WYLIE, JAMES AITKEN: Free Church of Scotland; b. at Kirriemuir (15 m. n. of Dundee), Scotland, Aug. 9, 1808; d. at Edinburgh May 1, 1890. He was educated at Marischall College, Aberdeen, 1822-25, and at St. Andrew's, 1826; entered the Original Secession Divinity Hall, Edinburgh, 1827; was licensed, 1829; was minister of Original Secession Congregation at Dollar, 1831-46; in 1846 be came associated with Hugh Miller in the editorship of The Witness, Edinburgh, contributing some 800 articles from 1846-64; in. 1852 joined the Free Church of Scotland, and for eight years was editor of The Free Church Record; and was lecturer on popery at the Protestant Institute of Scotland, Edinburgh, 1860-90. He wrote the Evangelical Alliance's prize essay on The Papacy (Edinburgh, 1851). His works embrace A Journey over the Region of Fulfilled Prophecy (Edinburgh, 1845, and often); The Awakening of Italy and the Crisis of Rome (London, 1866); The Road to Rome via Oxford; or, Ritualism identical with Romanism (1868); The History of Protestantism . . . Illustrated (3 vols., 1874 1877); The Papal Hierarchy: an Exposure of the Tactics of Rome for the Overthrow of the Liberty and Christianity of Great Britain (1878); The Jesuits, their Moral Maxims, and Plots against Kings, Na tions and Churches. With Dissertation on Ireland (1881); and Disruption Worthies; a Memorial of 1843. With an historical Sketch of the Free Church of Scotland from 1843 . . . (new ed., Edinburgh,1881).

WYTTENBACH, vit'ten-baH, THOMAS: Reformer, and teacher of Zwingli; b. at Biel (60 m. s.w. of Zurich), Switzerland, 1472; d. there 1526. He studied at Tubingen, 1496-1504, Konrad Summenhart and Christian Scriver (qq.v.) being among his teachers; went to Basel in 1505, where he lectured on the "Sentences" and also on the Bible, being heard by Zwingli and Leo Jud (qq.v.), both of whom were influenced by him and acknowledged their indebtedness. The former says that Wyttenbach won him to the Church, the latter that Wyttenbach won him for theology and the Bible. In 1507 Wyttenbach was called to the pastorate at Biel, but his office there did not prevent him from obtaining his baccalaureate and doctor's degree at Basel in 1510 and 1515 respectively. In 1515 he was called by the council to Berne, but in 1519 laid down his position of custos and in 1520 his canonry at Berne and devoted himself to his duties at Biel, in several cases defending successfully the rights of his church against assailants. He preached against the abuse of indulgences and the mass, and married in 1524; this was the beginning of the Reformation in Biel. His step caused a division of sentiment, especially as seven other priests followed his example. He was deprived of his charge, but continued to preach, at times in the open air, winning many to his side. But the consequence to him was severe poverty, in spite of the facts that the council favored him and that the decision was made in favor of the unhindered preaching of the Word. The council attempted in vain to secure his restoration to his benefice, but finally obtained for him in 1526 the payment for life of twelve gulden yearly, and if he should die before the end of twelve years, the payment of this sum to his heirs during that period. During the course of that year he died. The only writings left by him were some letters, preserved for the most part in the archives of Biel. These prove him to have been an intrepid man of strong convictions, a sturdy champion of truth and right.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: R. Stahelin, Huldreich Zwingli, i. 38 sqq., Basel, 1895; S. M. Jackson, Huldreich Zwingli, pp. 58-59, 182, 2d ed., New York, 1903; H. Hermelink, Die theoiogische Pakultdt in Tubingen, pp. 169-170, 215, Tubingen, 1906.


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