."
20. Hymenaeus—There is no difficulty in
supposing him to be the Hymenæus of 2Ti 2:17. Though "delivered over to Satan" (the
lord of all outside the Church, Ac 26:18, and the executor of wrath, when
judicially allowed by God, on the disobedient, 1Co 5:5; 2Co
12:7), he probably was
restored to the Church subsequently, and again troubled it. Paul, as an
apostle, though distant at Rome pronounced the sentence to be executed
at Ephesus, involving, probably, the excommunication of the offenders
18:17, 18). The sentence
operated not only spiritually, but also physically, sickness, or some
such visitation of God, falling on the person excommunicated, in order
to bring him to repentance and salvation. Alexander here is probably
"the coppersmith" who did Paul "much evil" when the latter visited
Ephesus. The "delivering him to Satan" was probably the consequence of
his withstanding the apostle (2Ti 4:14, 15); as the same sentence on Hymenæus
was the consequence of "saying that the resurrection is past already"
2:18; his putting away
good conscience, naturally producing shipwreck concerning
FAITH, 1Ti 1:19. If one's religion better not his
morals, his moral deficiencies will corrupt his religion. The rain
which falls pure from heaven will not continue pure if it be received
in an unclean vessel [Archbishop
Whately]). It is possible that he is the Alexander, then
a Jew, put forward by the Jews, doubtless against Paul, at the riot in
that they may—not "might"; implying
that the effect still continues—the sentence is as yet
learn—Greek, "be disciplined,"
namely, by chastisement and suffering.
blaspheme—the name of God and Christ,
by doings and teachings unworthy of their Christian profession (Ro
2:23, 24; Jas 2:7). Though
the apostles had the power of excommunication, accompanied with bodily
inflictions, miraculously sent (2Co 10:8), it does not follow that fallible
ministers now have any power, save that of excluding from church
fellowship notorious bad livers.