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VERBS, 72-84

72. Analytic Tenses. By an Analytic Tense is meant one which is formed with an auxiliary instead of by an inflexion, as in English, ‘is coming’ for ‘comes.’ No reader of the LXX can fail to be struck by the frequency of such forms. It results from the fact that both languages combine to produce them. They are suggested by the great use made of the participle in Hebrew, while at the same time there was a strong tendency towards the employment of such forms within the Greek language itself. They are to be found in the best writers, both in prose and poetry, from Homer downwards. Plato often has recourse to them, partly for the sake of philosophical precision, and partly, it must be confessed, because in his later style he preferred two words to one. In the Laws πρέπον ἐστί almost altogether displaces πρέπει.


PRESENT

3 K. [2 Kings} 20:5 οὐκ εἶ σὺ ἐσθίων ἄρτον; Cp. Is. 10:8: Ezk. 36:13.

3 K. [2 Kings} 18:12 ἐστὶν φοβούμενος.

Nb. 14:8 ἐστὶν ῥέουσα. Cp. 3 K. [2 Kings} 20:15: Dan. 2:28.

2 Esd. [Ezra] 23:24 οὐκ εἰσὶν ἐπιγινώσκοντες.

Prov. 3:5 ἴσθι πεποιθώς.

Jdg. 11:10 ἔστω ἀκούων.

Dan. Ο’ 6:26 ἔστωσαν προσκυνοῦντες.

2 Chr. 15:16 εἶναι . . . λειτουργοῦσαν.


FUTURE SIMPLE

Gen. 4:14 ἔσομαι στένων καὶ τρέμων. Cp. Dan. Ο´ 6:27.

Is. 47:7 ἔσομαι ἄρχουσα.

Gen. 4:12 στένων καὶ τρέμων ἔσῃ.Cp. Ex. 22:25: Dt. 28:29.

Dt. 28:29 ἔσῃ . . . ἀδικούμενος.

Nb. 8:19 ἔσται . . . προεγγίζων. Cp. Gen. 18:18.

Mal. 3:3 ἔσονται . . . προσάγοντες.

Is. 22:24 ἔσονται ἐπικρεμάμενοι.

Ezk. 34:29 ἔσονται ἀπολλύμενοι. Cp. Dt. 14:33


PERFECT

Is. 8:14 πεποιθὼς ᾖς.

Is. 10:20, 17:8 πεποιθότες ὦμεν.

Nb. 22:12 ἔστιν γὰρ εὐλογημένος.


FUTURE PERFECT

Gen. 43:9, 44:32 ἡμαρτηκὼς ἔσομαι.

2 K. [2 Sam.] 22:3: Is. 12:2, 8:17 πεποιθὼς ἔσομαι (fut. simp. in force).

Sir. 7:25 ἔσῃ τετελεκώς.

Is. 58:14 ἔσῃ πεποιθώς.

Is. 17:7, 22:24 πεποιθὼς ἔσται.

Ex. 12:6 ἔσται ὑμῖν διατετηρημένον.

Is. 32:3 ἔσονται πεποιθότες.

Gen. 41:36 ἔσται . . . πεφυλαγμένα.


IMPERFECT

Dan. 10:2 ἤμην πενθῶν.

Dan. Ο’ 7:11 θεωρῶν ἤμην.

Gen. 40:13 ἦσθα οἰνοχοῶν.

Gen. 37:2: Ex. 3:1 ἦν ποιμαίνων. Cp. Gen. 39:23, 42:6: Nb. 11:1: Jdg. 16:21: Jonah 1:10: Sus. 1: 1 Mac. 6:43.

1 K. [1 Sam.] 17:34 ποιμαίνων ἦν.

Jer. 4:24 ἦν τρέμοντα (sc. τὰ ὄρη).

3 K. [2 Kings} 18:3 ἦν φοβούμενος. Cp. Dan. Ο’ 6:18.

Dan. Ο’ 1:16 ἦν . . . ἀναιρούμενος.

Baruch 1:19 ἤμεθα ἀπειθοῦντες.

Dt. 9:24 ἀπειθοῦντες ἦτε. Cp. Dt. 9:22, 31:27.

Jdg. 1:7 ἦσαν συλλέγοντες. Cp. Josh. 10:26: 1 Mac. 11:41.


PLUPERFECT

Dan. Ο’ 10:9 ἤμην πεπτωκώς.

Dan. Θ 10:9 ἤμην κατανενυγμένος.

2 Chr. 18:34 ἦν ἑστηκώς.

1 K. [1 Sam.] 4:13 ἦν . . . ἐξεστηκυῖα.

Jdg. 8:11: Sus. Θ 35 ἦν πεποιθυῖα.

Josh. 7:22 ἦν ἐνκεκρυμμένα.

2 Chr. 5:8 ἦν διαπεπετακότα.

Tob. 6:18 ἡτοιμασμένη ἦν.

Is. 20:6 ἦμεν πεποιθότες.

Ex. 39:23 ἦσαν πεποιηκότες αὐτά.


b. Γίγνεσθαι may be used as an auxiliary instead of εἶναι.

Ps. 72:14 ἐγενόμην μεμαστιγωμένος.

Is. 30:12 πεποιθὼς ἐγένου.

Nb. 10:34 ἐγένετο σκιάζουσα.

Ps. 125:3 ἐγενήθημεν εὐφραινόμενοι.

Ex. 17:12 ἐγένοντο . . . ἐστηριγμέναι.

Sir. 13:9 ὑποχωρῶν γίνου, 18:33 μὴ γίνου . . . συμβολοκοπῶν.


c. Sometimes the verbal adjective is used in place of the participle.

Is. 18:3 ἀκουστὸν ἔσται.

Dt. 4:36 ἀκουστὴ ἐγένετο.

Gen. 45:2: Is. 48:3 ἀκουστὸν ἐγένετο.

Is. 23:5 ὅταν δὲ ἀκουτὸν γένηται.

Dt. 30:5 πλεοναστόν σε ποιήσει.


d. When a causative form is wanted corresponding το ἀκουστὸν γενέσθαι recourse is had to ἀκουστὸν ποιεῖν, e.g. -


Sir. 46:17 ἀκουστὴν ἐποίησεν τὴν φωὴν αὐτοῦ. Cp. Ps. 105:2, 142:8: Jer. 27:2, 38:7: Is. 30:30, 45:21, 48:5, 6, 20, 52:7, 62:11.


e. In the N.T. these analytic tenses are relatively even commoner than in the LXX.


PRESENT

Col. 3:2 ἐστιν . . . καθήμενος.

2 Cor. 9:12 ἐστὶ προσαναπληροῦσα.

Col. 1:6 ἐστὶ καρποφορούμενον καὶ αὐξανόμενον.

Col. 2:23 ἐστι . . . ἔχοντα.

2 Cor. 2:17 ἐσμὲν . . . καπηλεύοντες.

Acts 5:25 εἰσὶν . . . ἑστῶτες καὶ διδάσκοντες.

Mt. 5:25 ἴσθι εὐνοῶν.


FUTURE SIMPLE


Lk. 5:11 ἀνθρώπους ἔσῃ ζωγρῶν.

Acts 7:6 ἔσται . . . πάροικον.

1 Cor. 14:10 ἔσεσθε . . . λαλοῦντες.


PERFECT

Acts 25:10 ἑστώς εἰμι (present in meaning).

Acts 21:33 ἐστὶ πεποιηκώς.

1 Cor. 15:9 ἠλπικότες ἐσμέν.

Hb. 7:21, 23 εἰσὶ γεγονότες.

James 5:16 ᾖ πεποιηκώς.

2 Cor. 1:19 πεποιθότες ὦμεν.

Hb. 4:2 ἐσμὲν εὐηγγελισμένοι.

Hb. 10:10 ἡγιασμένοι ἐσμέν.

Acts 2:13 μεμεστωμένοι εἰσί.


FUTURE PERFECT

Hb. 2:13 ἔσομαι πεποιθώς (from Is. 12:2 perfect only in form).


IMPERFECT

Acts 10:30, 11:5 ἤμην προσευχόμενος. Cp. 22:19, 20: Gal. 1:22.

Lk. 4:44 ἦν κηρύσσων. Cp. Lk. 5:16, 23:8: Acts 7:60, 8:13, 28, 9:28, 10:24, 12:20: Phil 2:26.

Acts 12:5 ἦν γινομένη.

Acts 21:3 ἦν . . . ἀποφορτιζόμενον.

Acts 16:12 ἦμεν . . . διατρίβοντες.

Gal. 1:23 ἀκούοντες ἦσαν. Cp. Acts 1:10.

Acts 1:13 ἦσαν καταμένοντες. Cp. Acts 1:14, 2:2, 5, 12, 42: Mk. 2:18.


f. Besides εἶναι other auxiliaries are used in the N.T. --


2 Cor. 6:14 μὴ γίνεσθε ἑτεροζυγοῦντες.

Col. 1:18 ἵνα γένηται . . . πρωτεύων.

Rev. 3:2 γίνου γρηγορῶν.

Acts 8:16 βεβαπτισμένοι ὑπήρχον.


With the last example cp. Aristeas § 193 εἰ μὴ πεποιθὼς ὕπαρχοι. The

same author has κεχαρισμένος ἔσῃ in § 40 and ἰσχῦόν ἐστι in 241.


g. Instances of analytic tenses occur here and there in Josephus, e.g. -


B.J. 1.31.1 καὶ τοῦτο ἦν μάλιστα τάρασσονἈντίπατρον.

Ant. 2.6.7 τί παρόντες εἴημεν.


h. Also in the Apostolic Fathers -


2 Clem. 17:7 ἔσονται δόξαν δόντες. Barn. Ep. 19:4 ἔσῃ τρέμων,

19:6 οὐ μὴ γένῃ ἐπιθυμῶν. Cp. 19:9. Herm. Past. Vis. 3.4.2

ὑπερέχοντες αὐτούς εἰσιν, Sim. 5.4.2 ἔσομαι ἑωρακώς . . . ἀκηκοώς,

9.13.2 ἔσῃ . . . φορῶν, Mdt. 5.2.8 ἔσῃ εὑρισκόμενος, Sim. 9.1.8 εὐθηνοῦν

ἦν, 9.4.1 ὑποδεδυκυῖαι ἦσαν . . . ὑποδεδύκεισαν.


73. Deliberative Use of the Present Indicative. The deliberative use of

the present indicative is not unknown in Latin, especially in Terence, e.g.

Phorm. 447 quid ago? Cp. Heaut. 343: Eun. 811: Ad. 538. It occurs also in

the Greek of the LXX.

Gen. 37:30 ἐγὼ δὲ ποῦ πορεύομαι ἔτι;

So in N.T. --


Jn. 11:47 τί ποιοῦμεν; What is our course?


74. The Jussive Future. a. The Jussive Future is rare in Attic Greek, and,

when it does occur, is regarded as a weak form of imperative. In the LXX,

on the other hand, it is very common, and is employed in the most

solemn language of legislation. From the nature of the case it is not used

in the first person. It may be employed in command or in prohibition. As

instances of the former we may take -

Lvt. 19:18 ἀγαπήσεις τὸν πλησίον σου ὡς σεαυτόν. Cp. Ex.

34:18,20: 3 K. [2 Kings} 17:11.

Lvt. 19:19 τὸν νόμον μου φυλάξεσθε. Cp. Lvt. 11:44.

Lvt. 19:22 καὶ ἐξιλάσεται ὁ ἱερεύς. Cp. Lvt. 19:20,21.


b. Very often the jussive future follows an imperative.

Gen. 40:14 μνήσθητί μου . . . καὶ ποιήσεις. Cp. Gen. 44:4: Ex. 7:26, 9:1, 13: Nb. 15:2, 17: 3 K. [2 Kings} 17:13.

Josh. 8:4 μὴ μακρὰν γίνεσθε . . . καὶ ἔσεσθε πάντες ἕτοιμοι. Cp. Nb. 13:18.


c. Of the use of the jussive future in prohibition we have a conspicuous example in the Ten Commandments (Ex. 20:13-17: Dt. 5:17-21) - Οὐ μοιχεύσεις, Οὐ κλέψεις κτλ. So also -


Dt. 6:16 οὐκ ἐκπειράσεις Κύριον τὸν Θεόν σου. Cp. Nb. 22:12: Ex. 22:28: Lvt. 19:12-19.


d. In the case of the jussive future we have οὐ in prohibition, because the formula was originally one of prediction.


e. Occasionally there is a transition from the jussive future to οὐ μή with subjunctive -


Nb. 23:25 οὔτε κατάρασις καταράσῃ μοι αὐτόν, οὔτε εὐλογῶν μὴ εὐλογήσῃς αὐτόν.


f. In the N.T. the jussive future is often used in passages quoted from the LXX. In Matthew it is employed independently.

Mt. 5:48 ἔσεσθε οὖν ὑμεῖς τέλειοι, 6:45 οὐκ ἔσεσθε ὡς οἱ ὑποκριταί, 20:26-28 οὐχ οὕτως ἔσται ἐν ὑμῖν . . . ἔσται ὑμῶν δοῦλος, 21:3 καὶ ἐάν τις ὑμῖν εἴπῃ τι, ἐρεῖτε κτλ.


75. The Optative. a. The pure optative, i.e. the optative as employed to express a wish, is of frequent occurrence in the LXX, as might be expected from the character of the contents, so much of which is in the form either of aspiration or of imprecation. But the use of the optative where in Latin we should have the historic tenses of the subjunctive is hardly to be found outside of Maccabees.

2 Mac. 3:37 τοῦ δὲ βασιλέως ἐπερωτήσαντος τὸν Ἡλιόδωρον, ποῖός τις εἴη ἐπιτήσειος.

4 Mac. 17:1 ἔλεγον δὲ καὶ τῶν δορυφόρων τινες ὡς . . . ἵνα μὴ ψαύσειέν τι τοῦ σώματος αὐτῆς, ἑαύτην ἔρριψεν κατὰ τῆς πυρᾶς.


The established practice is for the subjunctive to follow the historic tenses in a final clause -


Ex. 1:11 ἐπέστησεν . . . ἵνα κακώσωσιν, 9:16 διετηρήθης ἵνα ἐνδείξωμαι.

Wisd. 16:11 διεσώζοντο, ἵνα μὴ . . . γένωνται. Cp. 16:18.

Cp. Aristeas §§ 11, 18, 19, 26, 29, 42, 111, 175, 193.


b. In the N.T. also the subjunctive is regularly employed in final clauses after an historic tense, e.g. -


Tit. 1:5 τούτου χάριν ἀπέλιπον σε ἐν Κρήτῃ, ἵνα τὰ λείποντα ἐπιδιορθώσῃ.


c. The pure optative is said to occur 35 times in the N.T., always, except in Philemon 20, in the 3d person.

In Luke-Acts the optative is commonly employed in dependent questions, e.g. -


Luke 18:36 ἐπυνθάνετο τί εἴη τοῦτο,

with which contrast

Mk. 14:11 ἐζήτει πῶς εὐκαίρως αὐτὸν παραδῷ.

Outside of Acts the optative with εἰ is found only in four passages -


1 Cor. 14:10, 15:37 (εἰ τύχοι): 1 Pet. 3:14, 17.


76. Conditional with ἄν. Occasionally we find the apodosis in a conditional sentence devoid of ἄν.

Nb. 22:33 καὶ εἰ μὴ ἐξέκλινεν, νῦν οὖν σὲ μὲν ἀπέκτεινα, ἐκείνην δὲ περιεποιησάμην. Contrast 22:29 and compare 2 K. [2 Sam.] 2:27.


77. Infinitive of Purpose. The use of the infinitive to express purpose, as in English, is common to all stages of the Greek language, but abounds more in the LXX than in classical Greek.

Gen. 37:25 ἐκάθισαν δὲ φαγεῖν ἄρτον. Cp. 39:14, 42:7, 27, 43:22: Ex. 14:11: Nb. 22:20: Job. 2:1.

Of the use of the infinitive with the article to express purpose we have had occasion to speak already (§ 59).


78. Infinitive of Consequence. This construction is of doubtful propriety in Attic Greek. In the LXX it is much less common than the Infinitive of Purpose.

Ex. 11:1 καὶ οὐκ εἰσήκουσεν ἐξαποστεῖλαι τοὺς υἱοὺς Ἰσραήλ.


79. Paucity of Participles. The small use made of participles in the LXX, as compared with classical Greek, is a natural result of the paratactical construction which reigns throughout. The same is the case, though to a less extent, in the N.T. Take for instance -


Mk. 14:16 καὶ ἐξῆλθον οἱ μαθηταί, καὶ ἦλθον εἰς τὴν πόλιν, καὶ εὗρεν καθὼς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς· καὶ ἡτοίμασαν τὸ πάσχα.

The participle has disappeared in the modern language. Doubtless the influence of Biblical Greek was among the causes of its decline.


80. Misuse of the Participle. The misuse of the participle marks a stage of its decline. We find this tendency already manifesting itself in the LXX. Such an anacoluthon indeed as the following -


Ex. 8:15, 9:7 ἰδὼν δὲ Φαραώ . . . ἐβαρύνθη ἡ καρδία αὐτοῦ

may be passed over, as it might easily be paralleled from the most strictly classical writers. But we find sentences in the LXX in which a participle is the only verb. Sometimes this arises from following the Hebrew as in -


Jdg. 13:19, 20 καὶ Μανῶε καὶ ἡ γυνὴ αὐτοῦ βλέποντες, 14:4 καὶ ἐν τῷ καιρῷ ἐκείνῳ οἱ ἀλλόφυλοι κυριεύοντες ἐν Ἰσραήλ.

More often it does not, as in -


Ex. 12:37 ἀπάραντες δὲ οἱ υἱοὶ Ἰσραήλ, 15:18 κύριος βασιλεύων τὸν αἰῶνα.

Jdg. 4:16 καὶ Βαρὰκ διώκων.


Moreover we find a participle coupled with a finite verb by καί. When the subject of the two is the same, it is open to us to say that it is not copulative, but merely emphasizes the verb, as in -


Nb. 21:11 καὶ ἐξάραντες (Hb. impf.) ἐξ Ὠβώθ, καί παρενέβαλον ἐν Χαλγαεί, 22:23 καὶ ἰδοῦσα ἡ ὄνος . . . καὶ ἐξέκλινεν.

Hardly so however when the subject is different.

Ex. 12:30 καὶ ἀναστὰς Φαραώ . . . καὶ ἐγενήθη κραυγή.

Nb. 22:23 καὶ ἰδὼν Βαλάκ . . . καὶ ἐφοβήθη Μωάβ.


81. The Intensive Participle. On the other hand there is a cause in operation in the LXX tending to an unnecessary use of participles. For in place of a cognate dative we often find the participle used along with a finite form of the same verb, to convey the intensive force that is accomplished in Hebrew by the addition of the infinitive to the finite verb, e.g. -


Gen. 22:17 εἰ μὴν εὐλογῶν εὐλογήσω σε, καὶ πληθύνων πληθυνῶ τὸ σπέρμα σου.

Jdg. 11:25 μὴ μαχόμενος ἐμαχέσατο μετὰ Ἰσραὴλ ἢ πολεμῶν ἐπολέμησεν αὐτόν;


We might fill pages with instances of this idiom, but a statement of its frequency must suffice. This emphatic use of the participle is a more unmitigated Hebraism than the other forms of the etymological figure. The cognate accusative is quite Greek and the cognate dative is to be found in pure Greek, but we should search in vain among classical authors for the intensive use of the participle. There is a clear instance indeed in Lucian (Dialogi Marini 4.3 ἰδὼν εἶδον), but it is interesting to remember that Lucian himself came from the banks of the Euphrates. In Hdt. 5.95 αὐτὸς μὲν φεύγων ἐκφεύγει there is a difference of meaning between the participle and the finite verb - he himself escapes by flight.

In the N.T. we have one instance, other than a quotation, of this Hebraism, namely -


Eph. 5:5 ἴστε γινώσκοντες,

but both the reading and the interpretation of this passage are disputed.


82. Other Varieties of the Etymological Figure. In Josh. 17:13 ἐξολεθρεῦσαι δὲ αὐτοὺς οὐκ ἐξωλέθρευσαν the infinitive absolute of the Hebrew is represented in Greek by the infinitive, instead of by a participle or a cognate dative, so that sheer nonsense is made of the translation. In another passage, where the Greek departs from our Hebrew, an adjective takes the place of the participle -


Jdg. 5:30 οἰκτείρμων οἰκτειρήσει.


Sometimes we find an adverb in place of the participle -


Ex. 15:1 ἐνδόξως γὰρ δεδόξασται.

Nb. 22:17 ἐντίμως γὰρ τιμήσω σε.

Prov. 23:1 νοητῶς νόει, 27·23 γνωστῶς ἐπιγνώσῃ.


The following turns of expression may also be noticed -


Jdg. 11:25 ἐν ἀγαθῷ ἀγαθώτερος.

Dt. 18:8 μερίδα μεμερισμένην.

1 K. [1 Sam.] 1:11 δώσω αὐτὸν ἐνώπιόν σου δοτόν.


83. Middle and Passive Voices. In later Greek the boundary lines between the middle and passive voices are not clearly demarcated. Even in classical authors we find the future middle used in a passive sense, as it is also in -


Ex. 12:10 οὐκ ἀπολείψεται ἀ’ αὐτοῦ ἕως πρωί, καὶ ὀστοῦν συντρίψεται ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ.

The same seems to be the case with ξυρήσωμαι and ἐξυρήσατο in Jdg. 16:17, 22.


So in N.T. --


1 Cor. 6:11 ἀλλὰ ἀπελούσασθε, ἀλλὰ ἡγιάσθητε, ἀλλ’ ἐδικαιώθητε, 10:2 καὶ πάντες εἰς τὸν Μωσῆν ἐβαπτίσαντο,

though here Riddell’s semi-middle sense of the verb might plausibly be brought in by way of explanation.


Instances of passive form with middle meaning are common in the LXX -


Nb. 22:34 ἀποστραφήσομαι I will get me back again.

Jdg. 15:9 ἐξερίφησαν spread themselves, 16:20 ἐκτιναχθήσομαι shake myself, 16:26 ἐπιστηριχθήσομαι support myself.

3 K. [2 Kings} 17:3 κρύβηθι hide thyself, 18:1 πορεύθητι καὶ ὄφθητι τῷἈχαάβ go and shew thyself, 20:25 ἐπράθη sold himself.


So in N.T. in Luke 11:38 ἐβαπτίσθη is used for ἐβαπτίσατο.


84. Causative Use of the Verb. a. The causative use of the verb which is found in the LXX may be set down with confidence as a Hebraism. Βασιλεύειν according to the Greek language means ‘to be king,’ but it is frequently employed in the LXX in the sense of ‘to make king,’ e.g. -


Jdg. 9:6 ἐβασίλευσαν τὸνἈβειμέλεχ.

1 K. [1 Sam.] 8:22 βασίλευσον αὐτοῖς βασιλέα, 15:11 ἐβασίλευσα τὸν Σαοὺλ εἰς βασιλέα.

There are all together thirty-six occurrences of the word in this causative sense.


b. Classical Greek again knows βδελύσσεσθαι in the sense of ‘to loathe’ or ‘abominate,’ but not βδελύσσειν in the sense of ‘to make abominable,’ as in -


Ex. 5:21 ἐβδελύξατε τὴν ὀσμὴν ἡμῶν ἐναντίον Φαραώ.

Lvt. 11:43 καὶ οὐ μὴ βδελύξητε τὰς ψυχὰς ὑμῶν. Cp. Lvt. 20:25: 1 Mac. 1:48.


c. Still more strange to classical Greek is the sense of ‘to make to sin’ often imposed upon ἐξαμαρτάνειν, e.g. -


4 K. [2 Kings] 17:21 καὶ ἐξήμαρτεν αὐτοὺς ἁμαρτίαν μεγάλην.

This is the prevailing sense of the word in the LXX, which is found all together twenty-eight times, mostly in the phrase ὃ ἐξήμαρτεν τὸν Ἰσραήλ.


d. In this causative use of the verb is to be found the explanation of Ex. 14:25 καὶ ἤγαγεν αὐτοὺς μετὰ βίας, where the R.V. margin has ‘made them to drive.’ Other similar instances are -


Ex. 13:18 ἐκύκλωσεν = he led round.

1 K. [1 Sam.] 4:3 κατὰ τί ἔπταισεν ἡμᾶς κύριος σήμερον;

Ps. 142:11 ζήσεις με.


85. Reduplication of Words. In Greek we are accustomed to reduplication of syllables, but not to reduplication of words. This primitive device of language is resorted to in the LXX, in imitation of the Hebrew, for at least three different purposes -


1) intensification,

2) distribution,

3) universalisation.


1) The intensifying use.

σφόδρα σφόδρα Gen. 30:43: Ex. 1:7, 12: Nb. 14:7: Ezk. 9:9: Judith 4:2.

σφόδρα σφοδρῶς Gen. 7:19: Josh. 3:16.


To the same head may be assigned -


Ex. 8:14 συνήγαγον αὐτοὺς θιμωνιάς θιμωνιάς.

Dt. 28:43 ὁ προσήλυτος ὁ ἐν σοὶ ἀναβήσεται ἄνω ἄνω, σὺ δὲ καταβήσῃ κάτω κάτω.


In all the above instances perhaps the kind of intensification involved is that of a repeated process.


2) The distributive use.

εἷς εἷς 1 Chr. 24:6

δύο δύο Gen. 6:19, 7:3: Sir. 36:15.

ἑπτὰ ἑπτά Gen. 7:3.

χιλίους ἐκ φυλῆς, χιλίους ἐκ φυλῆς Nb. 31:6.

τὸ πρωὶ πρωί 1 Chr. 9:27.

ἐργασίᾳ καὶ ἐργασίᾳ 2 Chr. 34:13.


In pure Greek such ideas would be expressed by the use of ἀνά or κατά. Sometimes we find κατά; employed in the LXX along with the reduplication, as in --


Dt. 7:22 κατὰ μικρὸν μικρόν.

Zech. 12:12 κατὰ φυλὰς φυλάς.


The idea ‘year by year’ is expressed in many different ways -


ἐνιαυτὸν κατ’ ἐνιαυτόν Dt. 14:21: 1 K. [1 Sam.] 1:7: 2 Chr. 24:5.

κατ’ ἐνιαυτὸν ἐνιαυτόν 1 K. [1 Sam.] 7:16.

ἐνιαυτὸν ἐξ ἐνιαὐτοῦ Dt. 15:20

τὸ κατ’ ἐνιαυτὸν ἐνιαὐτῷ 3 K. [2 Kings} 10:28.

τὸ κατ’ ἐνιαυτὸν ἐνιαυτόν 2 Chr. 9:24.


3) The universalising use.

ἄνθρωπος ἄνθρωπος = whatsoever man Lvt. 17:3, 8, 10, 13; 18:6; 20:9; 22:18: Ezk. 14:4, 7.

ἀνδρὶ ἀνδρί Lvt. 15:3.


Of the above three uses the distributive is the only one which is to be found in the N.T.

Mk. 6:7 δύο δύο, 6:39 συμπόσια συμπόσια, 6:40 πρασιαὶ πρασιαί.


So also in the Pastor of Hermas -


Sim. 8.2.8 ἦλθον τάγματα τάγματα, 4.2 ἔστησαν τάγματα τάγματα.


86. Expressions of Time. a. ‘Year after year’ is expressed in 2 K. [2 Sam.] 21:1 by a nominative absolute ἐνιαυτὸς ἐχόμενος ἐνιαυτοῦ without any pretence of grammar.


b. The use of the word ‘day’ in vague expressions of time is a Hebraism, e.g. -


Gen. 40:4 ἡμέρας = for some time. Cp. Dan. Ο´ 11:9.

Jdg. 15:1 μεθ’ ἡμέρας = after some time. Cp. 3 K. [2 Kings] 17:7.

3 K. [2 Kings} 18:1 μεθ’ ἡμέρας πολλάς = after a long time.


c. ‘Day by day’ (Hb. day, day) is expressed in Gen. 39:10 by ἡμέραν ἐξ ἡμέρας (cp. Lat. diem ex die). In Esther 3:4 καθ’ ἑκάστην ἡμέραν is correctly used as the Greek equivalent for the phrase day and day, which St. Paul (2 Cor. 4:16) has reproduced word for word in the form ἡμέρᾳ καὶ ἡμέρᾳ.


d. The use of ‘yesterday and the day before’ as a general expression for past time = heretofore is a Hebraism which presents itself in the LXX under a variety of slight modifications.

ἐχθὲς καὶ τρίτην 1K. 4:7, 10:11: 2 K. [2 Sam.] 3:17, 5:2: 1 Chr. 11:2.

ἐχθὲς καὶ τρίτην ἡμέραν Gen. 31:2, 5: Ex. 5:7, 14: Josh. 4:18: 1 K. [1 Sam.] 14:21, 19:7, 21:5: 1 Mac. 9:44.

ἐχθὲς καὶ τρίτης Ruth 2:11: 4 K. [2 Kings] 13:5: Sus. Q 15.

ἀπ’ ἐχθὲς καὶ τρίτης ἡμέρας Josh. 3:4.

πρὸ τῆς ἐχθὲς καὶ τρίτης Dt. 19:4.

πρὸ τῆς ἐχθὲς καὶ πρὸ τῆς τρίτης. Ex. 21:29.

πρὸ τῆς ἐχθὲς καὶ πρὸ τῆς τρίτης ἡμέρας Ex. 21:36.

πρὸ τῆς ἐχθὲς οὐδὲ πρὸ τῆς τρίτης Dt. 4:42, 19:6.

πρὸ τῆς ἐχθὲς οὐδὲ πρὸ τῆς τρίτης ἡμέρας. Ex. 4:10.


In Joshua 20:5, which occurs only in the Codex Alexandrinus, we have ἀπ;#8217; ἐχθὲς καὶ τρίτην, where ἐχθὲς-καὶ-τρίτην is treated as a single indeclinable noun.


e. ‘Just at that time’ is expressed variously as follows -


αὐθωρί Dan. Ο´ 3:15.

αὐτῇ τῇ ὥρᾳ 1 Esd. 8:65: Dan. 3:5, Θ 3:15. Cp. Acts 22:13.

ἐν αὐτῇ τῇ ὥρᾳ Dan. Θ 5:5. Cp. Lk. 12:12, 13:31, 20:19.

ἐν αὐτῇ τῇ ὥρᾳ ἐκείνῃ Dan. Ο´ 5:5.

ἐν αὐτῷ τῷ καιρῷ Tob. 3:17. Cp. Lk. 13:1.


87. Pleonastic Use of ἐκεῖ and ἐκεῖθεν. Just as a personal pronoun is supplied after the relative (§ 69), so a demonstrative adverb of place is supplied after a relative adverb or after some phrase equivalent to one.

Gen. 33:19 οὗ ἔστησεν ἐκεῖ τὴν σκηνὴν αὐτοῦ. Cp. 39:20, 40:3: Ex. 21:13.

Ex. 20:24 οὗ ἐὰν ἐπονομάσω τὸ ὄνομά μου ἐκεῖ.

Dan. Θ 9:7 οὗ διέσπειρας αὐτοὺς ἐκεῖ.

3 K. [2 Kings} 17:19 ἐν ᾧ αὐτὸς ἐκάθητο ἐκεῖ. Cp. Gen. 39:20: Ex. 12:13.

Gen. 31:13 ἐν τῷ τόπῳ ᾧ ἤλειψάς μοι ἐκεῖ στήλην.

Nb. 14:24 εἰς ἣν εἰσῆλθεν ἐκεῖ. Cp. 15:18, 35:26: Dt. 4:27.

Ex. 8:22 ἐφ’ ἧς οὐκ ἔσται ἐκεῖ.

4 K. [2 Kings] 1:4 ἡ κλίνη ἐφ’ ἧς ἀνέβης ἐκεῖ.

Dt. 9:28 ὅθεν ἐξήγαγες ἡμᾶς ἐκεῖθεν.

Nb. 23:13 ἐξ ὧν οὐκ ὄψῃ αὐτὸν ἐκεῖθεν.

Dan. Ο´ 9:7 εἰς ἃς διεσκόρπισας αὐτοὺς ἐκεῖ.


This idiom, which is thoroughly Hebrew, is to be explained on the same principle as in § 69. In the N.T. it is found only in Revelation -


Rev. 12:6 ὅπου ἔχει ἐκεῖ τόπον, 12:14 ὅπου τρέφεται ἐκεῖ, 17:9 ὅπου ἡ γυνὴ κάθηται ἐπ’ αὐτῶν (= ἐκεῖ).


88. πᾶς with οὐ and μή. a. The use of πᾶς with a negative particle, where in classical Greek οὐδείς or μηδείς would be employed, is a Hebraism, even though in certain cases the resulting expression may be paralleled from pure Greek usage. The πᾶς may either precede or follow the negative (οὐ, μή, μηδέ, οὐ μή) without difference of meaning.


b. We will first take instances from the LXX where the πᾶς precedes the negative.

Ex. 12:43 πᾶς ἀλλογενὴς οὐκ ἔδεται ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ. Cp. 12:48: Ezek. 44:9.

Dan. Ο´ 5:9 πᾶς ἄνθρωπος οὐ δύναται. Cp. Dan. Ο´ 2:10.

Hbk. 2:19 πᾶν πνεῦμα οὐκ ἔστιν ἐν αὐτῷ.

1 Mac. 2:61 πάντες . . . οὐκ ἀσθενήσουσιν.

Ex. 22:22 πᾶσαν χήραν καὶ ὀρφανὸν οὐ κακώσετε.

Jer. 17:22 πᾶν ἔργον οὐ ποιήσετε. Cp. Ex. 12:16, 20: Nb. 28:18: Jdg. 13:14.


So in N.T. --


Rom. 10:12 πᾶς ὁ πιστεύων ἐπ’ αὐτῷ οὐ καταισχυνθήσεται. Cp. Eph. 4:29, 5:5.

Rev. 18:22 πᾶς τεχνίτης . . . οὐ μὴ εὑρεθῇ ἐν σοὶ ἔτι.

2 Pet. 1:20 πᾶσα προφητεία γραφῆς ἰδίας ἐπιλύσεως οὐ γίνεται.

1 Jn. 2:21 πᾶν ψεῦδος ἐκ τῆς ἀληθείας οὐκ ἔστι. Cp. 1 Jn. 3:6, 10, 15; 4:3; 5:18: Rev. 22:3.


c. In the following passages of the LXX the πᾶς follows the negative -


Ps. 142:2 οὐ δικαιωθήσεται ἐνώπιόν σου πᾶς ζῶν.

Eccl. 1:9 οὐκ ἔστιν πᾶν πρόσφατον ὑπὸ τὸν ἥλιον.

Ex. 20:10: Dt. 5:14 οὐ ποιήσετε ἐν αὐτῇ πᾶν ἔργον. Cp. Ex. 20:16.

2 K. [2 Sam.] 15:11 οὐκ ἔγνωσαν πᾶν ῥῆμα.

Tob. 12:11 οὐ μὴ κρύψω ἀφ’ ὑμῶν πᾶν ῥῆμα.

Ps. 33:11 οὐκ ἐλαττωθήσονται παντὸς ἀγαθοῦ.

Jdg. 13:4 μὴ φάγῃς πᾶν ἀκάθαρτον.

Tob. 4:7 μὴ ἀποστρέψῃς τὸ πρόσωπόν σου ἀπὸ παντὸς πτωχοῦ.


So in N.T. --


Rom 3:20 ἐξ ἔργων νόμου οὐ δικαιωθήσεται πᾶσα σάρξ. Cp. Gal. 2:16: Mt. 24:22.

Lk. 1:37 οὐκ ἀδυνατήσει παρὰ τοῦ Θεοῦ πᾶν ῥῆμα.

Acts 10:14 οὐδέποτε ἔφαγον πᾶν κοινόν.

1 Cor. 1:29 ὅπως μὴ καυχήσηται πᾶσα σάρξ.

Rev. 21:27 οὐ μὴ εἰσέλθῃ εἰς αὐτὴν πᾶν κοινόν.

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