H. W. Smyth

Greek Grammar Notes

Part 1 128-188
















128 D. Hom. κραδίη, καρδίη heart, κάρτιστος best   (κράτιστος), βάρδιστος slowest  (βραδύς), δρατός and -δαρτος from δέρω flay, ἔ-δρακον saw  from δέρκομαι see.





130 D. So in Hom. μέ-μβλω-κα have gone from μλω from μολ- in ἔ-μολ-ο-ν (128 a). At the beginning of words this μ is dropped; thus, βλώσκω go, βροτός mortal for μβρο-τος (root μρο-, μορ-, as in mor-tuus). In composition μ remains, as in ἄ-μβροτος immortal; but ἄ-βροτος immortal is formed from βροτός.

132 D. τ  for ς: Doric τύ, τοί, τέ, διᾱκατίοι (διᾱκόσιοι), Ϝκατι (εἴκοσι), Ποτειδά̄ν (Ποσειδών).

ς    τ: Doric σά̄μερον to-day (τήμερον Attic, σήμερον Ionic).

κ      π: Ionic (not Hom.) κότε when, κότερος which of two? ὅκως, κόσος, κῆ.

κ      τ:  Doric πόκα (πότε), ὅκα (ὅτε).

γ    β: Doric γλέφαρον eyelid, γλά̄χων (Ion. γλήχων) pennyroyal.

δ      β:  Doric ὀδελός (ὀβολός) a spit.

π   τ: Hom. πίσυρες, Aeol. πέσσυρες four (τέτταρες); Aeol. πήλυι far off (cp. τηλόσε), πέμπε five  (πέντε).

θ       τ:  see 126 D.

φ      θ:  Hom. φήρ centaur (θήρ beast).

ρ      ς:  (rhotacism): late Laconian, Elean τίρ who, Thessal. Θεόρδοτος god-given.

ς      θ:  late Laconian σιός for θεός god (26 D.).

ν      λ:  Doric ἐνθεῖν come.





134 D.  Hom. has ἐγώ (ν) I, ἄμμι (ν) to us, ὔμμι (ν) to you, σφί (ν) to them. The suffixes -φι and -θε vary with -φιν and -θεν: θεόφι(ν), πρόσθε(ν). Also κέ(ν) = Attic ἄν, νύ (ν) now. The Mss. of Hdt. avoid movable ν, but it occurs in Ionic inscriptions. Hdt. often has -θε for -θεν (πρόσθε before, ὄπισθε behind).





136 D.  Several adverbs often omit ς without much regard to the following word: ἀμφί about, ἀμφίς (poet.), μέχρι, ἄχρι until (rarely μέχρις, ἄχρις), ἀτρέμας and ἀτρέμα quietly, πολλάκις often (πολλάκι Hom., Hdt.).





144 D.  Ϝ may be one of the two consonants: πρός (Ϝ) οἶκον ( _ _ ˘ ).






146 D.  In Hom. an initial liquid, nasal, and digamma (3) was probably doubled in pronunciation when it followed a short syllable carrying the rhythmic accent. Here a final short vowel appears in a long syllable: ἐνὶ μεγάροισι ( ˘   ˘ ), cp. 28 D. The lengthening is sometimes due to the former presence of ς or Ϝ before the liquid or nasal: ὅτε λήξειεϜ ( ˘  ˘ ) (cp. ἄλληκτος unceasing for ἀ-σληκτος), τε ῥήξειν ˘  ) (cp. ἄρρηκτος unbroken for ἀ-Ϝρηκτος). (Cp. 80 a, 80 D., 81 D.)





147 D. α, ι, υ in Hom. sometimes show a different quantity than in Attic. Thus, Att. κᾰλός, τῐ́νω, φθᾰ́νω, λύ̄ω, ἵ̄ημι, Hom. κᾱλός, τί̄νω, φθά̄νω (28), and λῠ́ω and ἵ̆ημι usually.













148 D.  1. In Hom., and sometimes in the lyric parts of the drama, a syllable ending in a long vowel or diphthong is shortened before an initial vowel: ἄξω ἑλών ˘ ˘  ), εὔχεται εἶναι ˘ ˘  ), κλῦθί μευ ἀργυρότοξ' ˘ ˘   ).  Here ι and υ have become semivowels (20, 43); thus, εὔχετα | yεἶναι, cp. 67.  -ᾳ, -ῃ, -ῳ were shortened like ᾱ, η, ω. Thus, ἀσπέτῳ ὄμβρῳ ˘ ˘      ).

2. This shortening does not occur when the rhythmic accent falls upon the final syllable: ἀντιθίῳ  Ὀδυσῆι ˘ ˘  ˘ ˘   ˘ ), ᾧ ἔνι (  ˘ ˘   ).

3. The shortening rarely occurs in the interior of a word. Thus, Hom. ἥρωος (     ˘ ˘ ), υἱόν ( ˘ ˘  ), in the Attic drama αὑτηΐ      ˘     ), τοιοῦτος ˘     ˘  ) ποιῶ ( ˘     ), often written ποῶ in inscriptions (cp. 43).











162 D.  1. Aeolic has recessive (159) accent in all words except prepositions and conjunctions. Thus, σόφος, Ζεῦς, i.e. Ζέὺς, αὖτος, λίπειν ( = λιπεῖν), λίποντος (= λιπόντος), ἄμμες (= ἡμεῖς).

2. Doric regarded final -οι (169) as long (ἀνθρώποι), and probably -αι in nouns (χώραι); made paroxytones the 3 pl. act. of the past tenses (ἐφέρον, ἐλύ̄σαν) and such words as παίδες, γυναίκες, πτώκας; made perispomena the gen. masc. pl. of pronouns (τουτῶν, ἀλλῶν) and the gen. fem. pl. of adj. in -ος (ἀμφοτερᾶν). The substitution, in the accus. pl., of -ᾰς and -ος for -ᾱς and -ους, caused no change in the accent (πά̄σᾰς, ἀμπέλος).





181 D. Also enclitic are the dialectic and poetical forms μεῦ, σέο, σεῦ, τοί, τέ, and τύ (accus. = σέ), ἕο, εὗ, ἕθεν, μίν, νίν, σφί, σφίν, σφέ, σφωέ, σφωί̄ν, σφέων, σφέας, σφᾰ́ς and σφᾶς, σφέα; also the particles νύ or νύν (not νῦν), Epic κέ (κέν), θήν, ῥά; and Epic ἐσσί, Ion. εἶς, thou art.