GURNEY, JOSEPH JOHN: Philanthropist and Friend; b. at Earlham Hall, near Norwich, Aug. 2, 1788; d. there Jan. 4, 1847. He attended lectures for a while at Oxford, and was recognized in 1818 as a minister by the Friends. In 1837-40 he preached in the United States and the West Indies. He aided his sister Elizabeth Fry (q.v.) in her measures for prison-reform, and was the associate with Clarkson, Wilberforce, and his brother-in-law, T. Fowell Buxton, in their efforts for the abolition of the slave-trade. He was also a prominent advocate of total abstinence, and his temperance tract, Water is Best, has been widely circulated. Among Friends, he - led an orthodox movement both in England and America which profoundly affected his, branch of the Society, and in the latter country produced a separation (see FRIEwDs, SOCIETY OF, I., 7; WILBUR, JOUNI).

Gurney issued a number of tracts and pamphlets, with some larger works. Of these the principal. are, Essays on the Evidences, Doctrines and Practice Operations of Christianity (London, 1827); History, Authority, and Use of the Sabbath (1831), and Puseyism traced to its Root (1845).

ISAAC SHARPLEBB. BIHLIOdRAPBY: The principal Memoir is by J. B. Braith- waite, 2 vols., Norwich, 1854, Bd ad., 1902; others are by J. Alexander, London, 1847; and B. Barton, ib. 1847. Consult also DNB, xriii. 803-304, and F. 8. Turner, The Quakers, pp. 295-302 et passim, London, 1889.

GURYr, gii"ri', JEAN PIERRE: French Roman Catholic moralist; b. at Mailleroncourt, FrancheComte, Jan. 23, 1801; d. at Vals (80 m. a. of Lyons) Apr. 18, 1886. He entered the Society of Jesus in 1824, studied at Rome 1828-32, and in 1833 became professor of morals at the Jesuit College in Vals. In 1847 he went to Rome as professor at the Collegium Romanum, but returned to Vals in 1848 and taught there till his death. Following Alfonse Liguori he revived the old Jesuit casuistry and probabilism. His teachings are embodied in Com pendium theologies moralis (2 vols., Lyons and Paris, 1850; best ed., Rome, 1882), which quickly became a favorite text-book of ethics among Roman Catholics; and Casus canacientice in prwcipuas questiones theologise moralis (2 vols.,1864, new ed.,1891). Both works have been variously edited and revised in numerous editions.

BIHLIaa$APHT: Vie du J. P. (icy, Le Pay, 1807; C. W. Lines, Das Handbuch der djeolopisrhen Moral des Jeeuiten Oury and die ckristlide Ethik, Freiburg, 1809. GUSTAV-ADOLF-VEREIN ("GUSTAVUS ADOL-

PHUS ASSOCIATION"): A society of German Prot.

estants, aiming to give aid and support to Protes

tant families and congregations wherever needed,

especially to succor the " Diaspora " (q.v.). The

idea of the association was conceived by Dr. C. G.'

L. Grossmann of Leipsic in 1832 in connection with

the celebration of the second centennial of the

death of Gustavus Adolphus (q.v.), at

Origin and Liltzen. An association was formed

Earlier by committees in Leipsie and Dresden,

History. and on Oct. 4, 1834, its statutes were

confirmed by the Saxon king. Sue

pass was slow; contributions were scares; and the

foundation was hardly known outside of Saxony.

But it gradually developed and gained the acknowledgment and support of King Frederick William III. of Prussia and of King Charles XIV. of Sweden. Continual, appeals for assistance, particularly from Austria; forced upon the leaders the idea of soliciting a larger participation by change of the statutes. Before this was done, however, a pastor of Basel named Legrand suggested at a conference of preachers an association to support poor Evangelical congregations, and on Oct. 31, 1841, Karl Zimmermann, court preacher at Darmstadt, propounded a similar plan, though neither knew of the existence of the Saxon association. Zimmermann's proposal was eagerly seized everywhere in Evangelical Germany and Switzerland. After an agreement with the leaders of the Saxon movement, the older and. younger associations united. Leipsic remained the center of administration, and the association was now called Evangeliacher Verein der (3taatav-Adolf-Stiftuttg (" Evangelical Association of the Gustavus Adolphus Foundation "). At the second convention in 1843 at Frankfort, new statutes were adopted, twenty-nine associations being represented by delegates, including representatives of countries outside of Germany.

Every country, every larger state, and every province has a main association with branch associations. At least every third year a general con-

vention takes place. Since the general Later convention of Frankfort, the aesocia-

History. tion has developed rapidly. Only Ba-

varia, the Stronghold of the Roman Catholics, closed its doors, the introduction of the association into that country being prohibited by royal edict of 1844. A controversy arose in regard to the admission of preachers of " free congregations " as delegates, and the majority decidgd that only members of the Evangelical State Churches should be admitted. The confessional basis was considered necessary for the sound development of the association. Owing to the events of 1848 and 1849, the interest in the movement slackened, and the contributions decreased considerably; but the lost ground was soon recovered, and by an ordinance of 1849 Bavaria was also open to the .work of the association. In 1851 at the suggestion of Dr. Jonas, preacher in Berlin, a new branch was added in the organization of women's associations. After 1852 associations originated also in Holland, Sweden, Austria, Transylvania, Hungary, and in 1859 an association for supporting Lutheran congregations was formed in Russia. At several universities students' associations were called into existence. Institutions like the Evangelical Society for Protestant Germans in North America at Barman and Elberfeld, the Society for Pastoral Assistance in Berlin, the Rhenish Institute for Pastoral Assistance in Duisburg, the Jerusalem Association in Berlin, the 7nstheriacher Ootteskasten (q.v.), all originated under the influence of the Gustav-Adoif=Verein. Associations in foreign countries, working in the same spirit, but having no connection with the original German association, have been established in Belgium, France, Rumania, and Italy, though England, Denmark, and America do not possess them.

Since its beginning, the Gustav-Adolf-Vereia has


[Page 101]


[Page 102]


[Page 103]


sur la condamnation du livre des Maximes des Saints, Paris, 1878; L. Guerrier, Madame Guyon, sa vie, sa doctrine et son influence, Paris, 1881; H. T. Cheever, Correspondencies of Faith and Views of Madame Guyon, New York, 1885; H. Delacroix. Etudes d'histoire et de psychologie du mysticisme, Paris, 1908.