German philosopher; b. at Neckerau (now a part of Mannheim, 11 m. n.w. of Heidelberg) Aug. 16, 1832. He obtained his education at the universities of Tübingen, Heidelberg, and Berlin, 1851-56; became privat-docent at Heidelberg in physiology, 1857, and extraordinary professor, 1864; was elected to the legislative chamber of Baden, 1866; became extraordinary professor at Zurich, 1874; and professor of philosophy at Leipsic, 1875, where he was rector, 1889-90. In the realm of psychology his contributions have been notable. Of works which are of interest in theology, or because of their relation to the subject, notice may be taken of his Vorlesunge über die Menschen-und Thierseele (2 vols., Leipsic, 1863, 4th ed., 1906; Eng. transls., Lectures on Human and Animal Psychology, London, 1894, 1896, and 1901); Die physikalisehen Axiome und ihre Beziehung zum Causalprinzip (Erlangen, 1866); Grundzüge der physiologischen Psychologie (Leipsic, 1873-74, 6th ed., 1910; Eng. transl., Principles of Physiological Psychology, London, 1904); Ueber die Aufgabe der Philosophie in der Gegenwart (Leipsic, 1874); Der Spiritismus. Eine sogenannte wissenschaftliche Frage (1879); Logik (2 vols., Stuttgart, 1880-83); Philosophische Studien (1883 sqq.); Elhik. Eine Untersuchung der Thatsachen und Gesetze des sittlichen Lebens (1886, 2d. ed., 2 vols., 1903; Eng. transl., Ethics, 3 vols., London, 1897-1901, and Ethical Systems, London, 1897, and 1902; also, Facts of the Moral Life, ib., 1902; and Principles of Morality and Departments of Moral Life, ib., 1901); Grundriss der Psychologie (Leipsic, 1896, 8th ed., 1907; Eng. transl., Outlines of Psychology, London, 1902); Völkerpsychologie (2 vols., 1904-05, 2d ed., 1910); and Kleine Schriften, 2 vols. (1910-1911).


WURSTER, PAUL: German theologian; b. at Hohenstaufen (26 m. e. of Stuttgart) Dec. 6, 1860. He. studied at the seminaries of Schöntal and Urach, and at the University of Tübingen; after a year given to work in philanthropic institutions, he spent some time in travel; he was pastor at Heilbronn, 1888-1903; dean at Blaubeuren, 1903; and professor and director of the preachers' seminary at Friedberg in Hesse, 1903-07. He has written Gustav


Werners Leben and Werken (Reutlingen, 1888); Segen und Wohlthuns (Heilbronn, 1891); Die Lehre von der Innern Mission (Berlin, 1894-95); and Christliche Glaubens- und Sittenlehre (Heilbronn, 1896).


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