Chapter I
Chapter II
Chapter III
Chapter IV
Chapter V

There is a wonderful weightiness, and yet liveliness and sweetness, in the epistles of St. Peter. His design in both is, to stir up the minds of those to whom he writes, by way of remembrance, 2Peter 3:1, and to guard them, not only against error, but also against doubting, 1Pet 5:12. This he does by reminding them of that glorious grace which God had vouchsafed them through the gospel, by which believers are inflamed to bring forth the fruits of faith, hope, love, and patience.

The parts of this epistle are three:

 I. The inscription,                                    C. i. 1, 2
 II. The stirring up of them to whom he writes:
   1. As born of God.  Here he recites and interweaves
       alternately both the benefits of God toward
       believers, and the duties of believers toward God:
     1. God hath regenerated us to a living hope, to an
         eternal inheritance,                                3-12
        Therefore hope to the end,                             13
     2. As obedient children bring forth the fruit
         of faith to your heavenly Father,                  14-21
     3. Being purified by the Spirit, love with a
         pure heart,                                   22-C.ii.10
  2. As strangers in the world, abstain from fleshly desires,  11
     And show your faith by,
     1. A good conversation,                                   12
        a. In particular,
           Subjects,                                        13-17
           Servants, after the example of Christ,           18-25
           Wives,                                     C. iii. 1-6
           Husbands,                                            7
        b. In general, all,                                  8-15
     2. A good profession,
        a. By readiness to give an answer to every one,     15-22
        b. By shunning evil company,                   C. iv. 1-6
            (This part is enforced by what Christ both did
             and suffered, from his passion to his coming
             to judgment.)
        c. By the exercise of Christian virtues, and by a
             due use of miraculous gifts,                    7-11
     3. As fellow-heirs of glory, sustain adversity, let each
         do this,
        1. In general, as a Christian,                      12-19
        2. In his own particular state,                C. v. 1-11
           The title beloved divides the second
             part from the first, ii 11, and the
             third from the second, iv. 12.
 III. The conclusion,                                       12-14

Chapter I

1 To the sojourners - Upon earth, the Christians, chiefly those of Jewish extraction. Scattered - Long ago driven out of their own land. Those scattered by the persecution mentioned Acts 8:1, were scattered only through Judea and Samaria, though afterwards some of them travelled to Phenice, Cyprus, and Antioch. Through Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia - He names these five provinces in the order wherein they occurred to him, writing from the east. All these countries lie in the Lesser Asia. The Asia here distinguished from the other provinces is that which was usually called the Proconsular Asia being a Roman province.
2 According to the foreknowledge of God - Speaking after the manner of men. Strictly speaking, there is no foreknowledge, no more than afterknowledge, with God: but all things are known to him as present from eternity to eternity. This is therefore no other than an instance of the divine condescension to our low capacities. Elect - By the free love and almighty power of God taken out of, separated from, the world. Election, in the scripture sense, is God's doing anything that our merit or power have no part in. The true predestination, or fore - appointment of God is,
  1. He that believeth shall be saved from the guilt and power of sin.
  2. He that endureth to the end shall be saved eternally.
  3. They who receive the precious gift of faith, thereby become the sons of God; and, being sons, they shall receive the Spirit of holiness to walk as Christ also walked.
Throughout every part of this appointment of God, promise and duty go hand in hand. All is free gift; and yet such is the gift, that the final issue depends on our future obedience to the heavenly call. But other predestination than this, either to life or death eternal, the scripture knows not of. Moreover, it is.
  1. Cruel respect of persons; an unjust regard of one, and an unjust disregard of another. It is mere creature partiality, and not infinite justice.
  2. It is not plain scripture doctrine, if true; but rather, inconsistent with the express written word, that speaks of God's universal offers of grace; his invitations, promises, threatenings, being all general.
  3. We are bid to choose life, and reprehended for not doing it.
  4. It is inconsistent with a state of probation in those that must be saved or must be lost.
  5. It is of fatal consequence; all men being ready, on very slight grounds, to fancy themselves of the elect number. But the doctrine of predestination is entirely changed from what it formerly was.
Now it implies neither faith, peace, nor purity. It is something that will do without them all. Faith is no longer, according to the modern predestinarian scheme, a divine "evidence of things not seen," wrought in the soul by the immediate power of the Holy Ghost; not an evidence at all; but a mere notion. Neither is faith made any longer a means of holiness; but something that will do without it. Christ is no more a Saviour from sin; but a defence, a countenancer of it. He is no more a fountain of spiritual life in the soul of believers, but leaves his elect inwardly dry, and outwardly unfruitful; and is made little more than a refuge from the image of the heavenly; even from righteousness, peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost. Through sanctification of the Spirit - Through the renewing and purifying influences of his Spirit on their souls.

Unto obedience - To engage and enable them to yield themselves up to all holy obedience, the foundation of all which is, the sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ - The atoning blood of Christ, which was typified by the sprinkling of the blood of sacrifices under the law; in allusion to which it is called "the blood of sprinkling."

3 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ - His Father, with respect to his divine nature; his God, with respect to his human. Who hath regenerated us to a living hope - An hope which implies true spiritual life, which revives the heart, and makes the soul lively and vigorous. By the resurrection of Christ - Which is not only a pledge of ours, but a part of the purchase - price. It has also a close connexion with our rising from spiritual death, that as he liveth, so shall we live with him. He was acknowledged to be the Christ, but usually called Jesus till his resurrection; then he was also called Christ.
4 To an inheritance - For if we are sons, then heirs. Incorruptible - Not like earthly treasures. Undefiled - Pure and holy, incapable of being itself defiled, or of being enjoyed by any polluted soul. And that fadeth not away - That never decays in its value, sweetness, or beauty, like all the enjoyments of this world, like the garlands of leaves or flowers, with which the ancient conquerors were wont to be crowned. Reserved in heaven for you - Who "by patient continuance in welldoing, seek for glory and honour and immortality."
5 Who are kept - The inheritance is reserved; the heirs are kept for it. By the power of God - Which worketh all in all, which guards us against all our enemies. Through faith - Through which alone salvation is both received and retained. Ready to be revealed - That revelation is made in the last day. It was more and more ready to be revealed, ever since Christ came.
6 Wherein - That is, in being so kept. Ye even now greatly rejoice, though now for a little while - Such is our whole life, compared to eternity. If need be - For it is not always needful. If God sees it to be the best means for your spiritual profit. Ye are in heaviness - Or sorrow; but not in darkness; for they still retained both faith, 1Pe 1:5, hope, and love; yea, at this very time were rejoicing with joy unspeakable, 1Pe 1:8.
7 That the trial of your faith - That is, your faith which is tried. Which is much more precious than gold - For gold, though it bear the fire, yet will perish with the world. May be found - Though it doth not yet appear. Unto praise - From God himself. And honour - From men and angels. And glory - Assigned by the great Judge.
8 Having not seen - In the flesh.
9 Receiving - Now already. Salvation - From all sin into all holiness, which is the qualification for, the forerunner and pledge of, eternal salvation.
10 Of which salvation - So far beyond all that was experienced under the Jewish dispensation. The very prophets who prophesied long ago of the grace of God toward you - Of his abundant, overflowing grace to be bestowed on believers under the Christian dispensation. Inquired - Were earnestly inquisitive. And searched diligently - Like miners searching after precious ore, after the meaning of the prophecies which they delivered.
11 Searching what time - What particular period. And what manner of time - By what marks to be distinguished. The glories that were to follow - His sufferings; namely, the glory of his resurrection, ascension, exaltation, and the effusion of his Spirit; the glory of the last judgment, and of his eternal kingdom; and also the glories of his grace in the hearts and lives of Christians.
12 To whom - So searching. It was revealed, that not for themselves, but for us they ministered - They did not so much by those predictions serve themselves, or that generation, as they did us, who now enjoy what they saw afar off. With the Holy Ghost sent down from heaven - Confirmed by the inward, powerful testimony of the Holy Ghost, as well as the mighty effusion of his miraculous gifts. Which things angels desire to look into - A beautiful gradation; prophets, righteous men, kings, desired to see and hear what Christ did and taught. What the Holy Ghost taught concerning Christ the very angels long to know.
13 Wherefore - Having such encouragement. Gird up the loins of your mind - As persons in the eastern countries were wont, in travelling or running, to gird up their long garments, so gather ye up all your thoughts and affections, and keep your mind always disencumbered and prepared to run the race which is set before you. Be watchful - As servants that wait for their Lord. And hope to the end - Maintain a full expectation of all the grace - The blessings flowing from the free favour of God. Which shall be brought to you at the final revelation of Jesus Christ - And which are now brought to you by the revelation of Christ in you.
14 Your desires - Which ye had while ye were ignorant of God.
16 Lev 11:44.
17 Who judgeth according to every man's work - According to the tenor of his life and conversation. Pass the time of your sojourning - Your short abode on earth. In humble, loving fear - The proper companion and guard of hope.
18 Your vain conversation - Your foolish, sinful way of life.
19 Without blemish - In himself. Without spot - From the world.
21 Who through him believe - For all our faith and hope proceed from the power of his resurrection. In God that raised Jesus, and gave him glory - At his ascension. Without Christ we should only dread God; whereas through him we believe, hope, and love.
22 Having purified your souls by obeying the truth through the Spirit, who bestows upon you freely, both obedience and purity of heart, and unfeigned love of the brethren, go on to still higher degrees of love. Love one another fervently - With the most strong and tender affection; and yet with a pure heart - Pure from any spot of unholy desire or inordinate passion.
23 Which liveth - Is full of divine virtue. And abideth the same for ever.
24 All flesh - Every human creature is transient and withering as grass. And all the glory of it - His wisdom, strength, wealth, righteousness. As the flower - The most short - lived part of it. The grass - That is, man. The flower - That is, his glory. Is fallen off - As it were, while we are speaking. Isaiah 40:6, &c.

Chapter II

1 Wherefore laying aside - As inconsistent with that pure love. All dissimulation - Which is the outward expression of guile in the heart.
2 Desire - Always, as earnestly as new born babes do, 1Pet 1:3. The milk of the word - That word of God which nourishes the soul as milk does the body, and which is sincere, pure from all guile, so that none are deceived who cleave to it. That you may grow thereby - In faith, love, holiness, unto the full stature of Christ.
3 Since ye have tasted - Sweetly and experimentally known.
4 To whom coming - By faith. As unto a living stone - Living from eternity; alive from the dead. There is a wonderful beauty and energy in these expressions, which describe Christ as a spiritual foundation, solid, firm, durable; and believers as a building erected upon it, in preference to that temple which the Jews accounted their highest glory. And St. Peter speaking of him thus, shows he did not judge himself, but Christ, to be the rock on which the church was built. Rejected indeed by men - Even at this day, not only by Jews, Turks, heathens, infidels; but by all Christians, so called, who live in sin, or who hope to be saved by their own works. But chosen of God - From all eternity, to be the foundation of his church. And precious - In himself, in the sight of God, and in the eyes of all believers.
5 Ye - Believers. As living stones - Alive to God through him. Are built up - In union with each other. A spiritual house - Being spiritual yourselves, and an habitation of God through the Spirit. An holy priesthood - Consecrated to God, and "holy as he is holy." To offer up - Your souls and bodies, with all your thoughts, words, and actions, as spiritual sacrifices to God.
6 He that believeth shall not be confounded - In time or in eternity. Isaiah 28:16.
7 To them who believe, he is become the head of the corner - The chief corner stone, on which the whole building rests. Unbelievers too will at length find him such to their sorrow, Matt 21:44. Psalm 118:22.
8 Who stumble, whereunto also they were appointed - They who believe not, stumble, and fall, and perish for ever; God having appointed from all eternity, "he that believeth not shall be damned."
9 But ye - Who believe in Christ Are - In a higher sense than ever the Jews were. A chosen or elect race, a royal priesthood - "Kings and priests unto God," Rev 1:6. As princes, ye have power with God, and victory over sin, the world, and the devil: as priests, ye are consecrated to God, for offering spiritual sacrifices. Ye Christians are as one holy nation, under Christ your King. A purchased people - Who are his peculiar property. That ye may show forth - By your whole behaviour, to all mankind. The virtues - The excellent glory, the mercy, wisdom, and power of him, Christ, who hath called you out of the darkness of ignorance, error, sin, and misery.
10 Who in time past were not a people - Much less the people of God; but scattered individuals of many nations. The former part of the verse particularly respects the gentiles; the latter, the Jews.
11 Here begins the exhortation drawn from the second motive. Sojourners: pilgrims - The first word properly means, those who are in a strange house; the second, those who are in a strange country. You sojourn in the body; you are pilgrims in this world. Abstain from desires of anything in this house, or in this country.
12 Honest - Not barely unblamable, but virtuous in every respect. But our language sinks under the force, beauty, and copiousness of the original expressions. That they by your good works which they shall behold - See with their own eyes. May glorify God - By owning his grace in you, and following your example. In the day of visitation - The time when he shall give them fresh offers of his mercy.
13 Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man - To every secular power. Instrumentally these are ordained by men; but originally all their power is from God.
14 Or to subordinate governors, or magistrates.
15 The ignorance - Of them who blame you, because they do not know you: a strong motive to pity them.
16 As free - Yet obeying governors, for God's sake.
17 Honour all men - As being made in the image of God, bought by his Son, and designed for his kingdom. Honour the king - Pay him all that regard both in affection and action which the laws of God and man require.
18 Servants - Literally, household servants. With all fear - Of offending them or God. Not only to the good - Tender, kind. And gentle - Mild, easily forgiving.
19 For conscience toward God - From a pure desire of pleasing him. Grief - Severe treatment.
21 Hereunto are ye - Christians. Called - To suffer wrongfully. Leaving you an example - When he went to God. That ye might follow his steps - Of innocence and patience.
22, 23 In all these instances the example of Christ is peculiarly adapted to the state of servants, who easily slide either into sin or guile, reviling their fellowservants, or threatening them, the natural result of anger without power. He committed himself to him that judgeth righteously - The only solid ground of patience in affliction. Isaiah 53:4,6,7,9.
22, 23 In all these instances the example of Christ is peculiarly adapted to the state of servants, who easily slide either into sin or guile, reviling their fellowservants, or threatening them, the natural result of anger without power. He committed himself to him that judgeth righteously - The only solid ground of patience in affliction.
24 Who himself bore our sins - That is, the punishment due to them. In his afflicted, torn, dying body on the tree - The cross, whereon chiefly slaves or servants were wont to suffer. That we being dead to sin - Wholly delivered both from the guilt and power of it: indeed, without an atonement first made for the guilt, we could never have been delivered from the power. Might live to righteousness - Which is one only. The sins we had committed, and he bore, were manifold.
25 The bishop - The kind observer, inspector, or overseer of your souls.

Chapter III

1 If any - He speaks tenderly. Won - Gained over to Christ.
2 Joined with a loving fear of displeasing them.
3 Three things are here expressly forbidden: curling the hair, wearing gold, (by way of ornament,) and putting on costly or gay apparel. These, therefore, ought never to be allowed, much less defended, by Christians.
4 The hidden man of the heart - Complete inward holiness, which implies a meek and quiet spirit. A meek spirit gives no trouble willingly to any: a quiet spirit bears all wrongs without being troubled. In the sight of God - Who looks at the heart. All superfluity of dress contributes more to pride and anger than is generally supposed. The apostle seems to have his eye to this by substituting meekness and quietness in the room of the ornaments he forbids. "I do not regard these things," is often said by those whose hearts are wrapped up in them: but offer to take them away, and you touch the very idol of their soul. Some, indeed only dress elegantly that they may be looked on; that is, they squander away their Lord's talent to gain applause: thus making sin to beget sin, and then plead one in excuse of the other.
5 The adorning of those holy women, who trusted in God, and therefore did not act thus from servile fear, was,
  1. Their meek subjection to their husbands:
  2. Their quiet spirit, "not afraid," or amazed: and
  3. Their unblamable behaviour, "doing" all things "well."
6 Whose children ye are - In a spiritual as well as natural sense, and entitled to the same inheritance, while ye discharge your conjugal duties, not out of fear, but for conscience' sake. Gen 18:12.
7 Dwell with the woman according to knowledge - Knowing they are weak, and therefore to be used with all tenderness. Yet do not despise them for this, but give them honour - Both in heart, in word, and in action; as those who are called to be joint - heirs of that eternal life which ye and they hope to receive by the free grace of God. That your prayers be not hindered - On the one part or the other. All sin hinders prayer; particularly anger. Anything at which we are angry is never more apt to come into our mind than when we are at prayer; and those who do not forgive will find no forgiveness from God.
8 Finally - This part of the epistle reaches to 1Peter 4:11. The apostle seems to have added the rest afterwards. Sympathizing - Rejoicing and sorrowing together. Love all believers as brethren. Be pitiful - Toward the afflicted. Be courteous - To all men. Courtesy is such a behaviour toward equals and inferiors as shows respect mixed with love.
9 Ye are called to inherit a blessing - Therefore their railing cannot hurt you; and, by blessing them, you imitate God, who blesses you.
10 For he that desireth to love life, and to see good days - That would make life amiable and desirable. Psalm 34:12, &c.
11 Let him seek - To live peaceably with all men. And pursue it - Even when it seems to flee from him.
12 The eyes of the Lord are over the righteous - For good. Anger appears in the whole face; love, chiefly in the eyes.
13 Who is he that will harm you - None can.
14 But if ye should suffer - This is no harm to you, but a good. Fear ye not their fear - The very words of the Septuagint, Isaiah 8:12,13. Let not that fear be in you which the wicked feel.
15 But sanctify the Lord God in your hearts - Have an holy fear, and a full trust in his wise providence. The hope - Of eternal life. With meekness - For anger would hurt your cause as well as your soul. And fear - A filial fear of offending God, and a jealousy over yourselves, lest ye speak amiss.
16 Having a good conscience - So much the more beware of anger, to which the very consciousness of your innocence may betray you. Join with a good conscience meekness and fear, and you obtain a complete victory. Your good conversation in Christ - That is, which flows from faith in him.
17 It is infinitely better, if it be the will of God, ye should suffer. His permissive will appears from his providence.
18 For - This is undoubtedly best, whereby we are most conformed to Christ. Now Christ suffered once - To suffer no more. For sins - Not his own, but ours. The just for the unjust - The word signifies, not only them who have wronged their neighbours, but those who have transgressed any of the commands of God; as the preceding word, just, denotes a person who has fulfilled, not barely social duties, but all kind of righteousness. That he might bring us to God - Now to his gracious favour, hereafter to his blissful presence, by the same steps of suffering and of glory. Being put to death in the flesh - As man. But raised to life by the Spirit - Both by his own divine power, and by the power of the Holy Ghost.
19 By which Spirit he preached - Through the ministry of Noah. To the spirits in prison - The unholy men before the flood, who were then reserved by the justice of God, as in a prison, till he executed the sentence upon them all; and are now also reserved to the judgment of the great day.
20 When the longsuffering of God waited - For an hundred and twenty years; all the time the ark was preparing: during which Noah warned them all to flee from the wrath to come.
21 The antitype whereof - The thing typified by the ark, even baptism, now saveth us - That is, through the water of baptism we are saved from the sin which overwhelms the world as a flood: not, indeed, the bare outward sign, but the inward grace; a divine consciousness that both our persons and our actions are accepted through him who died and rose again for us.
22 Angels and authorities and powers - That is, all orders both of angels and men.

Chapter IV

1 Arm yourselves with the same mind - Which will be armour of proof against all your enemies. For he that hath suffered in the flesh - That hath so suffered as to he thereby made inwardly and truly conformable to the sufferings of Christ. Hath ceased from sin - Is delivered from it.
2 That ye may no longer live in the flesh - Even in this mortal body. To the desires of men - Either your own or those of others. These are various; but the will of God is one.
3 Revellings, banquetings - Have these words any meaning now? They had, seventeen hundred years ago. Then the former meant, meetings to eat; meetings, the direct end of which was, to please the taste: the latter, meetings to drink: both of which Christians then ranked with abominable idolatries.
4 The same - As ye did once. Speaking evil of you - As proud, singular, silly, wicked and the like.
5 Who shall give account - Of this, as well as all their other ways. To him who is ready - So faith represents him now.
6 For to this end was the gospel preached - Ever since it was given to Adam. To them that are now dead - In their several generations. That they might be judged - That though they were judged. In the flesh according to the manner of men - With rash, unrighteous judgment. They might live according to the will and word of God, in the Spirit; the soul renewed after his image.
7 But the end of all things - And so of their wrongs, and your sufferings. Is at hand: be ye therefore sober, and watch unto prayer - Temperance helps watchfulness, and both of them help prayer. Watch, that ye may pray; and pray, that ye may watch.
8 Love covereth a multitude of sins - Yea, "love covereth all things." He that loves another, covers his faults, how many soever they be. He turns away his own eyes from them; and, as far as is possible, hides them from others. And he continually prays that all the sinner's iniquities may be forgiven and his sins covered. Meantime the God of love measures to him with the same measure into his bosom.
9 One to another - Ye that are of different towns or countries. Without murmuring - With all cheerfulness. Prov 10:12.
10 As every one hath received a gift - Spiritual or temporal, ordinary or extraordinary, although the latter seems primarily intended. So minister it one to another - Employ it for the common good. As good stewards of the manifold grace of God - The talents wherewith his free love has intrusted you.
11 If any man speak, let him - In his whole conversation, public and private. Speak as the oracles of God - Let all his words be according to this pattern, both as to matter and manner, more especially in public. By this mark we may always know who are, so far, the true or false prophets. The oracles of God teach that men should repent, believe, obey. He that treats of faith and leaves out repentance, or does not enjoin practical holiness to believers, does not speak as the oracles of God: he does not preach Christ, let him think as highly of himself as he will. If any man minister - Serve his brother in love, whether in spintuals or temporals. Let him minister as of the ability which God giveth - That is, humbly and diligently, ascribing all his power to God, and using it with his might. Whose is the glory - of his wisdom, which teaches us to speak. And the might - Which enables us to act.
12 Wonder not at the burning which is among you - This is the literal meaning of the expression. It seems to include both martyrdom itself, which so frequently was by fire, and all the other sufferings joined with, or previous to, it; which is permitted by the wisdom of God for your trial. Be not surprised at this.
13 But as ye partake of the sufferings of Christ - 1Peter 4:1, while ye suffer for his sake, rejoice in hope of more abundant glory. For the measure of glory answers the measure of suffering; and much more abundantly.
14 If ye are reproached for Christ - Reproaches and cruel mockings were always one part of their sufferings. The Spirit of glory and of God resteth upon you - The same Spirit which was upon Christ, Luke 4:18. He is here termed, the Spirit of glory, conquering all reproach and shame, and the Spirit of God, whose Son, Jesus Christ is. On their part he is blasphemed, but on your part he is glorified - That is, while they are blaspheming Christ, you glorify him in the midst of your sufferings, 1Peter 4:16.
15 Let none of you deservedly suffer, as an evildoer - In any kind.
16 Let him glorify God - Who giveth him the honour so to suffer, and so great a reward for suffering.
17 The time is come for judgment to begin at the house of God - God first visits his church, and that both in justice and mercy. What shall the end be of them that obey not the gospel - How terribly will he visit them! The judgments which are milder at the beginning, grow more and more severe. But good men, having already sustained their part, are only spectators of the miseries of the wicked.
18 If the righteous scarcely be saved - Escape with the utmost difficulty. Where shall the ungodly - The man who knows not God. And the open sinner appear - In that day of vengeance. The salvation here primarily spoken of is of a temporal nature. But we may apply the words to eternal things, and then they are still more awful. Prov 11:31.
19 Let them that suffer according to the will of God - Both for a good cause, and in a right spirit. Commit to him their souls - (Whatever becomes of the body) as a sacred depositum. In well doing - Be this your care, to do and suffer well: He will take care of the rest. As unto a faithful Creator - In whose truth, love, and power, ye may safely trust.

Chapter V

1 I who am a fellow - elder - So the first though not the head of the apostles appositely and modestly styles himself. And a witness of the sufferings of Christ - Having seen him suffer, and now suffering for him.
2 Feed the flock - Both by doctrine and discipline. Not by constraint - Unwillingly, as a burden. Not for filthy gain - Which, if it be the motive of acting, is filthy beyond expression. O consider this, ye that leave one flock and go to another, merely because there is more gain, a large salary! Is it not astonishing that men can see no harm in this? that it is not only practised, but avowed, all over the nation?
3 Neither as lording over the heritage - Behaving in a haughty, domineering manner, as though you had dominion over their conscience. The word translated heritage, is, literally, the portions. There is one flock under the one chief Shepherd; but many portions of this, under many pastors. But being examples to the flock - This procures the most ready and free obedience.
5 Ye younger, be subject to the elder - In years. And be all - Elder or younger. Subject to each other - Let every one be ready, upon all occasions, to give up his own will. Be clothed with humility - Bind it on, (so the word signifies,) so that no force may be able to tear it from you. James 4:6; Prov 3:34
6 The hand of God - Is in all troubles.
7 Casting all your care upon him - In every want or pressure.
8 But in the mean time watch. There is a close connexion between this, and the duly casting our care upon him. How deeply had St. Peter himself suffered for want of watching! Be vigilant - As if he had said, Awake, and keep awake. Sleep no more: be this your care. As a roaring lion - Full of rage. Seeking - With all subtilty likewise. Whom he may devour or swallow up - Both soul and body.
9 Be the more steadfast, as ye know the same kind of afflictions are accomplished in - That is, suffered by, your brethren, till the measure allotted them is filled up.
10 Now the God of all grace - By which alone the whole work is begun, continued, and finished in your soul. After ye have suffered a while - A very little while compared with eternity. Himself - Ye have only to watch and resist the devil: the rest God will perform. Perfect - That no defect may remain. Stablish - That nothing may overthrow you. Strengthen - That ye may conquer all adverse power. And settle you - As an house upon a rock. So the apostle, being converted, does now "strengthen his brethren."
12 As I suppose - As I judge, upon good grounds, though not by immediate inspiration. I have written - That is, sent my letter by him. Adding my testimony - To that which ye before heard from Paul, that this is the true gospel of the grace of God.
13 The church that is at Babylon - Near which St. Peter probably was, when he wrote this epistle. Elected together with you - Partaking of the same faith with you. Mark - It seems the evangelist. My son - Probably converted by St. Peter. And he had occasionally served him, "as a son in the gospel."