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Richter 8ldley THE NEW SCHAFF-HERZOG 82 necessary supplementary legislation was delayed. Richter insisted upon the necessity of enforcing by repressive means the right of state supervision, whereby the State insured its own safety, so that the churches in their functions would confine themselves within their limits; and, especially, upon the neces-

sity of defining by statute the right of state self-preservation.

In relation to the canonical sources are the fol lowing works: Beitrdge zur Kenntnis der Quellen des eauoniaehen Rechts (3 parts, Leipsie, 1834), and De inedita decretalium (1836). In relation to the particular sources of the Roman Catholic canon law must be mentioned above all Richter and J. F. Schulte's edition of Canonea et decreta concilii Triden tini ex editione Romana ab 188¢ repetiti (1853). The special value of this work is the treatment of the subject in its historic development. Die evan gelischen Kirchenordnungen des 16. Jahrhundertd (ut sup.) has become an indispensable basis for the study of Evangelical canon law. Its advantage con sists in the comprehensive appropriation of source material from the century of the Reformation. Richter was imbued with the historical spirit, and offered a prospective history of the canonical sources. His labors in this connection are characterized by a profounder basis, elaborate particularistic develop ment, and a broad grasp of the inner connection. He falls back upon the cardinal principles of the Reformation in his fundamental constructions, hav ing in mind to offset the fatal conditions due not only to the territorial system (see TF'xx1ToRTATaRM) Of Christian Thomasius (q.v.), but to the neglect of church organization during the Reformation period. He none the less objected to church government in the hands of the educationals using the sovereigns as their mere agents. While declaring, in 1848, church government by the sovereign ruler, as then constituted, to be incompatible with a constitutional monarchy, he opposed the error that they were. ir reconcilable. He countenanced a representative synod as an extreme necessity on extraordinary occasions. The recognition of the right of self administration was to be followed by the gradual formation of an ascending organization of congre gations and synods to represent the development of the church constitution, without infringing upon the historical right of the relation of the king to the Church. Later he foresaw that'the general synod must occupy a larger sphere; for it became evident to him that in the conflicts between Church and State and between different churches, the constitutional monarch could not occupy the same position in the forefront as the former land sovereign. Other works were, Beitrfige zur Geschichte des Ehescheidungsrechts in der evangelischen Kirche (Berlin, 1858); Geschichte der evangelischen Kirchenverfassung in Deutschland (Leipsie, 1851); and Der Staat and die Deutachkatho liken (1846). (R. W. DovEt.) BIBLIOGRAPHY: P. Hineehius, in Ze*whrift far Kirchenge-

whichte, iv (1884), 351 sqq.; J. F. Schulte, in ZKR, v (1885), 259 sqq.; R. W. Dove, in ZKR, vii (1887), 273 sqq.

RICHTER, GREGOR: German Roman Catholic; b. at Grilsselbach (a village near Cassel) Apr. 29, 1874._ He was educated at the philosophical and

theological institute of Fulda and the University of Freiburg, and after the completion of his studies was ordained to the priesthood and was city chaplain at Fulda until 1899. Since the latter year he has been professor of church history and canon law at the philosophical and theological institute in the same city. In addition to editing the Puldaer Geschichtsblotter and Quellen and Abhandlungen zur Geschichte der Abtei and der Di6zese Pulda since 1904, he has written Die ersten Anf4nge der Bau- and Kunstthdtigkeit des Klosters Pulda (Fulda, 1900) and Statutes majoris ecclesite Puldensis, ungedruckte Quellen zur kirchlichen Rechts- and Vervassuugsgeschichte der Benediktinerabtei Pulda (1904).

RICKARD, HERBERT: Church of England; b. at Derby Feb. 23,1867. He received his education at Derby School, King's College School, London, and Jesus College, Oxford (B.A., 1886; M.A., 1889); was made deacon, 1888, and priest, 1889; was curate of St. Paul Lozells, Birmingham, 1888-90; assistant organizing secretary of the Assistant Grates Society, 1890-92; curate of Christ Church, Epsom, 1892-97; vice-principal of Chichester Theological College, 1897-99; principal in 1899; perpetual curate of Sennicotts, 1897-1906; rector of St. Peter's the Less, Chichester, 1903; and prebendary of Chichester, 1905.

RIDDLE, JOSEPH ESMOND: Church of England; b. at Bristol Apr. 7, 1804; d. at Cheltenham Aug. 27, 1859. He was educated at Oxford (B.A., 1828; M.A., 1831); was ordained priest, 1832, and was incumbent of Leckhampton, near Cheltenham, 1840-59. In 1852 he was Bampton lecturer. He is best known for his Latin-English Dictionary, founded on W. Freund (London, 1849), and (with T. K. Arnold) English-Latin Lexicon (1849); he also wrote a commentary on I Peter (1834); Luther and his Times (1837); Sermons Doctrinal and Practical (1838); the valuable Manual of Christian Antiquities (London, 1839); Ecclesiastical Chronology (1840); Churchman's Guide to the Use of the English Liturgy (1848); Natural History of Infidelity (Bampton lectures, 1852); History of the Papacy to the Period of the Reformation (1854); Manual of Scripture History (1857); and Household Prayers (1857). BIBLIOGRAPHY: DNB, xlviii. 274.

RIDDLE, MATTHEW BROWN: Presbyterian; b. at Pittsburg, Pa., Oct. 17, 1836. He was graduated from Jefferson College, Canonsburg, Pa. (A.B., 1852), and New Brunswick Theological Seminary, New Brunswick, N. J. (1859). He was adjunct professor of Greek in Jefferson College in 1857-58 and chaplain of the Second New Jersey Volunteers in the Army of the Potomac in 1861. He then held Dutch Reformed pastorates in Hoboken, N. J. (1862-65), and at Newark, N. J. (18651869), and spent two years (1869-71) in travel and study in Europe. He was professor of New-Testament exegesis in Hartford Theological Seminary (1871,87), and since 1887 has filled a similar position in the Western Theological Seminary, Alleghany, Pa. He was a member of the American Company of New-Testament revisers, and for many years was an editor of the American standard edi-