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253 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Schmidt $chmuoker concerning Stephen in the Book of Acts. In these writings he evinced the thorough, incisive, and yet contained style of treatment that he showed in the professor's chair. C. T. FICBE$. SCHMIEDEL, shmi'del, PAUL WILHELM: Ger man Protestant; b. at Zaukeroda (401 m. s.w. of Dresden), Germany, Dec. 22, 1851. He was edu cated at the universities of Leipsic (1871-74) and Jena (1874-75; lic. theol., 1878), and in 1878 became privat-docent for theology at Jena, where he was appointed associate professor in 1890. Since 1893 he has been professor of New-Testament exegesis at the University of Zurich. In theology he is a mod erate liberal, and has written Qute intercedat ratio inter doctrinam epistolee ad Hebrteos missce et Pauli. apostoli doctrinam (Jena, 1878); Briefe an die Thessalonier and Corinther (Freiburg, 1891); Jo hannesachriften des Neuen Testaments (2 parts, Halle, 1906; Eng. transl., The Johannine Writings, London, 1908); and Die Person Jesu inn Streite der Meinungen der Gegenwart (Berlin, 1906; Eng. tranal., Jesus in Modern Criticism, London, 1907); has edited R. Seydel's Religionsphilosophie (1893); and has prepared a new edition of G. B. Winer's Gram matik des neulmtamentlichen Sprachidioms (2 parts, Gottingen, 1894-98). SCHMOLCg, shmolk (SCHMOLKE), BEfi JAMIft: German hymliist; b. at Brauchitschdorf, Liegnitz (38 m. w. of Breslau), Dec. 21, 1672; d. at Schweidnitz (32 m. s.w. of Breslau) Feb. 12, 1737. He studied at Leipsic, 1693-97; and, after acting as his father's assistant till 1702, spent the rest of his life in ministerial work at Schweibnitz, though suffering from paralysis after 1735. As a hymn writer he was influenced by the Silesian school of poetry. He was fond of plays on words, and treated the Old Testament from the point of view of al legory. In meter and in rime he showed freedom and a light hand, but deep poetical feeling and thought were often lacking, and subjectivity char acterizes his work. His literary production was large, his hymns alone number nearly 900. His compositions show the character of occasional versification, but some of the best of his hymns are still in use. Several of his hymns have been ren dered into English; so his " Mein Jesu, wie du willst," Eng. trand. by Miss Borthwick, " My Jesus, as thou wilt "; " Was Gott thut das ist wohlgethan," Eng. trand. by J. Kelly, " Whatever God doth is well done." (HERMANN BECK.) BaLJoaaerar: A 2d ed. of his Lieder and Gebete, ed. L. Grote, with a valuable biography, appeared Leipeic.18(10. Consult further: E. E. Koch, Geachichte des Kirchenlieda, v. 483 sqq., 3d ed., 6 vols., Stuttgart, 1888-80; s. w. DufBetd. English Hymns, pp. 371-372 et passim, New York, 1888; H. Beck, Die retipibae Volkslitleratur der tuanpelischen Rirche Deutechlanda, Goths, 1891; C. Grosse, Die alien Trijater, Hermaunsburg, 1900; W. Nelle, Ge achichte des deutxhen Kirchenliedea. pp. 533 BQQ., Ham burg, 1904; Julian, Hymnology. pp. 1011-1014. SCHMUCBER, ahmuk'er, BEAL MELANCH THON:Lutheran, son of Samuel Simon Schmucker (q.v.); b. at Gettysburg, Pa., Aug. 26, .1827; d. in Pottstown, Pa., Oct. 18, 1888. He was graduated from Pennsylvania College (I844),and the Theo-

logical Seminary of his native town (1847); and served the Lutheran congregations at Martinsburg and Shepherdstown, Va. (1848-51), Allentown, Pa., (1852-$2), Easton (18627), Reading (1867-81), and Pottstown, Pa. (1881-88). It was particularly through his intimate friendship with Charles Porterfield Krauth (q.v.) that his theological convictions developed into the very opposite of those of his father. He became a strong defender of historic Lutheranism and was one of the pillars of the General Council. His attitude in the doctrinal controversies of the American Lutheran Church of his time is clearly set forth in the charge which he delivered to the professors at the installation of the first faculty of the Theological Seminary in Philadelphia Oct. 4, 1864: " The Confessions of the Evangelical Lutheran Church stand out prominently in the inner history of the Christian Church as the most full, clear, precisely defined, and harmoniously developed system of doctrine which, by the help of the Holy Ghost, men have yet builded upon the only foundation of the Apostles and Prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the Chief Cornerstone." His strength lay in the carefulness and thoroughness with which he labored in the various important interests committed to him, and the fine tact and parliamentary adroitness with which he represented them in ecclesiastical conventions. To the end of his life he served as secretary of the board of directors of the theological seminary, and as secretary of the board of foreign missions of the General Council. But he was moat prominent in the field of liturgics. His knowledge of details in matters pertaining to the order of service, especially of the Lutheran Church of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, was unusually extensive and accurate, and the excellent Church Book of the General Council (1868) is greatly indebted to him. As secretary of the Church Book Committee he gradually collected for their work a liturgical library of inestimable value, which is now preserved in the Krauth Memorial Library of the Lutheran Seminary at Philadelphia. To him, more than to any other man, is due the success which has crowned the efforts to secure the common service for English Lutherans in America. He proposed the adoption of the principle that all important questions were to be decided according to the consensus of the Lutheran liturgies of the sixteenth century. Schmucker was also an indefatigable, painstaking, and thorough investigator in the field of local history of Lutheran Churches in America. For years he gathered much and valuable material in this line, and became assistant editor in the new edition of the Halle'sehe NachricTtten by W. J. Mann and W. German. He made contributions to the theological magazines which are of permanent value to the historian and appeared also as separate pamphlets. The following deserve to be noted particularly: The First Pennyslvania Liturgy, Adopted in 17.48 (1882); The Early History of the Tulpehocken Churches (1882); The Lutheran Church in Pottslown (1882); The Lutheran Church in Frederick, Maryland (in Quarterly Review, 1883); The Lutheran Church in the City of New York during the First Century of its History (in Church Review, 1884-85);