HOWARD, EDWARD HENRY: Cardinal: b. at Nottingham, England, Feb.13, 1829; d. at Brighton, England, Sept. 16, 1892. He was educated at Oscott and Edinburgh, and after serving as an officer in the Second Life Guards, entered the Church and was ordained to the priesthood in 1854. In the following year he attached himself to the service of the pope, and his entire ecclesiastical career, except for a year in India, where he was sent to end the Goa schism, was spent in Italy. He was consecrated titular bishop of Neocaesarea in 1872 and appointed bishop coadjutor of Frascati, although he retained the latter dignity only a few weeks. In 1877 he was created cardinal priest of San Giovanni e San Paolo on the Coelian Hill, while in the following year he was appointed protector of the English College in Rome. Three years later (1881) he was made archpriest of the Basilica of St. Peter, and thus became prefect of the Congregation of the Fabric. He was elevated to the rank of cardinal bishop in 1884, and translated once more to his see of Frascati, but three years later (1887) was stricken with severe illness and was taken to England early in the following year, where he remained until his death.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: DNB, supplement, iii. 2-3.

HOWARD, JOHN: English philanthropist and reformer; b. at Hackney, London, Sept. 2, 1726; d. at Kherson (92 m. e.n.e. of Odesaa), Russia, Jan. 20, 1790. He was educated in private schools at Hertford and London, and was apprenticed by his father, a retired merchant, to a firm of wholesale grocers in London. On the death of his father in 1742 he bought his release from his debentures and went on a Continental tour. On his return he settled at Stoke Newington. In 1756 he started for Lisbon, but the vessel in which he had embarked was captured by a privateer, and crew and passengers were thrown into prison at Brest. Having been released on parole, he returned to England and negotiated an exchange for himself. The same year he was made a fellow of the Royal Society. He now took up his residence at Cardington, Bedfordshire, where he busied himself in the erection of elementary schools and model cottages for his tenants. He visited Holland in 1767, but returned in a month. In 1769 he was again on the Continent and was gone a year. On Feb. 8, 1773, he was appointed high sheriff of Bedfordshire.

Howard now entered upon his career as a prison-reformer, in the course of which he carried his investigations into almost every large city in Europe and spent some 30,000 of his fortune. Shocked by the abuses incident to the fee-system in the jails of his own county, he began visiting the jails of adjoining counties in order to find a precedent for putting the jailers of Bedford upon salaries. These investigations, which were gradually pushed further and further, till he had visited most of the county jails


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Huguenots THE NEW SCHAFF-HERZOG 400 Humanism army has at present about 1,200 officers with French names. The influence of the Huguenot exodus upon France was as disastrous as it was beneficial to other countries. The austerity of the Huguenots had exercised a wholesome influence upon the French; but when their number was reduced from 1,800,000 in 1660 to 400,000 in 1700, and when this small company was deprived of all civil and religious rights, the corruption of the French court under Louis XIV. had full sway. The year after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, Vauban reported to the minister of war, Louvois, that France had lost 100,000 inhabitants, 60,000,000 francs in cash, 9,000 sailors, 12,000 soldiers, and 600 officers. The Roman Catholic Church became the sole arbiter of the destinies of France, but she lost constantly in authority. The industries of France suffered terribly. In Touraine there were left, in 1698, only fifty-four tanneries out of 400, only 1,200 looms out of 8,000, only 4,000 silkweavers out of 40,000, only seventy mills out of 700. Normandy had 26,000 empty houses; the Dauphins had lost 15,000 inhabitants, and other places in proportion; e.g., Paris 1,202 Huguenot families out of 1,938. Ferdinand Bruneti6re, a loyal Roman Catholic, says: " The revocation of the Edict of Nantes arrested the moral progress of France, because it drove into exile the people who called themselves men of the Bible, and who carried their morality, faith, and intelligence everywhere .... From Dunkirk to Ba yonne, from Brest to Besangon, he (Louis XIV.) cut the nerve of French morality for the metaphysical satisfaction of having God praised only in Latin " (RDM, Oct. 15, 1898). (EUGEN LACHENMANN.)

BrBLIOGRAPRT: The literature has become extensive, particularly through treatment of Huguenots in the several parts in which they settled. Note the large number of titles given, e.g., in Hauck-Herzog, RE, zvi. b22-b24; in Fortescue's Subject Index of Modern Works, ii. 143-146, and the volume for 1901-05, pp. 471-472. Bibliographies are found also in F. de Schickler, Les tplisea du refuge en Anpleterre, 3 vols., Paris, 1892; in R. S. Faber, Catalogue of the Library of the French Hospital, Victoria Park Row, Canterbury, 1901; and the Cambridge Modern History, iii. 771;(l1~904. The reader should consult also the literature under WLIGNT, GASPARD DE; FRANCE; MAROT, CLIEMENT; MMES, EDICT or; NANTES, EDICT OF; and WALDENSES. Among the sources should be named the publications of the Huguenot Society of London, of the Huguenot Society of America, and the Bulletin de la soeiete de Mist. du protestantisme frangais, Paris, 1853 sqq.; the Histoire ecclesiastique of Beza and Des Gallon, best edition, 3 vole., Paris, 1883-89; -0dits, declarations et arrests con cernant la religion pHtendue reformee IB88-1751, Paris, 1885. For the English reader the history' of the Huguenots is perhaps best set forth in the works of H. M. Baird: Hist. of the Rise of the Huguenots, 2 vols., London, 1880; The Huguenots and Henry of Navarre, 2 vole., New York, 1886; The Huguenots and the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, ib. 1895. Other works to be referred to are: A. E. Bray, Revolt of as Protestants of the Cevennes, London, 1870; E. Hugues, Ant. Court, Riot. de la restauration du protestantisme en France au xviii. eiecle, 2 vole., Paris, 1872; S. Smiles, The Huguenots in France, London 1876; E. and Z;. Haag, La France prolestante, ed. H. Bordier, 10 vols., Paris. 1877; J. A. Martin, The Spirit, Principles, and Worship of the Huguenots, London, 1885; F. Sander, Die Hugenotten and do# Edikt von Names, Breslau, 1885; R. Heath, Reformation in France, 2 parts, London, 1888; G. Bonet-Maury, Hist. de la liberte de conscience en France, Paris, 1890; C. Tylor, The Huguenots in the 17th Century, London, 1892; P. F. Willert, Henri of Navarre and the Huguenots of France, New York, 1893; P. de Fbliee, Les

Protestants d'autrefois, 6 vols., Paris, 1897-1907; C. Be-

noist, Condition des Protestants sow is ripime de 1'6dit d, Nantes et apras so revocation, ib. 1900; E. Wilmahurst, Fights and Flights of the Huguenots, London, 1901; Cambridge Modern History, vol. ii., chap. v., vol. iii., chap. i.. Cambridge 1902-04; E. Armstrong The French Wars of Religion, Oxford, 1904; De Brimont, Le xvi. SiMe et lee guerres de reforms en Berry, 2 vols, Paris, 1905; Memoirs of a Protestant Condemned to the Galleys of France for his Religion, Translation by Oliver Goldsmith, Introduction by A. Dobson, 2 vols., London, 1895, and another rendering of the same in one volume, 1904; Memoirs of a Huguenot Family, tranal. and compiled from the Original Autobiography of the Rev. James Pontains by Ann Maury. Rs printed from the edition of 1868, New York, 1908.

On the Huguenots in foreign lands consult: W. G. Simms, The Huguenots in Florida, New York, 1854; C. Rahlenbeek, Le Protestantisme dare lea pays de Limbourp et Outrsrneux, Brussels, 1856; idem, Rapport sun Lea cudtes et documents eoncernam is protestantisme belpe, ib. 1872; R. L. Poole, Huguenots of the Dispersion, London, 1880; J. C. MSrikofer, Geschickte den evanpelischen Flachtlinpe in den Schweeiss, Leipsic, 1876; H. Fasy, La Saint-Barthelemy et Genave, Geneva, 1879; 8. Smiles, The Huguenots . . in England and Ireland, London, 1880; F. de Schickler, ut sup.; C. W. Baird, Mist. q/ the Huguenot Emigration to America, 2 vole., New York, 1885; F. Parkman, Pioneers of France in the Near World, London, 1886; D. C. A. Agnew, Protestant Exiles from France, 2 vols., 8d ed., Edinburgh, 1886; T. G. Thomas, Contribution to the Riot. of the Huguenots of So. Carolina New York, 1887; J. A. F. .Pusux, Hist. de 1'Etablissement des Protestants frargais en Suede, Paris, 1891; R. Lefevre, Hist. of New Palts, New York, 1678-1820, Albany, 1903; E. Daudet, Hist. de 1'emipration pendant la revolution frangaise, part i, Paris, 1904. Especially valuable to the special student is the bibliography in Hauck-Herzog, RE, xvi. 522-524.


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