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PREPOSITIONS, 89-98

89. Prominence of Prepositions. The prominence of prepositions in the LXX is partly a characteristic of later Greek generally and partly due to the careful following of the Hebrew. But while prepositions are employed to express relations for which in classical Greek cases would have been thought sufficient, there is at the same time a tendency to blur some of the nice distinctions between the uses of the same preposition with different cases.


90. εἰς. a. εἰς in classical Greek denotes motion or direction: in Biblical Greek it denotes equally rest or position, and may be translated by ‘at’ or ‘in’ as wel as by ‘to,’ e.g. -


Gen. 37:17 πορευθῶμεν εἰς Δωθάειμ . . . καὶ εὗρεν αὐτοὺς εἰς Δωθάειμ.

Josh. 7:22 ἔδραμον εἰς τὴν σκηνὴν . . . καὶ ταῦτα ἦν ἐνκεκρυμμένα εἰς τὴν σκηνήν.

Jdg. 14:1 καὶ κατέβη Σαμψὼν εἰς Θαμνάθα, καὶ εἶδεν γυναῖκα εἰς Θαμνάθα.


For examples of the former meaning only we may take -


Gen. 42:32 ὁ δὲ μικρότερος . . . εἰς γῆν Χανάαν.

Nb. 25:33 τὴν γῆν εἰς ἣ ὑμεῖς κατοικεῖτε.

Judith 16:23 ἀπέθανεν εἰς βαιτυλουά.


b. In the N.T. εἰς denoting rest or position is very common.

Mk. 2:1 εἰς οἶκον = at home. Cp. Lk. 9:61: Mk. 10:10.

Mk. 13:3 καθημένου αὐτοῦ εἰς τὸ ὄρος τῶν ἐλαιῶν.

Jn. 1:18 ὀ ὢν εἰς τὸν κόλπον τοῦ πατρός.

Acts 21:13 ἀποθανεῖν εἰς Ἱερουσαλήμ.


Cp. also Eph. 3:16: 1 Pet. 3:20, 5:12: Mk. 1:9, 39; 13:9: Lk. 4:23, 11:7: Jn. 9:7, 20:7: Acts 7:4, 8:40, 25:4.

The obliteration of the distinction between rest and motion is one of the marks of declining Greek. In the modern language εἰς has usurped the functions both of ἐν and πρός.


c. The use of εἰς with the accusative after εἶναι and γενέσθαι as practically equivalent to the nominative may safely be regarded as a Hebraism.


d. 1 Chr. 11:21 ἦν αὐτοῖς εἰς ἄρχοντα, 17:7 εἶναι εἰς ἡγούμενον.

3 K. [2 Kings} 20:2 ἔσται μοι εἰς κῆπον λαχάνων. Cp. Gen. 48:19: 1 Chr. 11:6.

1 K. [1 Sam.] 17:9 ἐσόμεθα ὑμῖν εἰς δούλους.

Jer. 38:33 ἔσομαι αὐτοῖς εἰς Θεόν, καὶ αὐτοὶ ἔσονταί μοι εἰς λαόν. Cp. Jer. 38:1: Gen. 48:19: 2 K. [2 Sam.] 7:14.

Gen. 2:7 ἐγένετο ὁ ἄνθρωπος εἰς ψυχὴν ζῶσαν.

Ex. 2:10 ἐγενήθη αὐτῇ εἰς υἱόν.

1 K. [1 Sam.] 4:9 γένεσθε εἰς ἄνδρας.


πρός in one passage takes the place of εἰς.

Sir. 46:4 μία ἡμέρα ἐγενήθη πρὸς δύο.

e. In the New Testament this idiom occurs both in quotations from the Old and otherwise.

1 Jn. 5:8 καὶ οἱ τρεῖς εἰς τὸ ἕν εἰσιν.

Lk. 3:5 ἔσται τὰ σκολιὰ εἰς εὐθείας (Is. 40:4).

2 Cor. 6:18 ἔσεσθέ μοι εἰς υἱούς καὶ θυγατέρας (2 K. [2 Sam.] 7:8: Is. 43:6).

Mt. 19:5 ἔσονται οἱ δύο εἰς σάρκα μίαν (Gen. 2:24).

Mt. 21:42 ἐγενήθη εἰς κεφαλὴν γωνίας (Ps. 117:22).

Lk. 13:19 ἐγένετο εἰς δένδρον. Cp. Rev. 8:11.

Jn. 16:20 ἡ λύπη ὑμῶν εἰς χαρὰν γενήσεται.


The same usage is to be found also in the Apostolic Fathers -


Herm. Past. Sim. 9.13.5 ἔσονται εἰς ἓ πνεῦμα, εἰς ἓν σῶμα.

1 Clem. 11:2 εἰς κρίμα καὶ εἰς σημείωσιν . . . γίνονται.

Ign. Eph. 11:1 ἵνα μὴ ἡμῖν εἰς κρῖμα γένηται.


f. The employment of εἰς to express the object or destination of a thing might easily be paralleled from classical Greek, but its frequent use in the LXX is due to its convenience as a translation of the corresponding Hebrew.

Gen. 34:12 καὶ δώσετέ μοι τὴν παῖδα ταύτην εἰς γυναῖκα.

Ps. 104:17 εἰς δοῦλον ἐπράθη Ἰωσήφ.

3 K. [2 Kings} 19:15 χρίσεις τὸνἈζαὴλ εἰς βασιλέα.

Gen. 12:2 ποιήσω σε εἰς ἔθνος μέγα.


When the verb is active and transitive, as in all but the second of the above instances, εἰς might be dispensed with as far as Greek is concerned. When a verb of being is employed, this use runs into the preceding -


Gen. 1:29 ὑμῖν ἔσται εἰς βρῶσιν, 1:14 ἔστωσαν εἰς σημεῖα.


g. The use of εἰς with the accusative, where classical Greek would simply have employed a dative, is shown by the Papyri to have been a feature of the vernacular Greek of Alexandria.

Ex. 9:21 ὃ δὲ μὴ προσέσχεν τῇ διανοίᾳ εἰς τὸ ῥῆμα κυρίου κτλ.


So in N.T. --


1 Cor. 16:1 τῆς λογίας τῆς εἰς τοὺς ἁγίους (the collection for the saints).


91. ἐν. a. Although ἐν was destined ultimately to disappear before εἰς, yet in Biblical Greek we find it in the plenitude of its power, as expressing innumerable relations, some of which seem to the classical student to be quite beyond its proper sphere. One principal use may be summed up under the title of “The ἐν of Accompanying Circumstances.” This includes the instrumental use, but goes far beyond it. Under this aspect ἐν invades the domain of μετά and σύν. In most cases it may be rendered by the English ‘with.’

Hos. 1:7 σώσω αὐτοὺς ἐν κυρίῳ Θεῷ αὐτῶν, καὶ οὐ σώσω αὐτοὺς ἐν τόξῳ οὐδὲ ἐν ῥομφαίᾳ οὐδὲ ἐν πολέμῳ οὐδὲ ἐν ἵπποις οὐδὲ ἐν ἱππεῦσιν. Cp. 1 K. [1 Sam.] 17:45, 47: 1 Mac. 3:12.

Ex. 6:1 ἐν γὰρ χειρὶ κραταιᾷ κτλ. (But in Ex. 3:19 we have ἐὰν μὴ μετὰ χειρὸς κραταιᾶς.) Cp. Ex. 3:20: Jdg. 15:15, 16.

Jdg. 14:18 εἰ μὴ ἠροτριάσατε ἐν τῇ δαμάλει μου. Cp. 3 K. [2 Kings} 19:19.

4 K. [2 Kings] 18:17 ἐν δυνάμει βαρείᾳ. In the parallel passage Is. 36:2 μετὰ δυνάμεως πολλῆς.

1 Mac. 4:6 ὤφθη Ἰούδας . . . ἐν τρισχιλίοις ἀνδράσιν.


So in N.T. --


1 Cor. 4:21 ἐν ῥάβδῳ ἔλθω πρὸς ὑμᾶς; Cp. 1 K. [1 Sam.] 17:43: Ps. 2:9.

Eph. 6:2 ἐντολὴ πρώτη ἐν ἐπαγγελίᾳ.

2 Pet. 3:16 ἐν ἀνθρώπου φωνῇ.

Mt. 9:34 ἐν τῷ ἄρχοντι τῶν δαιμονίων ἐκβάλλει τὰ δαιμόνια. Cp. Mt. 12:24, 25:16.

Mt. 26:52 ἐν μαχαίρᾳ ἀπολοῦνται.


b. The ἐν of accompanying circumstances is not wholly foreign to classical Greek, though the extended use made of it in Biblical diction is.

Eur. Tro. 817 ὦ χρυσέαις ἐν οἰνοχόαις ἁβρὰ βαίνων.


c. In another of its Biblical uses ἐν becomes indistinguishable from εἰς, as in -


Ex. 4:21 πάντα τὰ τέρατα ἃ ἔδωκα ἐν ταῖς χερσίν σου.

Jdg. 13:1 παρέδωκεν αὐτοὺς Κύριος ἐν χειρὶ Φυλιστιείμ. Cp. Jdg. 15:12, 13; 16:23, 24.

Is. 37:10 οὐ μὴ παραδοθῇ Ἱερουσαλὴμ ἐν χειρὶ βασιλέως, while the parallel passage in 4 K. [2 Kings] 19:10 has εἰς χεῖρας βασιλέως.

Tob. 5:5 πορευθῆναι ἐν Ῥάγοις. Cp. Tob. 6:6, 9:2.


So in N.T. --


2 Cor. 8:16 χάρις δὲ τῷ Θεῷ τῷ διδόντι τὴν αὐτὴν σπουδὴν ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ Τίτου.

Mt. 14:3 ἔθετο ἐν φυλακῇ.

Jn. 3:35 πάντα δέδωκεν ἐν τῇ χειρὶ αὐτοῦ.

Rev. 11:11 πνεῦμα ζωῆς ἐκ τοῦ Θεοῦ εἰσήλθεν ἐν αὐτοῖς.


92. ἀπό. a. ἀπό in the LXX is often little more than a sign of the genitive, like our English ‘of,’ provided that the genitive be partitive.

Ex. 12:46 καὶ ὀστοῦν οὐ συντρίψετε ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ.

Josh. 9:8 οὐκ ἦν ῥῆμα ἀπὸ πάντων ὧν ἐνετείλατο Μωυσῆς τῷ Ἰησοῖ ὃ οὐκ ἀνέγνω Ἰησοῦς.

3 K. [2 Kings} 18:13 ἔκρυψα ἀπὸ τῶν προφητῶν Κυρίου ἑκατὸν ἄνδρας.

Joel 2:28 ἐκχεῶ ἀπὸ τοῦ πνεύματός μου.

2 Esd. [Ezra] 11:2 εἷς ἀπὸ ἀδελφῶν μου.


So in N.T. --


Lk. 6:13 ἐκλεξάμενος ἀπ’ αὐτῶν δώδεκα.

Jn. 21:10 ἐνέγκατε ἀπὸ τῶν ὀψαρίων ω—ν ἐπιάσατε νῦν.


b. ἀπό = ‘by reason of’ is another unclassical use which occurs in the LXX.

Gen. 41:31 καὶ οὐκ ἐπιγνωσθήσεται ἡ εὐθηνία ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς ἀπὸ τοῦ λιμοῦ.

Ex. 2:23 καὶ κατεστέναξαν οἱ υἱοὶ Ἰσραὴλ ἀπὸ τῶν ἔργων,

3:7 καὶ τῆς κραυγῆς αὐτῶν ἀκήκοα ἀπὸ τῶν ἐργοδιωκτῶν.

Ps. 11:6 ἀπὸ τῆς ταλαιποωρίας τῶν πτωχῶν . . . ἀναστήσομαι.

Sir. 20:6 ἔστιν μισητὸς ἀπὸ πολλῆς λαλιᾶς.

Nahum 1:6 αἱ πέτραι διεθρύβησαν ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ.


In this way ἀπό becomes = ὑπό, as in Dan. Ο’ 1:18.


So in N.T. --


Hb. 5:7 εἰσακουσθεὶς ἀπὸ τῆς εὐλαβείας.

Lk. 19:3 οὐκ ἠδύνατο ἀπὸ τοῦ ὄχλου, 24:41 ἀπιστούντων αὐτῶν ἀπὸ τῆς χαρᾶς. Cp. Acts 12:14, 22:11.

Jn. 21:6 οὐκέτι αὐτὸ ἑλκύσαι ἴσχυον ἀπὸ τοῦ πλήθους τῶν ἰχθύων.


Of ἀπό = ὑπό see instances in Lk. 9:22, 17:25: Acts 20:9.


c. The combination ἀπό . . . ἕως is a Hebraism. It may be rendered “from . . . unto,” as in -


Dt. 8:35 ἀπὸ ἴχνους τῶν ποδῶν σου ἕως τῆς κορυφῆς σου,


or “both . . . and,” as in -


Ex. 9:25 ἀπὸ ἀνθρώπου . . . ἕως κτήνους.


Sometimes καί precedes the ἕως -


Jdg. 15:5 ἀπὸ . . . καὶ ἕως . . . καὶ ἕως both . . . and . . . and. Cp. Sir. 40:3: Jer. 27:3.


93. μετά. μετά with genitive = ‘in dealing with’ is a Hebraism.

Jdg. 15:3 ὅτι ποιῶ ἐγὼ μετ’ αὐτῶν πονηρίαν.


So in N.T. --


Lk. 10:37 ὁ ποιήσας τὸ ἔλεος μετ’ αὐτοῦ: Acts 14:27. Cp. Herm. Past. Sim. 5.1.1: 1 Clem. 61:3.


94. ὑπέρ. a. The frequent use of ὑπέρ in the LXX to express comparison is due to the fact that the Hebrew language has no special form for the comparative degree. We therefore sometimes find the LXX representing the original by the positive with ὑπέρ.

Ruth 4:15 ἥ ἐστιν ἀγαθή σοι ὑπὲρ ἑπτὰ υἱούς. Cp. 1 K. [1 Sam.] 1:8, 15:28: 3 K. [2 Kings} 20:2: 2 Chr. 21:14.

1 K. [1 Sam.] 9:2 ὑψηλὸς ὑπὲρ πᾶσαν τὴν γῆν.

1 Chr. 4:9 ἔνδοξος ὑπὲρ τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς αὐτοῦ.

Sir. 24:20 ὑπὲρ μέλι γλυκύ.

Ezk. 5:1 ῥομφαίαν ὀξεῖαν ὑπὲρ ξυρὸν κουρέως.


b. More often however the comparative is used, but the construction with ὑπέρ still retained.

Jdg. 15:2 ἀγαθωτέρα ὑπὲρ αὐτήν. Cp. Jdg. 11:25.

Jdg. 18:26 δυνατώτεροι εἰσιν ὑπὲρ αὐτόν.

Ruth 3:12 ἐγγίων ὑπὲρ ἐμέ.

3 K. [2 Kings} 19:4 κρείσσων . . . ὑπὲρ τοὺς πατέρας. Cp. Sir. 30:17.

Hbk. 1:8 ὀξύτεροι ὑπὲρ λύκους.

Dan. O’ 1:20 σοφωτέρους δεκαπλασίως ὑπὲρ τοὺς σοφιστάς.


c. ὑπέρ is employed in the same way after verbs -


Ex. 1:9 ιΗσχύει ὑπὲρ ἡμᾶς.

1 K. [1 Sam.] 1:5 τὴν Ἄνναν ἠγάπα Ἐλκανὰ ὑπὲρ ταύτην.

Ps. 39:13 ἐπληθύνθησαν ὑπὲρ τὰς τρίχας τῆς κεφαλῆς μου.

1 Chr. 19:12 ἐὰν κρατήσῃ ὑπὲρ ἐμὲ Σύρος.

Jer. 5:3 ἐστερέωσαν . . . ὑπὲρ πέτραν, 16:12 ὑμεῖς ἐπονηρεύσασθε ὑπὲρ τοὺς πατέρας ὑμῶν. Cp. 17:23.

Jer. 26:23 πληθύνει ὑπὲρ ἀκρίδα.

Dan. O’ 3:22 ἡ κάμινος ἐξεκαύθη ὑπὲρ τὸ πρότερον ἑπταπλασίως.


d. So in N.T. --

after a comparative -
Lk. 16:8 φρονιμώτεροι ὑπὲρ τοὺς υἱοὺς τοῦ φωτός.

Hb. 4:12 τομώτερος ὑπὲρ πᾶσαν μάχαιραν.


after a verb -

Gal. 1:14 προέκοπτον . . . ὑπὲρ πολλούς.

Mt. 10:37 ὁ φιλῶν πατέρα ἢ μητέρα ὑπὲρ ἐμέ.

Cp. Herm. Past. Mdt. 5.1.6 ἡ μακροθυμία γλυκυτάτη ἐστὶν ὑπὲρ τὸ μέλι. Mart. Polyc. 18 δοκιμώτερα ὑπὲρ χρυσίον ὀστᾶ αὐτοῦ.


95. ἐπί. a. ἐπί with the accusative is used of rest as well as of motion.

Gen. 41:17 ἑστάναι ἐπὶ τὸ χεῖλος τοῦ ποταμοῦ.

Ex. 10:14 καὶ ἀνήγαγεν αὐτὴν (τὴν ἀκρίδα) ἐπὶ πᾶσαν γὴν Αἰγύπτου, καὶ κατέπαυσεν ἐπὶ πάντα τὰ ὅρια Αἰγύπτου πολλὴ σφόδρα.

Jdg. 16:27 ἐπὶ τὸ δῶμα = upon the roof.


b. ἐπί is sometimes used to reinforce an accusative of duration of time.

Jdg. 14:17 καὶ ἔκλαυσεν πρὸς αὐτὸν ἐπὶ τὰς ἑπτὰ ἡμέρας ἃς ἦν αὐτοῖς ὁ πότος.


c. In Josh. 25:10 we find μέγαν ἐπὶ τοῦ ἰδεῖν where in classical Greek we should have only μέγαν ἰδεῖν.


d. In the N.T. also ἐπί with the accusative is used of rest or position -


2 Cor. 3:15 κάλυμμα ἐπὶ τὴν καρδίαν αὐτῶν κεῖται.

Mk. 2:14 καθήμενον ἐπὶ τὸ τελώνιον. Cp. Lk. 5:27.

Mk. 4:38 ἐπὶ τὸ προσκεφάλαιον καθεύδων.

Mt. 14:28 περιπατῶν ἐπὶ τὴν θάλασσαν (in Jn. 6:19 περιπατοῦντα ἐπὶ τῆς θαλάσσης).

Lk. 2:25 πνεῦμα ἅγιον ἦν ἐπ’ αὐτόν. Cp. Lk. 2:40.

Jn. 1:32 ἔμεινεν ἐπ’ αὐτόν.


96. παρά. a. παρά naturally lends itself to the expression of comparison, and is so used occasionally in the best Greek, e.g. Thuc. 1.23.4: Xen. Mem. 1.4.14: Hdt. 7.103. It is therefore not surprising that it should have been employed by the translators in the same way as ὑπέρ.

Ex. 18:11 μέγας Κύριος παρὰ πάντας τοὺς θεούς. Cp. Ps. 134:5: Dan. Ο’ 11:12.

Nb. 12:3 καὶ ὁ ἄνθρωπος Μωυσῆς πραὺς σφόδρα παρὰ πάντας τοὺς ἀνθρώπους.

Dan. Ο’ 1:10 ἀσθενῆ παρὰ τοὺς συντρεφομένους ὑμῖν (Θ has σκυθρωπὰ παρὰ τὰ παιδάρια τὰ συνήλικα ὑμῶν). Cp. Ο’ 1:13.

Dan. Θ 7:7 διάφορον περισσῶς παρὰ πάντα τὰ θήρια.

1 Esd. 4:35 ἰσχυροτέρα παρὰ πάντα.

Dan. Ο’ 11:13 μείζονα παρὰ τὴν πρώτην (Θ has πολὺν ὑπὲρ τὸν πρότερον).

Dt. 7:7 ὑμεῖς γάρ ἐστε ὀλιγοστοὶ παρὰ πάντα τὰ ἔθνη.

Gen. 43:34 ἐμεγαλύνθη δὲ ἡ μερὶς Βενιαμεὶν παρὰ τὰς μερίδας πάντων.

Ps. 8:6 ἠλάττωσας αὐτὸν βραχύ τι παρ’ ἀγγέλους.


b. In the N.T. παρά after a comparative is abundant in Hebrews -

1:4, 3:3, 9:23, 11:4, 12:24.


We find it after a positive and after a comparative in Luke -


Lk. 13:2 ἁμαρτωλοὶ παρὰ πάντας τοὺς Γαλιλαίους, 3:13 μηδὲν πλέον παρὰ τὸ διατεταγμένον ὑμῖν πράσσετε,


and after verbs in -


Rom. 14:5 ὃ μὲν κρίνει ἡμέραν παρ’ ἡμέραν.

Hb. 1:9 ἔχρισέ σε ὁ Θεός . . . παρὰ τοὺς μετόχους σου.


c. In the Apostolic Father cp. -


Herm. Past. Vis. 3.12.1 ἱλαρωτέραν παρὰ τὸ πρότερον, Sim. 9.18.2 πλείονα . . . παρά.

Barn. Ep. 4:5 (in a quotation from Daniel which is neither Ο´’ nor Θ) χαλεπώτερον παρὰ πάντα τὰ θήρια.


97. New Forms of Prepostion. a. Besides the more liberal use made of the prepositions already current in classical Greek, we meet also in the LXX with new forms of preposition.


b. ἀπάνωθεν occurs in Swete’s text in Jdg. 16:20: 2 K. [2 Sam.] 11:20, 24; 20:21: 3 K. [2 Kings} 1:53: 4 K. [2 Kings] 2:3. It not unnaturally gets confused in some places with the classical ἐπάνωθεν, which is very common in the LXX, having been found a convenient rendering of certain compound prepositions in the Hebrew.


c. ὑποκάτωθεν, which is only used as an adverb in classical Greek, assumes in the LXX the function of a preposition, e.g. -

Dt. 9:14 ἐξαλείψω τὸ ὄνομα αὐτῶν ὑποκάτωθεν τοῦ οὐρανοῦ.


The corresponding form ὑπεράνωθεν occurs in the LXX only twice, once as an adverb in Ps. 77:23 and once as a preposition in -


Ezk. 1:25 ὑπεράνωθεν τοῦ στερεώματος.


d. ἔναντι in many passages of the LXX has been replaced in Swete’s text by ἐναντίον, but there are still numerous instances of it left, e.g. Ex. 28:12, 23, 34; 29:10, 23, 24, 25, 26, 42. In N.T. is occurs in Lk. 1:8, Acts. 8:21.


ἀπέναντι is also common, e.g. Gen. 3:24, 21:26, 23:19, 25:9, 49:30. In the N.T. it occurs in the sense of ‘contrary to’ in Acts. 17:7.


κατέεναντι is specially frequent in the book of Sirach.


e. ἐνώπιον is another preposition unknown to classical authors, but extremely common in Biblical Greek, as being an apt equivalent for certain Hebrew forms of expression. Deissmann gives instances of its adverbial use in the Papyri, so that we need not suppose it to have been invented by the translators of the O.T. In the N.T. it occurs frequently in Luke-Acts, Paul, and Revelation, but is not used in Matthew or Mark.


κατενώπιον occurs in the LXX in Lvt. 4:17: Josh. 1:5, 3:7, 21:44, 23:9: Esther 5:1: Dan. Θ 5:22. In N.T. in Eph. 1:4: Col. 1:22: Jude 24.


f. ὀπίσω as a preposition is unclassical, but extremely common in the LXX.

In the N.T. it occurs in 1 Tim. 5:15: Acts 5:37, 20:30: Mt. 4:19, 10:38, 16:24: Lk. 14:27: Jn. 12:19: Rev. 13:3.


g. κατόπισθε(ν) is construed with a genitive in Hom. Od. 12.148, but its classical use is almost wholly adverbial, whereas in the LXX, in which it occurs twenty-four times in all, it is mainly prepositional.


In 2 Chr. 34:38 we have ἀπὸ ὄπισθεν Κυρίου. Cp. Eccl. 1:10 ἀπὸ ἐμπροσθεν ἡμῶν.


h. κυκλόθεν occurs in the LXX as a preposition in 3 K. [2 Kings} 18:32: Sir. 50:12 A: Jer. 17:26, 31:17: 1 Mac. 14:17.


In N.T. only in Rev. 4:3, 5:11 κυκλόθεν τοῦ θρόνου.


κύκλῳ is sometimes used in the same way, as in 3 K. [2 Kings} 18:35: Sir. 23:18: Is. 6:2: Jer. 39:44.

Cp. Strabo 17.6, p. 792 τὰ δὲ κύκλῳ τῆς κώμης.


i. Other prepositions that may be briefly noticed are ἐχόμενα πέτρας Ps. 140:6, ἐσώτερον τῆς κολυμβήθρας Is. 22:11.


In Sir. 29:25 we have the combination καὶ πρὸς ἐπὶ τούτοις.


98. Prepositions after Verbs. The great use made of prepositions after verbs is one of the main characteristics of Biblical Greek. It is partly a feature of later Greek generally, but to a still greater extent it is due to the influence of the Hebrew. In the following list of instances perhaps the last only is irreproachable as Greek: -


ἀδυνατεῖν ἀπό Dt. 17:8.

ἀθετεῖν ἐν 4 K. [2 Kings] 1:1; 3:5, 7; 18:7; 24:1, 20: 2 Chr. 10:19.

αἱρετίζειν ἐν 1 Chr. 29:1: 2 Chr. 29:11.

βδελύσσεσθαι ἀπό Ex. 1:12.

βοᾶν ἐν 3 K. [2 Kings} 18:24.

ἐκδικεῖν ἐκ Dt. 18:19.

ἐκλέγειν ἐν 1 Chr. 28:5.

ἐλπίζειν ἐπί with accusative Ps. 4:6, 5:12, 9:11, 40:10.

ἐλπίζειν ἐπί with dative Ps. 7:1.

ἐνεδρεύειν ἐπί Jdg. 16:2.

ἐντρέπεσθαι ἀπό 2 Chr. 36:12: 1 Esd. 1:45.

ἐπικαλεῖσθαι ἐν 3 K. [2 Kings} 18:25, 26.

ἐσθίειν ἀπό Lvt. 22:6: Jdg. 13:16.

εὐδοκεῖν ἐν Ps. 146:10.

θέλειν ἐν 1 K. [1 Sam.] 18:22: 1 Chr. 28:4: Ps. 146:10.

θεωρεῖν ἐν Jdg. 16:27.

καταφρονεῖν ἐπί Tobit 4:18.

λογίζεσθαι εἰς 1 K. [1 Sam.] 1:13.

μυκτηρίζειν ἐν 1 Esd. 1:51.

πατάσσειν ἐν 2 Chr. 28:5, 17.

ποιεῖν ἔλεος ἐν Josh. 2:12.

ποιεῖν ἔλεος μετά Jdg. 8:35.

πολεμεῖν ἐν 1 K. [1 Sam.] 28:15.

προσέχειν εἰς Ex. 9:21.

προσοχθίζειν ἀπό Nb. 22:3.

συνιέναι εἰς Ps. 27:5.

ὑπερηφανεύεσθαι ἀπό Tobit 4:14.

φείδεσθαι ἐπί Dt. 7:16.

φοβεῖσθαι ἀπό Dt. 1:29, 7:29: Josh. 11:6: 4 K. [2 Kings] 1:15: Ps. 3:7.

φυλάσσεσθαι ἀπό Jdg. 13:14. Cp. Xen. Cyrop. 2.3.9, Hell. 7.2.10.

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