CYPRIAN, ERNST SALOMON: One of the few learned defenders of orthodox Lutheranism in the middle of the eighteenth century; b. at Ostheim (5 m. s,w. of Asehaffenburg), Franconia, Sept. 22, 1673; d. in Goths 1745. He studied at Leipsio and at Jena; in 1698 followed his friend Andreas Schmidt to Helmstedt; became professor extraordinary of philosophy 1699; in 1700 went as director to the Gymnasium academicum at Coburg; Frederick II. of Gotha called him in 1713 into the upper consistory, and Frederick III. appointed him its vice-president in 1735. While at Helmstedt he wrote against Arnold's Kirchen- und Ketzerhistorie, and in 1719 against Romanists who began encroachments after the peace of Ryswick and Rastatt. But his chief exertion was in opposition to the movement toward union between Reformed and Lutherans by Frederick William I. of Prussia. He wrote three pamphlets, Abgedrungener Unterricht, etc. (1722), Authentische Rechtfertigung, etc. (1722), and Das Urtheil englischer Theologen von der Synode zu Dortrecht und ihrer Lehre (1723), which by their rich historical illustrations give considerable information about the whole question.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. M. Schrockh. Lebensbeschreibungen beruhmter Gelehrten, II. iii. 377, Leipsic, 1767; G. Frank, Geschichte der protestantischen Theologie, ii. 287, ib. 1865; ADB, iv. 667-669.




CYRIACUS, sir-ai'a-cus (= Lat. Dominicus, "belonging to the Lord"): The name of several saints, a patriarch of Constantinople, and a number of bishops.

1. Saints: No less than eleven saints of the name are mentioned in the Acta sanctorum. They include (1) a deacon of Rome, who is said to have


been condemned to the galleys under Diocletian, to have escaped to Sapor, king of Persia, and to have been beheaded under Maximian. His day is Aug. 8. (2) An alleged pope, who is said in the Ursula legend (twelfth century) to have resigned the papal chair to follow that saint and her company of virgins (see URSULA, SAINT), and suffered martyrdom with her at Cologne. A pope of the name is otherwise unknown, and the story is very possibly a development of that of the Roman deacon just mentioned.

2. Cyriacus: Patriarch of Constantinople 595-606, succeeded John IV. and, like him, assumed the tile of "Ecumenical Patriarch"; a synod at Constantinople confirmed the title. But it was highly displeasing to Gregory I. of Rome, and he protested violently, writing letters to Cyriacus, to the other patriarchs of the East, and to the emperor Maurice, and denouncing the title as scandalous, criminal, perverse, worthless, even anti-Christian and diabolic (Jaffe, Regesta, 1470, 1474, 1476, 1477, 1683, 1905 [vol. i., Leipsic, 1885, pp. 176 sqq.]), When Phocas, a rude and coarse soldier, dethroned Maurice in 602, Cyriacus crowned him; but a disagreement soon arose and Gregory did his best to enlist Phocas on his side. Whether Phocas really issued an edict declaring Rome caput omnium ecclesiarum, as is asserted, is uncertain. At any rate, Cyriacus died (Oct. 7, 606) before it was issued.

3. Cyriacus: Metropolitan of Carthage, lived in the latter half of the eleventh century and was one of the last Christian bishops of northern Africa. He refused to perform uncanonical consecration, and for this reason some of his flock accused him before the Saracenic emir, who tortured him in a cruel manner. He addressed himself to Gregory VII. and received letters, of consolation and exhortation from tile pope. Later, in 1076, Gregory commended him to Servandus, a newly consecrated bishop of Hippo Regius.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: 1. (1) ASB, Aug., ii. 327-340; Analecta Bollandiana, ii. 247-258. (2) ASB, Oct., ix. 101 sqq.; F. W. Rettberg, KD, i. 112 sqq., 638; J. J. I. von Dollinger, Die Papstfabein des Mittelalters, pp. 45 sqq., Munich, 1863; DCB, i. 756-758.

2. ASB, Oct., xii. 344-351; Nicephoras Callistus, Hist. eccl., xviii. 40-42; Theophanes, Chronographia, i. 446 sqq.. in CSHB, xxvi., Bonn, 1839; letters of Gregory the Great, bk. vii. 4-7, 31, ix. 68, xiii. 4o; Baronius, Annales, ad an. 595 sqq.; M. le Quien, Oriens Christianus, i. 67, Paris, 1740; R. Baxmann, Die Politik der Papets, i. 129 sqq., Elberfeld, 1868.

3. Gregory VII., Registrum, i. 22-23, iii. 19; P. Jaffe, Regesta, ad an. 1073, Sept. 15 (nos 4793-94); and 1076, June (no. 4994).


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