German Roman Catholic; b. at Gross-Glogau (58 m. n.w. of Breslau) Nov. 7, 1864. He was educated at the universities of Breslau and Münster (1883-87; D.D., Münster, 1888), and after being a parish priest in Waldenburg (Silesia), Merzdorf, Schönau, Schwedt, and Miltisch, 1888-95, resumed his studies at Bonn (1895-97; Ph.D., 1897), and at Berlin (1897-1900), being at the same time engaged in parochial work in the latter city. In 1902 he became privat-docent for canon law in the University of Breslau, where he was appointed to his present position of extraordinary professor of the same subject in 1905, being made consistorial councilor in 1908. He has written Veteris Testamenti de Cherubim doctrina (Münster, 1888) and Studien zur Lex Dei, i. ii. (Freiburg, 1905-07), besides editing Salih ibn al-Husain's Liber decem quaestionum contra Christianos (Bonn, 1897).


Dutch Reformed; b. at Vianen (7 m. s.s.w. of Utrecht) July 22, 1583; d. at Leyden Apr. 5, 1654. Of Roman Catholic parentage, he was brought up by relatives at Gouda, and sent, in 1597, to some priests at Amsterdam to study theology. Toward the end of 1598 he removed to Louvain, where doubts arose in his mind which ultimately led him to break with the ancient faith. He was entrusted with a mission to Haarlem by the head of the collegium pontificium, and never returned to Louvain. After a few weeks at Gouda, where his foster relations rejected him, he sought refuge in the house of his parents, where he studied Reformed tenets, meanwhile seeking occupation to gain his livelihood. In 1602 he was made rector of the school at Vianen, and in the following year entered the Reformed Church. Having prepared privately for the ministry, he was ordained pastor at Stolwijk in 1607; and was pastor at Amsterdam, 1610-34. Here, in 1614, he began a noteworthy activity in affairs of Church and State which ended only with his death. In 1617 he received leave of absence to the Reformed church at The Hague, and was a deputy of the provincial synod of North Holland to the Synod of Dort, which appointed him a member of the committee to draw up the Canons of Dort. Trigland was professor of theology at Leyden, 1634-54, lecturing on the exegesis of the Old Testament, on the loci communes, 1639-50, and later on "cases of conscience." He was also pastor of the Reformed church at Leyden (1637-45).

The writings of Trigland, which are dogmatic and polemic, reveal him as a man of intense convictions, rigid dogmatism, and great learning in Scripture and the Reformed theology, but also as passionate, intolerant, and haughty, traits which caused him bitter enemies. Yet his hostility, manifested particularly against the Remonstrants, did not come from love of strife, but from sincere feeling that their teachings were pernicious and not to be allowed. This is most plainly shown in his Den rechtghematichden Christen (Amsterdam, 1615). In his Verdedigingh van de Leere end' Eere der Ghereformeerde Kerken, ende Leeraren (1616) he defends the Reformed dogmatics. He sturdily opposed civil intervention in ecclesiastical affairs in his Antwoordt op drij vraghen dienende tot advys in de huydendagsche kerklijke swarigheden (1615), and his Christelijcke ende nootwendighe verclaringhe (1615). After the Synod of Dort, 1618-19, he continued to work


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regime are liberty, equality, fraternity, and justice. The sultan was not at first deposed, but was made to accept the constitution-which recognizes the sovereignty of the dynasty of Othman, Mohammedanism as the religion of the State, and the sultan as calif of Islam, but promises religious liberty, freedom of the press, freedom of speech, equal rights, and equal duties for all races and religions-secured by a parliament where all are equally represented and by a reformed judiciary. In 1909 an attempt was made to subvert the constitution, but Abd-ul-Hamid was shown to have been concerned in the attempt and was deposed; and his brother, Mohammed Y., was raised to the throne. This revolution is the work of the same Ottoman Turks as have ruled the empire for 600 years. They constitute about one-fifth of the population of the empire and hope that a strong and regenerated Turkey will restore their influence in the Mohammedan world. It remains to be seen how rat it is possible to graft these Christian principles upon Mohammedanism and how far the Christian nationalities in the empire will consent to give up the special privileges which have been assured to them ever since the capture of Constantinople, and have served to protect their national churches from destruction. The Arabs, Albanians, Kurds, and other Mohammedan races have never loved the Turks, while the Christian races have always hoped and prayed for the decay and disappearance of the Turkish rule. In 1909 in Constantinople, officially recognized by the Porte, there were patriarchs of the Armenian, Armenian Catholic, Latin and Orthodox (Greek) churches, the exarch of the Bulgarian church, the vekil of the Protestants, and the Haham Bashi of the Jews. They are appointed by the sultan and have considerable civil as well as ecclesiastical authority over their flocks. In these organizations political interests have often taken the place of the concerns of religion, and, except the Protestants and Catholics, none of these religious bodies have done anything since the Turkish conquest to propagate their faith. As these communities are protected by European powers it will be impossible for the Turks to deprive them of these privileges by force, and their political interests and aspirations will lead them to cling as far as possible to these separate organizations.

II. Protestant Missions:


The Protestant Reformation in Europe was not without influence in Turkey, and some of the highest ecclesiastics of the Orthodox church were more or less in sympathy with it. But the people were too ignorant and too isolated to be reached by say movement from without; and Protestantism was practically unknown to them until the establishment of Protestant missions in Turkey, early in the present century. These missions have been confined almost exclusively to the Jews sad the Oriental Christians. Thirty-one societies are engaged, including the Church Missionary Society, the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, the London Jews Society, the Established Church of Scotland, the United Free Church of Scotland, the Irish Presbyterian Mission, the Palestine Church Missionary Society, the British Syrian School Society, the Lebanon Schools Committee, the Society for Promoting Female Education in the East. All of these are British organizations; and in addition to these there are several independent enterprises, mostly schools, conducted by the English. The American societies are the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, the Presbyterian Board of Missions, the Reformed Presbyterian Mission, the Christian (Campbellite) Mission, the Society of Friends (American and English). There are also a number of publication societies, both English and American, which have agents in Turkey or work through the missionaries. The most important are the British and Foreign Bible Society, the American Bible Society, the American Tract Society, the London Religious Tract Society. The German missions are the Kaiaerswerth Deaconeases, the Krishona Missions, and the Jerusalem Verein. These societies employ about 450 missionaries and assistant missionaries, and about 1,800 native assistants. The whole number of Protestants in Turkey is estimated at 100,000, of whom about 25,000 are communicants.

American Board.

First of these organizations stands the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, which originally represented the Presbyterian, Reformed (Dutch), and Congregational churches of America, but since 1870 only the last. The work of this board in Turkey was commenced in 1819, when two missionaries, Messrs. Fisk and Parsons, were sent out to begin work at Jerusalem. This mission was never fairly established, but in 1823 the Syrian mission was commenced at Beirut. The Armenian mission was founded at Constantinople in 1831, and the Jewish mission in 1832, the Assyrian mission in 1849, and the Bulgarian in 1858. Several missionaries have at times been appointed to work among the Mohammedans, but without any permanent result. There was a time, after the Crimean war, when the government tolerated work for the Mohammedans and there were a few converts. But in 1865 this toleration ceased, and for the last thirty years it has been impossible far a Moslem to abjure his faith and remain in the country. It remains to be seen how far the religious liberty now promised will be extended to Mohammedans. The board has now four distinct missions in Turkey the Euro pean, Western, Central, and Eastern Turkey missions; and its work is chiefly among the Armenians, Bulgarians, and Greeks. The missionaries at first had no intention of establishing an independent Protestant church in Turkey, but sought rather to reform the existing Christian churches. The peculiar constitution of the Turkish empire, which not only gave civil power to the patriarchs, but treated as an outlaw every, person not belonging to some estab lished church, together with the violent animosity of the ecclesiastics against Evangelical teaching, finally forced the missionaries to found a Protestant church, or, more properly, a Protestant civil community, which was recognized by the Porte in 1850, through the influence of England. In 1910 the American Board had in Turkey 354 male and female missionaries. They also supported, wholly or in part, 1,355 native pastors, preachers, teachers,


etc. They have 353 stations and sub-stations, with 16,031 communicants. They have 411 schools of all grades, with about 20,000 pupils in all. They have printed and circulated, since the establishment of the missions, over 3,000,000 books. There are seven colleges connected with the missions of the board--at Aintab, Kharpoot, Marsovan, Marash, Tarsus, Smyrna, and Constantinople--with 1,461 students. The colleges at Conatantinople and Marash are for girls.

3. Other Missions.

The mission to Syria was transferred by the American Board in 1870 to the Presbyterian Church, and reports the following statistics for 1910: missionaries, 38; native laborers, 194; churches, 29; communicants, 2,819; theological and high schools, 9; high schools for girls, 3; common schools, 91; printed from beginning, 23,395,410 books. The Reformed (Dutch) Church Missions. in America in 1894 adopted a mission which had been started as an independent work in Arabia, about the Persian Gulf. There are thirteen missionaries, and their object is to reach the Mohammedans with the Gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ. The missions to the Jews in Turkey are conducted by the London Jews Society, which has 5 stations, 7 missionaries, 2 medical missionaries, 6 helpers, and 6 schools; the church of Scotland, which has 5 stations, 5 missionaries, 1 medical missionary, 6 helpers, and 6 schools; the Free Church of Scotland, which has 2 stations, 2 missionaries, 2 helpers, and 3 schools. In all there are four organized churches. It is supposed that the wives of the missionaries are not included in these statistics, as they are in those which precede them.

4. Bible Societies.

The British and Foreign Bible Society has eleven depots and depositories in Turkey, with a central agency at Constantinople. It now employs thirty-three colporteurs. It commenced work in Turkey about 1806. It has circulated the Bible in thirty-five languages, to the number of about 2,500,000 volumes. The American Bible Society has a central agency at Constantinople. Its most important branch is at Beirut; but it operates through all the stations of the American missions. It now employs 50 colporteurs. It circulates the Bible in 26 languages, and the total number of volumes circulated since 1858 is about 750,000. Both of these societies have worked in such close connection with the missionary societies, and have so generally depended upon the missionaries for their translations and for the work of publication, that it is impossible to say exactly how large a proportion of the volumes reported above is included in the statistics already given in connection with the missions. Up to 1858 the missionaries acted as agents of the American Bible Society. Robert College, founded 1863, at Constantinople, and the Syrian Protestant College at Beirut, are independent, endowed institutions, not connected with any missionary society; but they are the fruit of missionary work. Robert College has 45 professors and instructors, and 450 students. Its course of instruction is similar to that of the best American colleges. The Syrian Protestant College has a medical department and a commercial school in addition to its college course, and was founded in 1866. It has 60 professors and instructors, and 700 students. These colleges are both American institutions, and in both the language of instruction is English. Their students represent almost all the languages, religions, and nationalities of the East.

5. Results.

Of late years most of the missions in Turkey have given prominence to medical work, and a number of hospitals have been established at the mission stations. The most important connected with American missions are at eirut, Aintab, Caesarea, Marsovan, Van, and Bahrein, and there are dispensaries for medical aid at most of the stations. This work reaches all races and religions, and its influence is constantly increasing. The real influence of Protestant missions in Turkey can not be measured by any such statistics as those given above. It has been not only religious, but intellectual, social, and political. It has modified the character of the Oriental churches, and to some extent reformed them. It has carried Western ideas and Christian civilization into the darkest corners of the empire. Many English statesmen familiar with Turkish affairs have declared that American missionaries have accomplished more for the regeneration of the East than all other influences combined. Lord Stratford de Redcliffe and Lord Shaftesbury may be mentioned, among others, as having expressed this opinion.

III. Roman Catholic Missions:

Neither the Roman Catholic authorities nor the French embassy at Constantinople are ready to furnish the statistics of Roman Catholic missions in Turkey; although an offer was made to publish what they might furnish, without note or comment. Without such statistics, only general statements can be made. All Roman Catholic missions in Turkey were, until recently, political agencies of the French Government, and as such received pecuniary aid and diplomatic support. In return for this they were expected to propagate and sustain French influence under all circumstances. The principal Roman Catholic organizations in Turkey are the Lazarists, Mechitarists, Franciscans, Dominicans, Capuchins, Carmelites, Jesuits, and various organizations of Sisters of Charity. For many years past they have made but little apparent progress in winning converts from other Christian churches, and they have not attempted to convert Mohammedans. For a time the Bulgarians, after their conversion to Christianity, inclined toward Rome; but they finally united with the Eastern Church; and only a small body of Paulicians are now Roman Catholics. Since the commencement of the conflict between the Bulgarians and the Greek Patriarch, great efforts have been made to win the Bulgarians over to Rome; and, since the expulsion of the religious orders from France, this mission has been largely reenforced, and French protection has been offered to converts, especially in Macedonia. The results have thus far been small. In Albania there is a strong Catholic element. Among the Greeks no progress has been made for fifty years. There is a rich and influential Armenian Catholic Church in Turkey, which during the eighteenth century suffered terrible persecution;


but this church has during the past few years been distracted by dissensions, growing out of an effort, on the part of Rome, to Latinize it. Several thousand families have gone back to the old Armenian church.

Among the Arabic-speaking races, the Roman Catholics have won over many of the Jacobites, control the Maronites of Syria, have some influence among the Greeks and Copts, and of course maintain establishments in Tripoli and Tunis. In addition to the native Roman Catholics, there is all through the empire a large foreign population, which is generally Roman Catholic and contributes to the support of the missions. In fact, much of the influence of this faith in Turkey has always come from the diplomatic, consular, and commercial establishments maintained here by Roman Catholic countries. The native Christians have always been taught to feel, that, in becoming Roman Catholics, they became in some sense Europeans, and shared in some degree the honor and immunities of foreigners. In addition to these social and political advantages afforded to converts, the Roman Catholic missions have founded churches, schools, hospitals, and orphanages, monasteries, convents, and seminaries. Their schools have always been of a low order; but they have taught the French language, and such accomplishments as took the fancy of the people. Until the establishment of Protestant missions, they were, no doubt, the best schools in the country. Of late years, whatever progress has been made has been due chiefly to the work of the Sisters of Charity in hospitals, orphanages, schools, and house-to-house visitation. They are to be found everywhere; and, although generally ignorant and bigoted, they are indefatigable workers, well trained to obedience, self-sacrificing, and wholly devoted to these works of-Christian charity.

The number of Roman Catholic missionaries in the empire, native and foreign, male and female, including the ecclesiastics of the native Roman Catholic churches, can not be less than 3,000. There is no means of estimating the annual expenditure, but the Roman Catholic missions have certainly been more successful than the Protestant in "living on the country." They depend much less, in proportion to their numbers, upon foreign aid.

It is not easy for a Protestant to form an estimate of the success of Roman Catholic missions. They have no doubt planted the church so firmly in this empire that it can stand by itself without foreign aid; but they have done nothing toward converting the Mohammedans, and have made no progress in winning over the oriental churches to a union with Rome. They have not essentially weakened these churches, nor have they made converts enough to enter into any rivalry with them.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: Besides the literature under ARMENIA; SYRIA; and SYRIAN CHURCH, consult on the history and life: J. W. Zinkeisen, Geschichte des osmanischen Reiches in Europa, 7 vols., Hamburg, 1840-63; J. L. Farley, Modern Turkey, London, 1872; idem, Turks and Christians, ib. 1876; J. Baker, Turkey in Europe, ib. 1877; T. Milner, The Turkish Empire; Sultan, Territory and People, ib. 1877; E. L. Clark, The Races of European Turkey, Edinburgh, 1878; idem, Turkey, New York, 1883; E. J. Davies, Life in Asiatic Turkey, London, 1879; J. Creagh, Armenians, Koords, and Turks, 2 vols., ib. 1880; H. F. Tozer, Turkish Armenia and Eastern Asia Minor, ib. 1881; J. M. N. Brodhead, Slav and Moslem, Historical Sketches, Aiken, 1894; S. L. Poole, The Mohammedan Dynasties, Westminster, 1894; R. Davey, The Sultan and his Subjects, New York, 1897; Mrs. W. M. Ramsay, Everyday Life in Turkey, London, 1903; L. M. Garnett, Turkish Life in Town aced Country, London and New York, 1904; idem, Turkey of the Ottomans, ib. 1911; M. Sykes, Dar-ul-Islam; a Record of a Journey through ten of the Asiatic Provinces of Turkey, New York, 1904; W. S. Monroe, Turkey and the Turks. An Account of the Lands, Peoples and Institutions of the Ottoman Empire, Boston, 1907, London, 1908; G. F. Abbot, Turkey in Transition, New York, 1909; L. Collar, Histoire de l'empire ottoman jusqu'a la revolution de 1909, Paris, 1910. And on missions and churches: The Star in the East; Quarterly Record of the Progress of Christian Missions within the Turkish Empire, London, 1883; Hilaire, La France catholique en orient durant les trois derniers siecles, Paris, 1902; E. von Mülinen, Die Lateinische Kirche im türkischen Reiche, 2d ed., Berlin, 1903; W. A. Essery, The Ascending Cross. Some Results of Missions in Bible Lands, London, 1905; J. E. H., One Hundred Syrian Pictures, Illustrating the Work of the Syrian Mission, ib. 1903; C. Lagier, Byzance et Stamboul: nos droits francais et nos missions en orient, Paris, 1905; N. Jorga, Geschichte des osmanischen Reiches, 3 vols., Gotha, 1907-10; J. L. Barton, Daybreak in Turkey, Boston, 1909.


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