In 1633 Zamet opened a nunnery near the Louvre for the perpetual adoration of the blessed sacrament, of which the archbishop of St. Cyran Paris made Ang6lique mother superior. Shortly afterward Jean du Vergier de Hauranne became chaplain and confessor; he had been abbot of St. Cyran since 1620, and was accordingly known as St. Cyran (see DU VENGIER, JEAN). A close friend of Jansen since his student days, an equally uncompromising foe of the Jesuits and admirably adapted to be a confessor, he was a man of com manding personal influence. In 1633 a small book of Agnes, the sister of Angélique, the Chapelet secret du St. Sacrement, discussing eighteen virtues of Christ, was condemned by the Sorbonne. Zamet, however, approved it, as did Saint Cyraa and Jansen- In gratitude for his aid, Zamet introduced St. Cyran into the nunnery of the Blessed Sacrament, whose inmates had been much offended by the book; and through his influence the seculari zing tendencies of Zamet vanished more and more until, May 16, 1638, this nunnery was abandoned and its property and privileges were transferred to Port-Royal. In 1636 Angélique returned to PortRoyal, where her sister Agnes was chosen abbess. St. Cyran became here, too, the spiritual guide. Under his influence not only was there a marked renewal of the deepest Roman Catholic piety in the nunnery of Port-Royal, but a community of male ascetics was formed, among whom were the three brothers, Antoine Lemaistre, Louis Isaac Lemaistre de Sacy (q.v.), and Simon de Séricourt, and also Robert Arnauld d'Audilly (see ARNAULD). The last was the eldest brother and the three brothers were nephews of Angélique. The community numbered only twelve in 1646, when it was at its height. These new anchorites, who did not sever themselves utterly from the world, alternated between their annual duties and diligent study of the Bible and Church Fathers (especially Augustine) together with meditations and conversations on religious themes. Great attention was devoted to the education of the young; and in 1646 regular schools were opened in Paris, and in 1653 in the country. The entire number of pupils can not have been more than 1,000. In 1660, however, the schools were suppressed, and from 1670 to 1678 only young girls could be educated. The method was characterized by individual training with moral and religioxis emphasis, leading to the happiest results. The aim was to awaken and promote the minor powers and to conquer evil propensities. The discipline was marked by vigilance, untiring patience, gentleness, and prayer. The divine image and the human fallibility of the pupil were to be constantly kept in view. Racine was the most distinguished pupil and the " Petites Écoles " made a famous contribution to pedagogical history.
The prominence of Port-Royal could not fail to expose it to opposition. A book on virginity, which exhibited independence of thought, caused Richelieu to imprison St. Cyran on May 14, 1638. in the tower of Vincennes; where, directing his followers uninterruptedly in his correspondence, he remained until his release on Feb. 6, 1643, two months after Richelieu's death. His great achievement during this period was his conversion of Angélique's youngest brother, Antoine Arnauld (1612-94; q.v.), the greatest theologian of Port-Royal. In 1643 Arnauld's De la frequents communion (Paris, 1843), with its protest against careless communing, its in sistence on repentance, and its warning against the opus operntum, was a practical application of Jansenistic principles and the manifesto with which Port-Royal openly declared war on the Jesuits. Amauld was cited to appear at Rome, but he did not go, remaining for several years in concealment. The period of 1648-56 was that of the greatest prosperity for Port-Royal. During the warfare of the Fronde, the monastery was on the royal side; but when, in his bull of May 31, 1653, Innocent X. condemned five theses of Jansen (see JANSEN, CORNEILIUS, JANSENISM) the war on Port-Royal as the French citadel of Jansenism broke out. Arnauld, expelled from the Sorbonne, Sacy, Fontaine, and Nicole sought hiding in Paris. The community obeyed the command to retire from Port-Royal, but the threatened blow was averted by Pascal's
Until 1679 Port-Royal enjoyed tolerable peace, and the polemics of the leaders of the party were now directed against Protestantism. Amauld and Nicole published their La PerpetuiM de la Joi de l'église catholique touchant l'Eucharistie (Paris, 1669), and Arnauld also thoroughly approved the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. During this period of peace the nunnery again increased in numbers; the hermits returned; Pascal wrote his Pensés, and Nicole his Essais de Morale (25 vols., Paris, 1741, 1755). When, however, in 1677 Nicole implored Innocent XI. to condemn the lax teachings of the casuists, the king regarded his act as a violation of the truce; and in the bitter controversy over the regalia he was offended that the Janseniste aided with the pope. Arnauld and Nicole were forced again to flee from France, and on June 17, 1679, Archbishop Harlay brought the royal mandate to dismiss the pupils and the hermits and to admit no more nuns until the number had fallen to fifty. When this took place, the privilege was, however, denied; the monastery began to die out; and in 1706 the last abbess of Port.-Royal des Champs, Elisabeth de Ste. Anne Boulard, died. The bull Virceom Domini of Clement XI. (July 15, 1705), with its summary condemnation of Jansenism, hastened the catastrophe. The nuns signed it only with a reservation. They were forbidden to receive novices or to elect a new abbess. On Nov. 22, 1707, the convent was again excommunicated, and the king secured the issuance of a papal bull on Mar. 27, 1708, which permitted the dispersion of the nuns. On July 11 of the following year a decree of the archbishop of Paris declared the convent of Port-Royal des Champs suppressed and gave its estates to Port-Royal de Paris. On Oct. 29 the remaining twenty-two nuns, ranging in age from fifty to upward of eighty, were expelled by military force; and, being thus dispersed, all subscribed to the bull except two. The royal disapproval extended even to the buildings of Port-Royal; and by a mandate of Jan. 22, 1710, the convent and church were destroyed and even the dead were removed and interred in a neighboring cemetery.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: C. A. Sainte-Beuve, Port Royal, 5 vols., Paris, 1840-59, new ed., 7 vole., 1908 (the best work, though unsympathetic); Fontaine, Mémoires . . . de Port Royal, 2 vols, Utrecht, 1738; Du Fossé, Mémoires . . . de Port-Royal, Utrecht, 1739; P. LeClerc, Vies intérassantes . . . des religieuses de Port Royal, 4 vols., Utrecht, 1750; idem, Vies intérassantes , , , des amia de Port-Royal, ib, 1751; J. Besoigne, Hist. de l'abbaye de Port-Royal, 8 vols., Cologne, 1754-53; P. Guilbert, Mémoires historiques · sur l'abbaye de Port-Royal vols. i., iii., Utrecht, 1752-59; H. Grégoire, Les Ruines de PortRoyal. Paris. 1809: H. Reuchlin, Gieschichte von PortRoyal, 2 vols., Hamburg, 1839; J. M. Neale, Hist. of the so-called Jansenist Church of Holland, Oxford, 1855; Mrs. M. A. Schimmelpenninck, Select Memoirs of Port Royal, 5th ed., London, 1858; J. Stephen, Essays in Ecclesiastical Biography, pp 279-336, 4th ed., London, 1880; C. Beard, Port Royal 2 vols., London, 1881; C. Clemencet, Hist. littéraire de Port-Royal, vol. i., Paris, 1887; A. Richard. Les Premiers Jansénistes et Port-Royal, Paris. 1883 E. Fenot, Port-Royal et Magny, Paris, 1885; L. 8&ebb Les Derniers Jansénistes (1710-180), 3 vols., Paris, 1891; R. Allier, La Cabale des dévots 1627 - 1666, pp. 159-192, Paris, 1902; W. R. Clark, Pascal and the Port Royalists, London, 1902; A. Malvault Répertoire alphabétique des peraonnes et choses de Port-Royal, Paris, 1902; Ethel Romance The Story of Port Royal, London 1907; A. Gazer Abrégé de l'histoire de Port Royal d'après un manuscrit préparé pour l'impresaion Par Jean-Baptiste Racine, Paris, 1908; M. E. Lowndes, The Nuns of Port Royal as seen in their own Narratives, New York,1909; the literature under PASCAL, BLAISE.
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