H. W. Smyth

Greek Grammar (First Edition)

Part 2, §§532-

Previous Page Contents Next Page


ii.  Future system

(future active and middle)

532. Many, if not all, future forms in σ are in reality subjunctives of the first aorist.  λύ̄σω, παιδεύσω, λείψω, στήσω are alike future indicative and aorist subjunctive in form. In poetry and in some dialects there is no external difference between the future indicative and the aorist subjunctive when the latter has (as often in Hom.) a short mood-sign (457 D.); e.g., Hom. βήσομεν, ἀμείψεται, Ionic inscriptions ποιήσει.

533. The future stem is formed by adding the tense-suffix -σόε- (-εσόε- in liquid stems, 535) to the verb-stem:  λύ̄-σω, I shall (or will) loose, λύ̄σομαι; θή-σω from τί-θη-μι place; δείξω from δείκ-νῡ-μι show.

a. In verbs showing strong and weak grades (476) the ending is added to the strong stem:  λείπω λείψω, τήκω τήξω, πνέω πνεύσομαι (503), δίδωμι δώσω.

534. Vowel Verbs. – Verb-stems ending in a short vowel lengthen the vowel before the tense suffix to η except after ε, ι, ρ).  Thus, τῑμάω, τῑμήσω; ἐάω, ἐά̄σω; φιλέω, φιλήσω.

a. On χράω give oracles, χράομαι use, ἀκροάομαι hear, see 487 a.

b. For verbs retaining a short final vowel, see 488.

535. Liquid Verbs. – Verb-stems ending in λ, μ, ν, ρ, add -εσο/ε-; then σ drops and ε contracts with the following vowel.

φαίνω (φαν-) show, φανῶ, φανεῖς from φαν-έ(σ)ω, φαν-έ(σ)εις; στέλλω (στελ-) send, στελοῦμεν, στελεῖτε from στελ-έ(σ)ομεν, στελ-έ(σ)ετε. See p. 128.

536. σ is retained in the poetic forms κέλσω (κέλλω land, κελ-), κύρσω (κύ̄ρω meet, κυρ-), θέρσομαι (θέρομαι warm myself, θερ-), ὄρσω (ὄρνῡμι rouse, ὀρ-). So also in the aorist.  See ἀραρίσκω, εἴλω, κείρω, φθείρω, φύ̄ρω in the List of Verbs.

537. Stop Verbs. – Labial (π, β, φ) and palatal (κ, γ, χ) stops at the end of the verb-stem unite with σ to form ψ or ξ. Dentals (τ, δ, θ) are lost before σ (98).

κόπ-τ-ω (κοπ-) cut, κόψω, κόψομαι; βλάπ-τ-ω (βλαβ-) injure, βλάψω, βλάψομαι; γράφ-ω write, γράψω, γράψομαι; πλέκ-ω weave, πλέξω, πλέξομαι; λέγ-ω say, λέξω, λέξομαι; ταράττω (ταραχ-) disturb, ταράξω, ταράξομαι; φράζω (φραδ-) say, φράσω; πείθω (πιθ-, πειθ-) persuade, πείσω, πείσομαι.

a. When ε or ο is added to the verb-stem, it is lengthened to η or ω : as βούλομαι (βουλ-ε-) wish βουλήσομαι, ἁλίσκομαι (ἁλ-ο-) am captured ἁλώσομαι.  So also in the first aorist and in other tenses where lengthening is regular.

538. Attic Future. – Certain formations of the future are called Attic because they occur especially in that dialect in contrast to the later language; they occur also in Homer, Herodotus, and in other dialects.

539. These futures usually occur when σ is preceded by or ε and these vowels are not preceded by a syllable long by nature or position.  Here σ is dropped and -άω and -έω are contracted to -ῶ.  When ι precedes σ, the ending is ι-(σ)έω which contracts to -ιῶ.

a. καλέω call, τελέω finish drop the σ of καλέσω καλέσομαι, τελέσω τελέσομαι and the resulting Attic forms are καλῶ καλοῦμαι, τελῶ (τελοῦμαι poetic).

b. ἐλαύνω (ἐλα-) drive has Hom. ἐλάω, Attic ἐλῶ. – καθέζομαι (καθεδ-) sit has Attic καθεδοῦμαι. – μάχομαι (μαχ-ε-) fight has Hom. μαχέσομαι (and μαχήσομαι), Attic μαχοῦμαι. – ὄλλῡμι (ὀλ-ε-) destroy has Hom. ὀλέσω, Attic ὀλῶ.

c. All verbs in -αννῡμι have futures in -ά(ς)ω, -ῶ.  Thus, σκεδάννῡμι (σκεδα-) scatter, poet. σκεδάσω, Attic σκεδῶ.  Similarly some verbs in -εννῡμι : ἀμφιέννῡμι (ἀμφιε-) clothe, Epic ἀμφιέσω, Attic ἀμφιῶ; στόρνῡμι (στορ-ε-) spread, late στορέσω, Attic στορῶ.

d. A very few verbs in -αζω have the contracted form.  βιβάζω (βιβαδ-) cause to go usually has Attic βιβῶ from βιβάσω.  So ἐξετῶμεν = ἐξετάσομεν from ἐξετάζω examine.

e. Verbs in -ιζω of more than two syllables drop σ and insert ε, thus making -ι(σ)έω, -ι(σ)έομαι, which contract to -ιῶ and -ιοῦμαι, as in the Doric future (540).


So νομίζω (νομιδ-) consider makes νομισεω, νομι-εω, νομιῶ and in like manner νομιοῦμαι, both inflected like ποιῶ, ποιοῦμαι.  So ἐθιοῦσι, οἰκιοῦντες from ἐθίζω accustom, οἰκίζω colonize.  But σχίζω (σχιδ-) split makes σχίσω.  νομιῶ etc. are due to the analogy of the liquid verbs.

N. – Such forms in Attic texts as ἐλάσω, τελέσω, νομίσω, βιβάσω are erroneous.

540. Doric Future. – Some verbs, which have a future middle with an active meaning, form the stem of the future middle by adding -σεόε-, and contracting -σέομαι to -σοῦμαι.  Such verbs (except νέω, πί̄πτω) have also the regular future in -σομαι.

κλαίω (κλαυ-, 520) weep κλαυσοῦμαι, νέω (νυ-, νευ-) swim νευσοῦμαι (doubtful), πλέω (πλυ-, πλευ-) sail πλευσοῦμαι, πνέω (πνυ-, πνευ-) breathe πνευσοῦμαι, πί̄πτω (πετ-) fall πεσοῦμαι, πυνθάνομαι (πυθ-, πευθ-) πευσοῦμαι (once), φεύγω (φυγ-, φευγ-) φευξοῦμαι, χέζω (χεδ-) χεσοῦμαι.

a. The inflection of the Doric future is as follows: –

λῡσῶ, -σοῦμαι

λῡσοῦμες, -σούμεθα

λῡσῶν, -σούμενος

λῡσεῖς, -σῇ

λῡσεῖτε, -σεῖσθε

λῡσεῖν, -σεῖσθαι

λῡσεῖ, -σεῖται

λῡσοῦντι, -σοῦνται


b. These are called Doric futures because Doric usually makes all futures (active and middle) in -σέω -σῶ, -σέομαι -σοῦμαι.

c. Attic πεσοῦμαι (Hom. πεσέομαι) from πί̄πτω fall comes from πετεομαι.  Attic ἔπεσον is derived from 2 aor. ἔπετον (Dor. and Aeol.) under the influence of πεσοῦμαι.

541. Futures with Present Forms. – The following verbs have no future suffix, the future thus having the form of a present:  ἔδομαι (ἐδ-) eat, πί̄ομαι (πι-) drink, χέω (χυ-) and χέομαι, pour.  See 529. 5, 8.

a. These are probably old subjunctives which have retained their future meaning.  In ἔδομαι and πί̄ομαι the mood-sign is short (457 D.).  Hom. has βέομαι or βείομαι live, δήω find, κήω (written κείω) lie, ἐξανύω achieve, ἐρύω draw, τανύω stretch, and ἀλεύεται avoidνέομαι go is for νεσομαι.

iii.  first sigmatic aorist system

(first aorist active and middle)

542. The first aorist stem is formed by adding the tense suffix -σα to the verb-stem:  ἔ-λῡ-σα I loosed, λύ̄σω, λύ̄σαιμι; ἔ-δειξα I showed, from δείκ-νῡ-μι.  See 666.

a. In verbs showing strong and weak grades (476), the tense-suffix is added to the strong stem:  πείθω ἔπεισα, τήκω ἔτηξα, πνέω ἔπνευσα, ἵστημι (στα-, στη-) ἔστησα, ἐστησάμην.

N. – τίθημι (θε-, θη-) place, δίδωμι (δο-, δω-) give, ̄ημι (ἑ-, ἡ-) send have aorists in -κα (ἔθηκα, ἔδωκα, ἧκα in the singular: with κ rarely in the plural). See 755.

543. Vowel Verbs. – Verb-stems ending in a vowel lengthen a short final vowel before the tense-suffix (α to η except after ε, ι, ρ).  Thus, τῑμάω ἐτί̄μησα, ἐάω εἴᾱσα (431), φιλέω ἐφίλησα.

a. χέω (χυ-, χευ-, χεϜ-) pour has the aorists ἔχεα, ἐχεάμην (Epic ἔχευα, ἐχευάμην) from ἐχευσα, ἐχευσαμην.

b. For verbs retaining a short final vowel see 488.

544. Liquid Verbs. – Verb-stems ending in λ, μ, ν, ρ lose σ and lengthen their vowel in compensation (37): α to η (after ι or ρ to ᾱ), ε to ει, ῐ to ῑ, ῠ to ῡ.

φαίνω (φαν-) show, ἔφηνα for ἐφανσα; περαίνω (περαν-) finish, ἐπέρᾱνα for ἐπερανσα; στέλλω (στελ-) send, ἔστειλα for ἐστελσα; κρί̄νω (κριν-) judge, ἔκρῑνα for ἐκρινσα; ἅλλομαι (ἁλ-) leap, ἡλάμην for ἡλσαμην.

a. Some verbs in -αινω (-αν-) have -ᾱνα instead of -ηνα; as γλυκαίνω sweeten ἐγλύκᾱνα.  So ἰσχναίνω make thin, κερδαίνω gain, κοιλαίνω hollow out, λιπαίνω fatten, ὀργαίνω be angry, πεπαίνω make ripe.  Cp. 30 a.

b. The poetic verbs retaining σ in the future (536) retain it also in the aorist.

c. αἴρω (ἀρ-) raise is treated as if its verb-stem were ̄ρ- (contracted from ἀερ- in ἀείρω): aor. ἦρα, ἄ̄ρω, ἄ̄ραιμι, ἆρον, ἆραι, ἄ̄ρας, and ἠράμην, ἄ̄ρωμαι, ἀ̄ραίμην, ἄ̄ρασθαι, ἀ̄ράμενος.

d. ἤνεγκα is used as the first aorist of φέρω bear. εἶπα is rare for εἶπον (549).

545.  Stop Verbs. – Labial (π, β, φ) and palatal (κ, γ, χ) stops at the end of the verb-stem unite with σ to form ψ or ξ.  Dentals (τ, δ, θ) are lost before σ (cp. 98).

πέμπ-ω send ἔπεμψα, ἐπεμψάμην; βλάπτω (βλαβ-) injure ἔβλαψα; γράφ-ω write ἔγραψα, ἐγραψάμην; πλέκ-ω weave ἔπλεξα, ἐπλεξάμην; λέγ-ω say ἔλεξα; ταράττω (ταραχ-) disturb ἐτάραξα, ἐταραξάμην; poetic ἐρέσσω (ἐρετ-) row ἤρεσα; φράζω (φραδ-) tell ἔφρασα, ἐφρασάμην; πείθ-ω (πιθ-, πειθ-, ποιθ-) persuade ἔπεισα.

a. On forms in σ from stems in γ see 516.

iv.  second aorist systm

(second aorist active and middle)

546. The second aorist is formed without any tense-suffix and only from the simple verb-stem.  Only primitive verbs (372) have second aorists.

547. (I) Ω-Verbs. – Ω-verbs make the second aorist by adding ο/ε- to the verb-stem, which regularly ends in a consonant.  Verbs showing vowel gradations (476) use the weak stem (otherwise there would be confusion with the imperfect).

λείπω (λιπ-, λειπ-) leave ἔλιπον, -ἐλιπόμην; φεύγω (φυγ-, φευγ-) flee ἔφυγον; πέτομαι fly ἐπτόμην (476 a); λαμβάνω (λαβ-) take ἔλαβον.

548. a. Vowel verbs rarely form second aorists, as the irregular αἰρέω seize (εἶλον, 529. 1), ἐσθίω eat (ἔφαγον), ὁράω (εἶδον). ἔπιον drank (πί̄νω) is the only second aorist in prose from a vowel stem and having thematic inflection.

b. Many ω-verbs with stems ending in a vowel have second aorists formed like those of μι-verbs. These are enumerated in 687.

549Verbs of the First Class (499) adding a thematic vowel to the verbstem form the second aorist (1) by reduplication (494), as ἄγω lead ἤγαγον, and εἶπον probably for ἐ-Ϝε-Ϝεπ-ον; (2) by syncope (493), as πέτομαι fly ἐπτόμην, ἐγείρω (ἐγερ-) rouse ἠγρόμην, ἕπομαι (σεπ-) follow ἐσπόμην, imperf. είπόμην from ἐ-σεπομην, ἔχω (σεχ-) hare ἔσχον; (3) by using α for ε (476 b) in poetic forms (480), as τρέπω turn ἔτραπον; (4) by metathesis (492), as poet. δέρκομαι see ἔδρακον.

550(II) Μι-Verbs. – The stem of the second aorist of μι-verbs is the verb-stem without any thematic vowel. In the indicative active the strong form of the stem, which ends in a vowel, is regularly employed. The middle uses the weak stem form.

ἵ-στη-μι (στα-, στη-) set, second aorist ἔστην, ἔστης, ἔστη, ἔστητον, ἐστήτην, ἔστημεν, ἔστητε, ἔστησαν; middle ἐ-θέ-μην from τίθημι (θε-, θη-) place, ἐ-δό-μην from δίδωμι (δο-, δω-) give.

551Originally only the dual and plural showed the weak forms, which are retained in the second aorists of τίθημι, δίδωμι, and ἵ̄ημι: ἔθεμεν, ἔδομεν, εἷμεν (ἐ-έμεν), and in Hom. βάτην (also βήτην) from ἔβην went.  Elsewhere the weak grades have been displaced by the strong grades, which forced their way in from the singular.  Thus, ἔγνον, ἔφῠν in Pindar (= ἔγνω-σαν, ἔφῡ-σαν), which come from ἐγνων(τ), ἐφῡν(τ) by 40.  So Hom. ἔτλᾰν, ἔβᾰν.  Such 3 pl. forms are rare in the dramatic poets.

a. For the singular of τίθημι, δίδωμι, ἵ̄ημι, see 755; for the imperatives, 759; for the infinitives, 760.

552No verb in -ῡμι has a second aorist in Attic from the stem in υ.

553The difference between an imperfect and an aorist depends formally on the character of the present.  Thus ἔ-φη-ν said is called an ‘imperfect’ of φη-μί : but ἔ-στη-ν stood is a ‘second aorist’ because it shows a different tense-stem than that of ἵστημι.  Similarly ἔ-φερ-ον is ‘imperfect’ to φέρω, but ἔ-τεκ-ον ‘second aorist’ to τίκτω because there is no present τεκω.  ἔστιχον is imperfect to στίχω, but second aorist to στείχω.  Cp. 546 D.

note on the second aorist and second perfect

554a. The second aorist and the second perfect are usually formed only from primitive verbs (372). These tenses are formed by adding the personal endings (inclusive of the thematic or tense vowel) to the verb-stem without any consonant tense-suffix. Cp. ἔλιπο-ν with ἔλῡ-σ-α, ἐτράπ-ην with ἐτρέφ-θ-ην (τρέπω turn), γέ-γραφ-α with λέλυ-κ-α.

b. The second perfect and second aorist passive are historically older than the corresponding first perfect and first aorist.

c. τρέπω turn is the only verb that has three first aorists and three second aorists (596).

d. Very few verbs have both the second aorist active and the second aorist passive. In cases where both occur, one form is rare, as ἔτυπον (once in poetry), ἐτύπην (τύπτω strike).

e. In the same voice both the first and the second aorist (or perfect) are rare, as ἔφθασα, ἔφθην (φθάνω anticipate).  When both occur, the first aorist (or perfect) is often transitive, the second aorist (or perfect) is intransitive (819); as ἔστησα I erected, i.e. made stand, ἔστην I stood.  In other cases one aorist is used in prose, the other in poetry:  ἔπεισα, poet. ἔπιθον (πείθω persuade); or they occur in different dialects, as Attic ἐτάφην, Ionic ἐθάφθην (θάπτω bury); or one is much later than the other, as ἔλειψα, late for ἔλιπον.

v. first (κ) perfect system

(first perfect and pluperfect active)

555. The stem of the first perfect is formed by adding -κα to the reduplicated verb-stem. λέ-λυ-κα I have loosed, ἐ-λε-λύκη I had loosed.

a. The κ-perfect is later in origin than the second perfect and seems to have started from verb-stems in -κ, as ἔ-οικ-α ( = fέ-Ϝοικ-α) from εἴκω resemble.

b. Verbs showing the gradations ει, ευ : οι, ου : ι, υ (476) have ει, ευ; as πείθω (πιθ-, πειθ-) persuade πέπεικα (560).  But δέδοικα fear has οι (cp. 564).

556. The first perfect is formed from verb-stems ending in a vowel, a liquid, or a dental stop (τ, δ, θ).

557. Vowel Verbs. – Vowel verbs lengthen the final vowel (if short) before -κα, as τῑμά-ω honour τε-τί̄μη-κα, ἐά-ω permit εἴᾱ-κα, ποιέ-ω make πε-ποίη-κα, τίθημι (θε-, θη-) place τέ-θη-κα, δίδωμι (δο-, δω-) give δέ-δω-κα.

558. This applies to verbs that add ε (485).  For verbs that retain a short final vowel, see 488.  (Except σβέννῡμι (σβε-) extinguish, which has ἔσβηκα.)

559. Liquid Verbs. – Many liquid verbs have no perfect or employ the second perfect. Examples of the regular formation are φαίνω (φαν-) show, πέφαγκα, ἀγγέλλω (ἀγγελ-) announce, ἤγγελκα.

a. Some liquid verbs drop ν; as κέκρικα, κέκλικα from κρί̄νω (κριν-) judge, κλί̄νω (κλιν-) inclineτείνω (τεν-) stretch has τέτακα from τετṇκα.

b. Monosyllabic stems change ε to α; as ἔσταλκα, ἔφθαρκα from στέλλω (στελ-) send, φθείρω (φθερ-) corrupt.

N. For α we expect ο; α is derived from the middle (ἔσταλμαι, ἔφθαρμαι).

c. All stems in μ and many others add ε (485); as νέμω (νεμ-ε-), distribute νενέμηκα, μέλω (μελ-ε-) care for μεμέληκα, τυγχάνω (τυχ-ε) happen τετύχηκα.

d. Many liquid verbs suffer metathesis (492) and thus get the form of vowel verbs; as βάλλω (βαλ-) throw βέβληκα; θνῄσκω (θαν-) die τέθνηκα; καλέω (καλε-, κλη-) call κέκληκα; κάμνω (καμ-) am weary κέκμηκα; τέμνω (τεμ-) cut τέτμηκα.  Also πί̄πτω (πετ-, πτο-) fall πέπτωκα.  See 128 a.


560. Stop Verbs. – Dental stems drop τ, δ, θ before -κα; as πείθω (πιθ-, πειθ-, ποιθ-) persuade πέπεικα, κομίζω (κομιδ-) carry κεκόμικα.

vii.  second perfect system

(second perfect and pluperfect active)

561. The stem of the second perfect is formed by adding α to the reduplicated verb-stem: γέ-γραφ-α I have written (γράφ-ω).

562. The second perfect is almost always formed from stems ending in a liquid or a stop consonant, and not from vowel stems.

a. ἀκήκοα (ἀκούω hear) is for ἀκηκο(Ϝ)-α (ἀκοϜ- = ἀκου̯-, 43).

563. Verb-stems showing variation between short and long vowels (476) have long vowels in the second perfect (ᾰ is thus regularly lengthened).  Thus, τήκω (τακ-, τηκ-) melt τέτηκα, κρά̄ζω (κραγ-) cry out κέκρᾱγα, φαίνω (φαν-) show πέφηνα have appeared (but πέφαγκα have shown), ῥήγνῡμι (ῥαγ-, ῥηγ-, ῥωγ-, 477 c) break ἔρρωγα.

a. εἴωθα am accustomed ( = σε-σϜωθ-α) has the strong form ω (cp. ἦθος custom, 123); Hom. ἔθω (Attic ἐθίζω accustom).

564. The second perfect has ο, οι when the verb-stem varies between α, ε, ο (478, 479) or ι, ει, οι (477 a): τρέφ-ω (τρεφ-, τροφ-, τραφ-) nourish τέτροφα, λείπω (λιπ-, λειπ-, λοιπ-) leave λέλοιπα, πείθω (πιθ-, πειθ-, ποιθ-) persuade πέποιθα trust.

565. Similarly verbs with the variation υ, ευ, ου (476) should have ου; but this occurs only in Epic εἰλήλουθα ( = Att. ἐλήλυθα); cp. ἐλεύ(θ)-σομαι.  Other verbs have ευ, as φεύγω flee πέφευγα.

566. After Attic reduplication (446) the stem of the second perfect has the weak form; ἀλείφω (ἀλειφ-, ἀλιφ-) anoint ἀλήλιφα.

567. Apart from the variations in 563-566 the vowel of the verb-stem remains unchanged: as γέγραφα (γράφω write), κέκῡφα (κύ̄πτω stoop, κῡφ-).

568. The meaning of the second perfect may differ from that of the present; as ἐγρήγορα am awake from ἐγείρω wake up, σέσηρα grin from σαίρω sweep.  The second perfect often has the force of a present; as πέποιθα trust (πέπεικα have persuaded). See 819.

569. Aspirated Second Perfects. – In many stems a final π or β changes to φ : a final κ or γ changes to χ.  (φ and χ here imitate verb-stems in φ and χ, as τρέφω, ὀρύττω.)


κόπτω (κοπ-) cut κέκοφα, πέμπ-ω send πέπομφα, βλάπτω (βλαβ-) injure βέβλαφα, τρί̄βω (τρῑβ-) rub τέτρῐφα, φυλάττω (φυλακ-) guard -πεφύλαχα; τρέφ-ω (τρεφ-) nourish τέτροφα; ὀρύττω (ὀρυχ-) dig ὀρώρυχα.

570. Most such stems have a short vowel immediately before the final consonant; a long vowel precedes ε.γ.  in δείκ-νῡ-μι δέδειχα, κηρύ̄ττω (κηρῡκ-) -κεκηρῡχα, πτήσσω (πτηκ-) ἔπτηχα. τέτριφα and τέθλιφα show in contrast to in the present (τρί̄βω, θλί̄βω). στέργω, λάμπω do not aspirate (ἔστοργα, poet. λέλαμπα).

571. The following verbs have aspirated second perfects:  ἄγω, ἀλλάττω, ἀνοίγω, βλάπτω, δείκνῡμι, διώκω (rare), θλί̄βω, κηρύ̄ττω, κλέπτω, κόπτω, λαγχάνω, λαμβάνω, λάπτω, λέγω collect, μάττω, μείγνῡμι, πέμπω, πλέκω, πρά̄ττω, πτήσσω, τάττω, τρέπω, τρί̄βω, φέρω (ἐνήνοχα), φυλάττω. ἀνοίγω or ἀνοίγνῡμι has two perfects:  ἀνέῳχα and ἀνέῳγα. πρά̄ττω do has πέπρᾱγα have done and fare (well or ill), and (generally later) πέπρᾱχα have done.

572. Second Perfects of the μι-form. – Some verbs add the endings directly to the reduplicated verb-stem.  Such second perfects lack the singular of the indicative.

ἵστημι (στα-, στη-) set, 2 perf. stem ἑστα- : ἕστα-μεν, ἕστα-τε, ἑστᾶσι, inf. ἑστά-ναι; 2 plup. ἕστα-σαν (417).  The singular is supplied by the forms in -κα; as ἕστηκα.  These second perfects are enumerated in 704.

573. Stem Gradation. – Originally the second perfect was inflected throughout without any thematic vowel (cp. the perfect middle), but with stem-gradation: strong forms in the singular, weak forms elsewhere. (1 singular) was introduced in part from the aorist and spread to the other persons. Corresponding to the inflection of οἶδα (794) we expect πέποιθα, πέποισθα, πέποιθε, πέπιστον, πέπιθμεν, πέπιστε, πεπίθατι (from πεπιθṇτι).  Traces of this mode of inflection appear in Hom.  γεγάτην (from γεγṇτην, 35 b) γέγαμεν from γέγονα; ἔϊκτον, ἐΐκτην, ἐϊκώς from ἔοικα; ἐπέπιθμεν; μέμαμεν from μέμονα; πέπασθε (for πεπαθτε ̂ πεπṇθτε) from πέπονθα (other examples 704, 705).  So the masc. and neut. participles have the strong forms, the feminine has the weak forms (μεμηκώς, μεμακυῖα as εἰδώς, ἰδυῖα).

Previous Page Contents Next Page