WILLIAMS, ROWLAND: English Broad-church theologian; b. at Halkyn (12 m. e.s.e. of St. Asaph), Wales, Aug. 16, 1817; d. at Broad Chalke (7 m. w.s.w. of Salisbury), Wiltshire, Jan. 18, 1870. He studied at Eton and at King's College, Cambridge (B.A., 1841; M.A., 1844; B.D., 1851; D.D., 1857), where he was fellow 1839-59, and classical tutor 1842-50. During 1843-46 he was instrumental in averting the proposed amalgamation of the sees of St. Asaph and Bangor, publishing in the press a number of remonstrances against the measure. In 1848 he won the Muir prize for a preliminary essay on the comparative merits of Christianity and Hinduism. From 1850 until 1862 he was vice-principal and professor of Hebrew at the theological college of St. David's, Lampeter, Wales. Despite the most uncompromising opposition on account of his liberal views regarding the interpretation of Scripture, his administration of the college was aggressive and successful. In Dec., 1854, he was appointed select preacher at Cambridge, though his sermons there were quickly interrupted by his father's death. In 1858 he accepted the living of Broad Chalke, whither he removed in 1862. In 1860 he contributed Bunsen's Biblical Researches to the famous Essays and Reviews, which resulted in his trial for heterodoxy before the Court of Arches (see ESSAYS AND REVIEWS). His principal works were, Rational Godliness (London, 1855), sermons preached at Cambridge and at St. David's College; Christianity and Hinduism Compared (1856), his greatest work; The Hebrew Prophets Translated . . . with Introduction and Notes (2 parts, 1866-71); Broad Chalke Sermon-Essays (1867); Owen Glendower: a Dramatic Biography . . . and Other Poems (1870); and Psalms and Litanies (1872).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: His Life and Letters was published by his widow, 2 vols., London, 1574. Consult: John Owen, in Contemporary Review, Apr., 1870; C. K. Paul, Biographical Sketches. London, 1883; DNB, lxi. 450-453; literature under ESSAYS AND REVIEWS. The Judgment of S. Lushington in the Court of Arches was published, London, 1882.

WILLIAMS, SAMUEL WELLS: Congregational layman and sinologue; b. at Utica, N. Y., Sept. 22, 1812; d. at New Haven, Conn., Feb. 16, 1884. In 1831 he entered Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute at Troy, N. Y.; went to Canton, China, in 1833 as a printer for the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions; there he was editor, contributor to, and printer of The Chinese Repository, 1838-51; removed to Macao, 1835, to complete the printing of Medhurst's Hokkeen Dictionary, 1835; visited Japan, 1837, and translated into Japanese Genesis and Matthew; began to print Bridgman's Chinese Christomathy, to which he contributed one-half, 1837-38; he was away from China, 1844-48, spending three years in America, where he was instrumental in raising funds for a full font of Chinese type; was interpreter to Commodore Perry's Japan expeditions, 1853-54; became secretary and interpreter of the U. S. Legation, Peking, 1855; assisted Minister Reed in negotiating the treaty with China, 1858. He made two more visits to America, and in 1877 he returned to become professor of the Chinese language and literature at Yale University. He had been charge d'affaires nine times during his term as secretary and interpreter in China. His great work


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ing. But hopes were disappointed. At a synod at Zurich (May 4, 1538), in which the note was loudly voiced that the agreement should only be assumed as valid after Luther had formally recalled his written attacks against Zwingli, a reply to Luther was resolved upon, in which the Swiss asserted the partaking of the body through a believing spirit; presumed that no difference longer existed; and begged the privilege, under present circumstances, of presenting such instruction to the people as would be most intelligible to them. But before its receipt, Luther, in an answer to Bullinger, assumed the harmony to be an assured thing, and the missive of the Swiss he acknowledged briefly by referring them, regarding his scruples, to Butzer as mediator. Thus, the movement resolved itself for years into polite correspondence; of an ultimate concord, by the action of a general convention, there was no more mention; and Butzer, who had made another attempt at Wittenberg (1538), seemed to have lost his former interest. The only fruit was a temporary truce of friendliness with the cities of upper Germany. Luther's comparison of Zwingli with Nestorius (Concilien and Kirchen, 1539) caused deep resentment in Switzerland. His restrictions upon the Swiss and their orthodoxy became ever severer until by a letter (Aug. 31, 1543) he broke off all relations with them, offering to pray and teach against them until his end. (T. KOLDE.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The sources are the official reports in Butzer's Scripta Anglicana, pp. 648 sqq., Basel, 1577, and in Walch's ed. of Luther's Werke, xvii. 2543; the matter in Tentzel, Supplementum hist. Gothanæ, pp. 114 sqq., Jena, 1716; Wolfgang Musculus' reports in his Itinerarium, given in T. Kolde, Analecta Lutherana, pp. 216 sqq., Gotha, 1883. Consult: J. C. G. Neudecker, Urkunden aus der Reformationszeit, Cassel, 1836; idem, Merkwürdige Aktenstücke aus der Zeit der Reformation, 2 parts, Nuremberg, 1838; idem, Neue Beiträge zur Geschichte der Reformation, Leipsic, 1841; T. Kelm, Die Reformation der Reichstadt Ulm, Stuttgart, 1851; idem, Schwäbische Reformationsgeschichte, Tübingen, 1855; C. Pestalozzi, Heinrich Bullinger, Elberfeld, 1858; J. W. Baum, Capito und Butzer, ib. 1860; G. Uhlhorn, Urbanus Rhegius, ib., 1861; F. W. Hassencamp, Hessische Reformationsgeschichte, vol. i., Frankfort, 1864; M. Lenz, Briefwechsel Landgraf Philipps mit Bucer, 3 vols., Leipsic, 1880-91; G. Kawerau, Der Briefwechsel des Justus Jonas, Halle, 1884 sqq.; H. E. Jacobs, The Book of Concord, ii. 253-259, Philadelphia, 1893; idem, Martin Luther, pp. 316 sqq., New York, 1898; W. Germann, Johann Forster, Meiningen, 1894; J. W. Richard, Philip Melanchthon, pp. 254-255, New York, 1898; E. Egli, Analecta reformatoria, Zurich, 1899 sqq.; K. Wolfart, Die Augsburger Reformation in . . . 1533-1534, Leipsic, 1901; F. Roth, Augsburgs Reformationsgeschichte, 3 vols., Munich, 1901-07; Cambridge Modern History, ii. 234, 339, New York, 1904; K. Schornbaum, Zur Politik des Markgrafen Georg von Brandenburg, Munich, 1906; T. Kolde, Die älteste Redaktion der Augsburger Konfession, Gütersloh, 1908; idem, Historische Einleitung in die symbolischen Bücher der evang.-lutherischen Kirche, ib. 1907; the letters and lives of Luther (see under article on him), and the literature on the later stages of the German Reformation.


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