H. W. Smyth

Greek Grammar Notes

Part 2 189-













214 D. 1. For η, Doric and Aeolic have original ᾱ; thus, νί̄κᾱ, Ϝί̄κᾱς, Ϝί̄κᾳ, νί̄κᾱν; πολί̄τᾱς, κριτά̄ς, Ἀτρείδᾱς.

2. Ionic has η for the of Attic even after ε, ι, and ρ; thus, γενεή, οἰκίη, ἀγορή, μοίρης, μοίρῃ (nom. μοῖρᾰ), νεηνίης. Thus, ἀγορή, -ῆς, -ῇ, -ήν; νεηνίης, -ου, -ῃ, -ην. But Hom. has θεά̄ goddess, Ἑρμείᾱς Hermes.

3. The dialects admit -ᾰ in the nom. sing. less often than does Attic. Thus, Ionic πρύμνη stern, κνί̄ση savour (Att. πρύμνα, κνῖσα), Dor. τόλμᾱ daring. Ionic has η for in the abstracts in -είη, -οίη (ἀληθείη truth, εὐνοίη good-will). Hom. has νύμφᾰ oh maiden from νύμφη.

4. Nom. sing. masc. Hom. has -τα for -της in ἱππότα horseman, ἱππηλάτα driver of horses, νεφεληγερέτα cloud-collector, κῡανοχαῖτα dark-haired; and, with recessive accent, μητίετα counsellor. So in the adj. εὐρύοπα far-sounding. Cp. Lat. poeta, scriba.

5. Gen. sing. masc. (a) -ᾱο, the original form from ᾱ-(ι)ο, is used by Hom. (Ἀτρείδᾱο).  It contracts in Aeolic and Doric to -ᾱ (Ἀτρείδᾱ).

(b) -εω, from ηο (= ᾱο) by 34, is also used by Hom., who makes it a single syllable by synizesis (60), as in Ἀτρείδεω. Hdt. has -εω, as πολί̄τεω (163 a).

(c) in Hom. after a vowel, Βορέω (nom. Βορέης).

6. Accus. sing. masc. In proper names Hdt. often has -εα borrowed from ς stems (264), as Μιλτιάδεα for Μιλτιάδη-ν.

7. Dual. Hom. has the nom. dual of masculines only. In the gen. and dat. Hom. has -αιν and also -αιιν.

8. Gen. plur. (a) -̄ων, the original form, occurs in Hom. (μουσά̄ων, ἀγορά̄ων). In Aeolic and Doric -ά̄ων contracts to (b) -ᾶν (ἀγορᾶν). The Doric -ᾶν is found also in the choral songs of the drama (πετρᾶν rocks). (c) -έων, the Ionic form, appears in Homer, who usually makes it a single syllable by synizesis (60) as in βουλέωνν, from βουλή plan. -έων is from -ήων, Ionic for -ά̄ων. (d) -ῶν in Hom. generally after vowels (κλισιῶν, from κλισίη hut).

9. Dat. plur.: -ῃσι(ν), -ῃς, generally before vowels, and (rarely) -αις in Hom. Ionic has -ῃσι, Aeolic -αισι(ν), -αις, Doric -αις.

10. Accus. plur.: -ανς, -ᾰς, ᾱς in various Doric dialects, -αις in Aeolic.