JONES, WILLIAM BASIL: Bishop of St. Davids; b. at Cheltenham Jan. 2 1822; d. at Abergwili (2 m. n.e. of Carmarthen), Wales, Jan. 14, 1897. From
His more important works are: Vestiges of the Gael in Gwynedd (London, 1851); The History and Antiquities of St. David's (4 parts, 1852-57), in collaboration with E. A. Freeman; The New Testament Illustrated with a Plain Explanatory Commentary for Private Reading (2 vols., 1865), in collaboration with Archdeacon Churton; The Peace of God: Sermons on the Reconciliation of God and Man (1869); and Ordination Addresses (Oxford, 1900), with a preface by Gregory Smith.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: I. G. Smith, HolyDays, p. 67, London, 1900; DNB, supplement, iii. 47-49, where reference to scattered notices is given.
JORAM (JEHORAM; the two forms are used interchangeably in the sources):
1. Fifth king of Judah, son and successor of Jehoshaphat. His dates according to the old chronology are 892-885 B.C.; according to Kamphausen, 851-844 B.C.; according to Duncker, 848-844 B.C.; according to Curtis (DB, i. 401), 851-843 B.C. The Chronicler (II Chron. xxi. 2-4) reports that on Joram's accession he put his brothers to death. No notice of this occurs in Kings, but the fact is not improbable since he had married Athaliah, daughter of Ahab and Jezebel of Israel, where assassination was not uncommon. Moreover, Athaliah's usurpation of the kingdom through assassination (see JOASH), together with her known influence over her husband, increases the probability. The notable event of Joram's reign was the revolt of Edom and his narrow escape from capture when he was trying to reduce the Edomites to subjection. The revolt of Edom is but the reflex of the prior revolt of the Moabites from the northern kingdom (see 2, below). The indications of a general revolt are increased by the Chronicler's narrative concerning a body of Arabs and Philistines who sacked Joram's palace and carried off all his sons but one. The Chronicler attributes his death to a loathsome disease (probably the same as that described in Acts xii. 23), and asserts that his burial was dishonorable (but cf. II Kings viii. 24).
2. Ninth king of Israel, second son of Ahab and
successor to his brother Ahaziah. His dates, according
to the old chronology are 896-884 B.C.;
according to Kamphausen, 854-843 B.C.; according
to Duncker, 851-843 B.C.; according to Curtis,
852-842 B.C. One of the events of his reign was an
unsuccessful attempt, in company with Jehoshaphat
of Judah, to reduce to subjection the Moabites
who, according to the Moabite stone (q.v.), had revolted
from his brother. The army arrived before
the fortress of Kir-hareseth and besieged it; and
in the straits of the siege the "king of Moab" sacrificed
his son on the wall in sight of the besiegers.
This act dismayed the allies and they withdrew.
It is not impossible that the "great wrath" of
II Kings iii. 24 (R. V., margin) indicates a pestilence
which attacked Israel and was attributed to the
offended deity. A second event was the attempt
to recover Ramoth-gilead from the Arameans, in
which Joram was assisted by Ahaziah of Judah. He
was wounded and obliged to retire to Jezreel, near
which he fell at the hands of Jehu. It is an open
question whether the events of
II Kings iv.-viii. 15
belong to Joram's reign, as the king of Israel of
that narrative is not named. It is clear from
II Kings ix. 22 and
The sources for 1 are: I Kings xxii. 50; II Kings viii. 16-24, 29;
II Chron. x.xi.; and for 2 are:
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