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UNIVERSITIES.

Basal Ideas ( 1).
University of Paris, Organization ( 2).
Bologna University ( 3).
Early "General" Schools ( 4).
Organization ( 5).
Instruction and Degrees ( 6).
Students ( 7).
Post-Reformation Foundations ( 8).
Changes Due to Humanism and the Reformation ( 9).
The Eighteenth Century ( 10).
Nineteenth Century; Germany ( 11).
The Continent and England ( 12).
Other Foundations ( 13).
American Universities; Economic Foundations ( 14).
Types of American Universities ( 15).
Activities of American Universities ( 16).

1. Basal Ideas.

Universities are a product of the spiritual life of the Middle Ages, when they were at once ecclesiastical and secular institutions. In origin they date from the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, when they were called "general schools," as at Paris and Bologna, in contradistinction from other institutions termed "special" or "particular" schools. Their characteristics were three: they were institutions for every one who wished to study; their teaching was designed to be for the advantage of all Christendom; and those who completed the course of study considered typical and necessary were declared worthy, on examination, to propagate and teach the learning they had acquired.

But the university was something more than the "general school"-- it was a juristic corporation. Such organizations of teachers and students arose toward the end of the twelfth century, remolding the schools and securing important privileges. Within these corporate bodies, or universitates magistrorum et scholarium, were "faculties" of teachers and "nations" of students. In the course of time the designation of the corporate body was transferred to the corps of teachers, and in Germany studium generale and universitas were synonyms from the first. The archetype of the university was found in Paris and Bologna in the early twelfth century, the former devoted to theology and the latter to law, but both employing the same new method. This was the dialectic consideration of theology and law respectively, the set task being the dialectic removal of discrepancies between Church Fathers or glossators, the weighing of the pros and cons, and the final conclusion, or sententia. In harmony with the medieval doctrine of the universal monarchy and the universal Church, theology and jurisprudence stood in the foreground of interest. The universities were favored with special privileges, the first being the Authentica habita of the Emperor Frederick I. (1158) giving imperial protection to those journeying to distant places for the sake of study, exempting them from local jurisdiction, and placing them under the control of teacher or bishop. A similar course was followed by Philip Augustus for the University of Paris in 1200, and the popes later bestowed the right of conferring degrees and the so-called right of residence.

2. University of Paris; Organization.

Toward the close of the twelfth century the University of Paris was formed by the union of the teachers of the four subjects of theology, law, medicine, and arts. By degrees the teachers of the same subjects formed still closer associations (caused primarily by the need of regulation of the conferring of degrees), which took place 1310-20. About this same time the term "faculty" was employed to denote first the subject and then the body of those teaching it. Among the faculties that of arts was the lowest, serving as introductory to the other three. It taught the traditional seven liberal arts and especially Aristotelian philosophy, while in its study of dialectics it prepared the way for theology. The faculty of law, in like manner, was devoted to canon law. In these same decades the scholars were divided, for administration and discipline, into four "nations," each headed by its chosen "procurator," and all four united under a "rector."

The students of the faculty of arts soon gained the ascendency in the university, especially as their masters were at the same time scholars in the higher faculties, and about 1274 the rector of the orations, which included the entire university except the teachers of the higher faculties, became the head of the faculty of arts. About the same time each of the other faculties seems to have given itself a "dean" as its chief officer, but by 1341 the rector had become supreme over the deans of medicine and law, and even of theology, so that he was now the ruler of the whole university, a development completed shortly before the foundation of the first German university (Prague, 1348).

3. Bologna University.

While in France education had been connected, since the time of Charlemagne, with monasteries and churches, so that both teachers and scholars were clergy; in Italy the laity had also taught from Roman days, and the development of the Bolognese type accordingly differed from the Parisian. The chief studies in Italy were grammar, rhetoric, and law, the latter taught at Rome, Pavia, Ravenna, and Bologna as a department of the arts. Early in the fourteenth century, however, law became a separate branch of study at Bologna, due to the abiding influence of the lawyer Irnerius and the canonist Gratian. Thus practical and legal Bologna became the type of lay and democratic student universities, while speculative and theological Paris and Oxford were models of clerical schools of masters.

At Bologna the foreign students formed themselves into nations on the pattern of the city gilds; but by the middle of the thirteenth century the corporations had become the two great juristic universities of Citramontani and Ultramontani, within which the nations continued to be independent. These two universities (Citramontani and Ultramontani), with their two rectors, existed until the sixteenth century, whereas in offshoots from Bologna reduction to a single university took place at an earlier date. The teachers of law were at first outside the university at Bologna, nor were they organized into a formal board until the second half

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