LOCK, WALTER: Church of England; b. at Dorchester (8 m. n. of Weymouth), Dorsetshire, July 14, 1848. He was educated at Marlborough College and Corpus Christi, Oxford (B.A. 1869), and was fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford, in 1869-72, where he has been honorary fellow since 1897. He was assistant to the professor of humanity


at St. Andrews in 1889-70, and from the latter yeas to 1897 was tutor of Keble College, Oxford, as well as subwarden in 1880-97 and warden since 1897. Since 1895 he has been Dean Ireland's professor of the exegesis of Holy Scripture in the University of Oxford, and was also examining chaplain to the bishop of Lichfield in 1881-91 and to the archbishop of York since 1891, examiner in the Honour School of Theology in 1885-87, and select preacher to the university in 1889-90. He has edited Keble's Christian Year (London, 1895) and Lyra Innocentium (1899), and has written the essay on The Church in Lux Mundi, (London, 1890); and on The Bible and The Old Testament in Oxford House Papers (1886-97); John Keble, to Biography (1892); St. Paul, the Master Builder (1899); and The Bible and Christian Life (1905).

LOCKE, JOHN: English philosopher; b. at Wrington (10 m. s.w. of Bristol) Aug. 29, 1632; d. at Oates, Essex, Oct. 28, 1704. He studied at the College of Westminster (1646-52), and at Christ Church, Oxford (B.A., 1655-56; M.A., 1658), there making the acquaintance of a circle of eminent men which included Edward Pococke and Robert Boyle (qq.v.), and continuing his residence there for some years. The Aristotelian-scholastic philosophy then dominant at Oxford left him unsatisfied; meanwhile, he was teaching privately, became Greek lecturer in 1660, lecturer on rhetoric in 1682, and censor in moral philosophy in 1663. He had also pursued the study of medicine, and had become interested in physical science. In 1665 Locke went as secretary of the English mission to the elector of Brandenburg, but the next year settled as a physician at Oxford, through his profession becoming a friend of the first earl of Shaftesbury, to whom he was in large part indebted for political preferments which continued to come to him through life. Thus, in 1672 Locke was appointed to a secretaryship which was, for the times, moderately well compensated. His health was not good, however, and he resided in France 1675-79, not in idleness, however, but making investigations along scientific, political, and social lines. After that he was in England until 1684, principally at Oxford, and then he went to Holland, remaining abroad till 1688-89, when he returned and became commissioner of appeals, an office which he retained till death.

The most important event in his life was the publication of the work which brought him lasting fame as a philosopher, his Essay concerning Human Understanding (London, 1690; five editions by 1706). The purpose was to investigate the origin, certainty, and extent of human knowledge. In this work Locke sought to prove that innate ideas do not exist, and that all knowledge comes through experience by sensation and reflection. He was thus the originator of the empirical philosophy of the eighteenth century which spread over England, France, and Germany and greatly influenced both the political and social theories of his times. His letters on Toleration (1689-90), Two Treatises of Government (1690), a work on the national currency (1692), and Some Thoughts concerning Education (1693) are further weighty productions of this period. Locke was a member of the council of trade (1696-1700), but because of failing health was obliged to decline other preferments.

Locke's influence continued dominant until the spread of Kantian ideas, and he is called "the founder of the analytic philosophy of mind" (J. S. Mill, Logic, book I, chap. vi.). His principles were either so carried out or so misapplied in theology that he became the object of sharp attack; to which he as sharply replied. This was especially the case with Bishop Edward Stillingfleet (q.v.), whose Discourse in Vindication of the Doctrine of the Trinity (London, 1698) brought on a controversy with Locke which continued till 1699. Locke has sometimes been regarded as the father of late English skepticism (see DEISM, 4-5; ENLIGHTENMENT, THE, 7). While in early life he had deliberately turned away from theology as a vocation, his interest never died out, and this came to its fruitage in his Reasonableness of Christianity (1695), and in his Paraphrase of the epistles to the Galatians, I and II Corinthians, Romans, and Ephesians (posthumous, 1705-07). Of his Works many editions have appeared (3 vols., London, 1714; best ed. by E. Law, 4 vols., ib. 1777); and his Posthumous Works (ib. 1706).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sources of knowledge are: Some Familiar Letters between Mr. Locke and Several of his Friends, London, 3d ed., 1737; Original Letters of Lock, Algernon Sidney and Anthony Lord Shaftesbury, ib. 2d ed., 1847; Shaftesbury. Life, Unpublished Letters, and Philosophical Regimen, ed. E. Rand, ib: 1900; J. Le Clerc's Eloge historique de feu Mr. Locks Amsterdam, ,i>Works, ut sup. Consult further: G. W. von Leibnitz, Nouveaux essais sur l'entendement, Amsterdam, 1765, Eng. transl., New Essays concerning Human Understanding, London, 1896; J. G. Buhle, Geschichte der neuern Philosophie Critical Essays, pp. I-32, Boston, 1842; A. H. Everett, Critical and Miscellaneous Essays, pp. 381-451, Boston 1846; J. D. Morell, Historical and Critical Review of the Speculative Philosophy of Europe in the 19th Century, i. 91-147, London, 1846; R. Vaughan, Essays in History, Philosophy, and Theology, ii. 59-120, ib. 1849; E. Tagart, Locke's Writings and Philosophy historically Considered, ib. 1855; T. E. Webb, The Intellectualism of Locke, Dublin, 1857; V. Cousin, La Philosophie de Locke, Paris, 1863; J. Tulloeh, Rational Theology and Christian Philosophy in England in the 17th Century, 2 vols., London 1872; T. H. Green, ATreatise on Human Nature by DavidHume (Introduction), ib.1878; H.Marion, J. Locke, sa vie et son aeuvre, Paris, 1879; J. Brown, Horae subsecivae, Locke and Sydenham, Edinburgh, 1882; P. King, Life and Letters of John Locke; with Extracts from his Commonplace Books, new ed., New York, 1884; H. Winter, Darlegung und Kritik der lockeschen Lehre vom empirischen Ursprung der sittlichen Grundsatze, Bonn, 1884; R. Falekenberg, Geschichte der neuren Philosophie, pp. 111-133, Leipsic, 1886; J. Fowler, Locke, London 1887; M. M. Curtis, An Outline of Locke's Ethical Theory, Leipsic, 1890; W. L. Courtney, Studies at Leisure, London, 1892; G. F. von Hertling, John Locke and die Schule von Cambridge, Freiburg, 1892; P. Fischer, Die Religionsphilosophie des John Locke, Erlangen, 1893; J. McCosh, Locke's " Theory of Knowledge," with a Notice of Berkeley, New York, 1894; E. Fechtner, John Locke, Stuttgart. 1898; W. Graham, English Political Philosophy, London, 1899; E. E. Worcester, The Religious Opinions of John Locke, Geneva, N. Y., 1899; A. C. Fraser, Locke, Edinburgh, 1901; idem, J. Locke as a Factor in Modern Thought, London, 1905; J. Rickaby, Free Will and Four English Philosophers, London, 1906. Of importance, also, are the works on the history of philosophy, particularly those of J. E. Erdmann, Eng. transl., London, 1893; W. Windelband, Eng. transl., ib. 1893; A. Weber, Eng. transl., ib. 1896; and F. Ueberweg, Eng. transl., New York, 1874.



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