Protestant Episcopal; b. in Philadelphia Jan. 23, 1790; d. in New York Dec. 21, 1861. He was graduated from the University of Pennsylvania, 1807; settled as pastor at Chestertown, Md., 1812; became professor of historic theology in the General Theological Seminary, New York, 1818, and from 1821 till his death was professor of Biblical learning. He was a sound and able commentator. He translated, with Bishop Whittingham, Jahn's Introduction to the Old Testament (New York, 1827), and Planck's Introduction to Sacred Philology and Interpretation (1834); wrote commentaries upon the Greek test of Hebrews (1852), Romans (1853), Ephesians (1856), Galatians (1856); prepared Companion to the Book of Genesis (1841); Biographical Notices of some of the most Distinguished Jewish Rabbies, and Translations of Portions of their Commentaries and Other Works (1847); Thoughts on the Origin, Character, and Interpretation of Scripture Prophecy (1852); Teachings of the Master (1858); Spiritual Things compared with Spiritual, or Gospels and Acts illustrated by Parallel References (1859); The Gospels according to the Ammonian Sections and the Tables of Eusebius (1861).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Autobiography of Samuel H. Turner, New York, 1863.
Waldensian with Taboritic tendencies; b. at Tolkemit (50 m. s.w. of Königsberg), probably about 1390; executed at Speyer probably in Apr., 1426. Of his early life nothing is known, but about 1415 he was in Prague. Henceforth his fortunes were closely connected with those of Johannes Drändorf, and somewhat later he apparently visited Greece. A few years before his death he was rector of a school in Speyer, where, together with Drändorf, he began a series of attacks on the clergy of the city. He sought in vain to keep his friend from his own negotiations with Weinsberg, Heilbronn, and Wimpfen, and the pair were involved in common ruin. Besides his attacks on the secular power of the clergy, Turnow is said to have held that general councils could err, that the Eucharist must be administered under both kinds, the priest teaching or acting to the contrary being doomed to eternal punishment at the last day.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: M. Flacius, Catalogus testium veritatis, Frankfort, 1666; C. D. d'Argentre, Collectio judiciorum de novis erroribus, vol. ii., Paris, 1728; J. E. Kapp, Nachlese Einiger . . . zur Erläuterung der Reformations-Geschichte nützlicher Urkunden, part iii., Leipsic, 1730; H. Haupt, Die religiösen Sekten in Franken vor der Reformation, Würzburg, 1882; idem, in Historisches Taschenbuch, VI., vii. 233 sqq.; idem, Waldensertum und Inquisition im südöstlichen Deutschland, Freiburg, 1890; L. Seller, Die Reformation und die älteren Reformparteien, Leipsic, 1885.
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