EATON, ARTHUR WENTWORTH HAMILTON: Protestant Episcopalian; b. at Kentville, Nova Scotia, Dec. 10, 1849. He was educated at Har vard College (A.B., 1880), and was ordered dea con in 1884 and ordained priest in the following year. After being rector of St. Andrew's, Chestnut Hill, Mass. (1885-86), he spent two years in Europe, and since 1888 has been head of the department of English literature in the Cutler School, New York City. In theology he is a Broad-churchman of the Maurice and Phillips Brooks type. He has written The Heart of the Creeds; Historical Relig ion in the Light of Modern Thought (New York, 1888); Acadian Legends toad lyrica (1889); The Church of England in Nova Scotia and the Tory Clergy o f the Revolution (1891); Tales o f a Garrison Town (in collaboration with C. L. Betts; 1892); Acadian Ballads (New York, 1905); and Poems of the Christian Year (1905). He has also edited several works of English literature.

EBED JESU, f'bed jf'sa: Nestorian theologian; b. in Mesopotamia about the middle of the thirteenth century; d. at Nisibis, in Armenia, Nov., 1318. He became bishop of Sinjar (60 m. w. of Mogul) about 1285, and in 1291 metropolitan of Nisibis. His importance is principally of a literary character, since he is regarded as the last great writer of the Nestoriana. The most important of his works is the metrical " Catalogue " of Syriac authors, in which in four books he treats of the writings of the Old and the New Testament, of translations from the Greek into Syriac, and of works originally written in Syriac, especially Neetorian productions. Other works of note are " The Pearl," a dogmatic work, in five parts; the Nomocanon, a collection of the canons of synods; and Paradises Eden, a collection of poems. Other works have been lost.

The name is frequent among the Syrians, and is pronounced by them Abdisho or Odisho. A mar tyr of this name is referred to in H. Feige's Ge schichte des Mar Abhdiso (Kiel, 1889), while a bishop of the name, a convert to Romaniam, was present at the last session of the Council of Trent and is pictured at the entrance to the Sistine Chapel at Rome (cf. G. E. Khayyath, Sywi orien tales, p. 124, Rome, 1870). E. NEBTLE.

Bisr4oaserar: The " Catalogue " was edited by Abraham Ecchellenais, Rome, 1853; by J. 8. Aeeemsn, with Latin trawl. and commentary, in Bsbliothsca orierualia, iii. 1, pp. 1-382, Rome, 1728; an Eng. transl. appears in Appendix A of G. P. Badger's Nattorians and their Ritual, ii. 381379, London, 1852, which contains also a fraud. of " The Pearl," ii. 380 eqq.; " The Pearl " is also in A. Mai, Scrip torum roelerum nova coltectio, ii. 317 eqq., 10 vole., Rome, 1826-38, where (pp. 189 eqq.) will be found also the Nomocanon. The poems were edited by H. Giemondi at Beirut, 1888 (cf. N6ldeke in ZDM(#, 1889, aliii. 875, and Zingerle, in the same, 1875, xxiz 498). Consult: W. Wright, A Short Mist. of Syriac Literature, pp. 285 eqq.. London, 1894; & Duval, La Ltd*ature ayriaqus, Paris, 1000.

EBEL, 5'bel, JOHANN WIZHELM: German preacher; b. at Passenheim (75 m. s.s.e. of KSnigaberg), East Prussia, Mar. 4, 1784; d. at Hoheneck, near Ludvpigsburg (9 m. n. of Stuttgart), Wiirttemberg, Aug.18,1861. After his graduation at KSnigeberg, he became acquainted with Johann Heinrich

SchSnherr (q.v.), and espoused his views of relative dualism. His pronounced evangelical views, and eloquent advocacy of practical Christianity, were distasteful to the rationalistic and dead orthodox clergy of the province, who tried, from the beginning of his ministerial career at Hermadorf (1807-09), to awe him into submission, and, upon his removal to Konigaberg as preacher and teacher (1810), resented his growing popularity by charging him with heresy. The charge, however, was dismissed as unfounded, while Ebel was chosen preacher of the Old Town Church at KiSnigaberg, the largest in the city, in 1816, and filled that high position until his deprivation in 1842.

1n 1826 a ministerial reacript, directed against mysticism, Pietism, and separatism, was eagerly seized by Schiin, the provincial governor, an un christian and unprincipled man, and other oppo nents of Ebel and Heinrich Diestel, his brother minister and friend, as an opportunity for the trumped-up charge of having founded a sect which held secret meetings and advocated tenets of peril ous and immoral tendency. The coneistory decided the cane against the accused, and, in 1835, arbi trarily and illegally suspended them ab officio. On appeal the action of the conaistory was canceled, but Ebel, though acquitted of the charge of hav ing founded a sect, was not reinstated, on the alleged ground of neglect of duty. The prosecu tion, originating in theological hatred, took place at a time when the judicial process is Prussia was still private. To-day it would be impossible to bring such a case to the cognizance of a jury. After his deprivation, Ebel lived at Griinefeld (1842-48), at Meran in the Tyrol (1,848-50), and at Hoheneck (1850-fi1). J. I. MOMBERT.

Brnrrooawray: The moat important of the works of Ebel are: Die Weiehtit von Oben, K6nigsberg, 1823; Oedtihliche Ertielsunp, Hamburg, 1825; Die apoatotiache Predipt id zt%tgemdat, Hamburg, 1835; Die Treat. KSnigsberg, 1835; Veratand and Vernunft (in company with G. H. Diestel), Leipeio, 1837; ZtugnitaderWahrheit (by the same), ib. 1838; Orundziige der Erkenntnitt der Wahrheit, ib. 1852; Die PhiloeopAie der he6lipen Urkundt des Chraaknthume, Stuttgart, 1854-58. For his life consult: J. I. Mombert, Faith Victorious, being an Account of the Life and Labours and of the Times of J. Ebel, London, 1882; H. wagener, Ueber J. W. Ebel, Ludwigsburg, 1881. Consult also: E. Hahnenfeld, Die religiose Btwepung zu Konigsberg, Braunsberg, 1868; E. Ksnita, Aupkldrunp nach AclenqutZttn fiber den FC6nipaberger (1886-l,,8), Rtlipionaproaeu, Basel, 1882; Bibliotheea Sacra, vol. avi., 1889.

EBER. See Tnsra or mss NATIONS.

EBER, 5'ber, PAUL: German theologian and Reformer; b. at Kitzingen (11 m. e.s.e, of Wurzburg) Nov. 8, 1511; d. at Wittenberg Dec. 10, 1569. He received his first education at home, and attended the schools of Nuremberg, then entered the University of Wittenberg on June I, 1532, where his teachers were Luther and Melanchthon, and in 1537 was made a member of the faculty, being appointed regular professor four years later, first of Latin and then of physics. His lectures comprised the wide range of the liberal arts, although his chief attention was devoted to Latin, history, natural science, and even to anatomy. A versatile literary activity was the result. With the aid of Melanchthon he wrote his Contexts populi Judaici historic


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fluence of such a concept the form or type of ecclesiastical organization is regarded as more or less immaterial. What is sought is a perfect adaptation of ecclesiastical organization and functions to what are believed to be the needs of the time and the community. Closely allied to such an ideal is often found the belief that human society has the capacity for its own regeneration; consequently it is better to hold that religious institutions are to be regarded as the result of such efforts than that the Church is a unique organization among men, having a special divine sanction and charged with a supernatural mission. The integrating force of such a concept lies in its capacity for cooperation and in the emphasis which it places upon went in matters of faith while minimizing the differences. The concept of the historical continuity of the Church is based upon a belief that there is one normal organization, that this normal organization has been realized in part, and that if the right spirit prevails, preventing all heresy and schism, this normal organization is revealed. It is further believed by those holding this concept that a substantial continuity of all the essential features of this normal organization has been maintained in all the past ages and will be maintained until the end of human society. Such concepts are not confined to the members of what are commonly known as the historic churches, although there it is more common. Such concepts admit of successive changes in what are regarded as the non-essential features of polity due to the changing conditions of social and political environment. But such changes are regarded as incidental and as revealing in an ever-widening range those essential features which shall in the providence of God persist until the end of time. The Church with such an ideal would not antagonize the existing order of society, but it would perpetuate those features of its polity which it deems essential to its character as a true Church. Certain facts should be noted of these ecclesiastical ideals. First, that they are held with varying degrees of intelligence and devotion; Second, they are widely distributed, no organization or denomination having a monopoly of any of them; third, all of these concepts serve as stimuli to the members of a single organization; and, fourth, the different ecclesiastical bodies vary greatly as to their consciousness of the operation of these concepts as motives of action.

7. Forces of Disintegration.

Concepts or ideals of ecclesiastical isolation and alienation are found to be exercising a profound influence among certain organizations. Such concepts appear to develop from a religious conviction which frequently assumes the form of a belief that certain persons are called of God out of the mass of human society to be constituted and recognized as a peculiar people to lead a life apart from the life of the community in which they have their habitation. Such a concept provides for the least possible intercourse between the members of the religious body and those who differ with them in matters religious. Among certain of the Christian bodies this concept derives its inspiration from the history of the Hebrews and from a feeling that theirs is a similar case, they being called out of a corrupt society to lead a peculiarly religious life. Among other bodies ecclesiastical alienation develops from a desire on the part of a body of individuals to lead a certain mode of life and to practise such moral and economic effects as celibacy or community of goods, while the normal social environment is regarded as unfavorable for such a development. In many cases where such concepts prevail those holding them decline to recognize the normal obligations resting upon members of society for the maintenance of civil government and other social institutions. Such ecclesiastical alienation usually operates by restricting missionary effort. Deliberate alienation must not be confused with the physical isolation in which many religious bodies find themselves.

8. Ecclesiastical Geography.

In addition to the qualitative analysis of ecclesiastical institutions here outlined, the science of ecclesiology provides also for a quantitative analysis for which the material is largely statistical. Denominational statistics are generally deficient, and only a few countries of Western civilization furnish reliable governmental statistics of ecclesiastical organizations. The use of such statistics has three objects: to determine the amount of ecclesiastical association among a given population; to determine the racial elements of church-member ship; and to determine the territorial distribution of denominational strength. This may be called ecclesiastical geography. The racial simplicity or complexity of the membership of a religious body is often found to have a profound influence upon the development of the organization. As in bodies political, church racial elements are often the source of weakness and the cause of delayed integration, especially where diversity of language is a serious obstacle. Such a diversity, however, is a test, and affords a training in the capacity of assimilation. Religious bodies as a rule originate in a homogeneous people, but systematic missionary effort has brought into the membership of all the stronger and more active denominations the most diverse racial elements. Closely allied to this topic is that of the geography of the Church. The systematic charting of ecclesiastical organizations is of recent origin. It is now being developed on every scale, from the population of a single city to that of a continent. It has been brought to the aid of the churches in the planning of missionary enterprises of all dimensions. It has been found useful in revealing the physical and social environment of churches, and it throws much light on their history and state of development. See CHURCH, THE CHRISTIAN; CHURCH AND STATE; and POLITY, ECCLESIASTICAL.



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