CRUCIGER (CREUZIGER, CREUTZINGER), KASPAR: The name of two German theologians.

1. Kaspar Cruciger the Elder: Luther's secretary and collaborator; b. at Leipsic Jan. 1, 1504; d. at Wittenberg Nov. 16, 1548. In 1513 he matriculated at Leipsic, where he heard the disputation between Eck and Luther. In 1521 he matriculated in theology at Wittenberg, and studied also mathematics and botany. In 1525 he became rector of St. John's School and pastor at Magdeburg, but in 1528 he returned to Wittenberg as professor of theology and minister at the Schlosskirche, where he remained with a few intermissions until his death. He assisted Luther in his translation of the Bible, gave instruction when Melanchthon and others were called away, and participated in theological debates and conferences. His most important public service was connected with the establishment of the Reformation in Leipsic (1539), which he carried through with the help of Myconius. The city council tried to keep him there, but Luther declared him indispensable to Wittenberg. The Schmalkald war and the Interim embittered his last years. He wrote exegetical and dogmatic works, most of which were published after his death. He had a knowledge of shorthand and thus preserved many of Luther's sermons. With Georg Rorer he edited the first volumes of the Wittenberg edition of Luther's Works (1539 sqq.).

2. Kaspar Cruciger the Younger: Melanchthon's successor at Wittenberg, son of the elder Kaspar Cruciger; b. at Wittenberg Mar. 19, 1525; d. at Cassel Apr. 16, 1597. In the discussions after 1570 he was one of the leaders of the Philippists, and was engulfed in their catastrophe in 1574. He was imprisoned and was banished from Saxony in 1576. After a short residence with the count of Nassau at Dillenberg he went to Hesse, and died as pastor and president of the consistory at Cassel.


BIBLIOGRAPHY; For 1. CR, xi. 833-841; O. G. Schmidt. Caspar Crueigers Leben, Leipsic, 1862; T. Pressel, Caspar Cruciger, Elberfeld, 1862; J. Kostlin, Martin Luther, 2 vols., Berlin, 1903. For 2. G. J. Planck, Geschichte der Entstehung . . . protestantischen Lehrbegriffs, V. ii. 626 sqq., Leipsic, 1799; H. Heppe, Geschichte des deutschen Protestantismus, ii. 312 sqq., Marburg, 1853.

CRUDEN, ALEXANDER: The author of "Cruden's Concordance "; b. at Aberdeen May 31, 1701;


d. in London Nov. 1, 1770. He studied at Marischal College, Aberdeen, and took the degree of M.A. (year not known). Indications of an unsound mind, from which he suffered more or less all his life, soon became evident and he was in confinement for a short time. In 1722 he went to London and found employment as tutor in Hertfordshire and the Isle of Man till 1732, when he opened a bookseller's shop in London, also acting as corrector of the press. He began the Concordance in 1736 and issued it the following year in quarto. It was not a success pecuniarily; he lost his business, suffered another attack of insanity, and was again put in an asylum. After a few weeks he escaped and in Mar., 1739, issued a curious pamphlet relating to his confinement, with the title The London-Citizen exceedingly Injured, or a British Inquisition Displayed. He instituted proceedings for damages, pleaded his own cause (unsuccessfully), and published a report of the trial dedicated to King George II. He was again in confinement for a short time in 1753. In 1754 he became proof reader for the Public Advertiser (daily newspaper); at the same time he was busy as general corrector of the press and labored diligently in revising the Concordance. The hard and regular work seems to have been beneficial to his health, and it was not necessary to send him again to the asylum. He supervised the printing of an edition of Matthew Henry's Commentary, and published a Compendium of the Holy Bible, . . Designed for Making the Reading more Easy (1750); he compiled a Scripture Dictionary, which was published in two volumes at Aberdeen shortly after his death; it is said also that he wrote prefaces for many books, and he prepared the verbal index for Bishop Newton's edition of Milton (1749). He issued second and third editions of the Concordance in 1761 and 1769, and received considerable profit from them. The explanations of Scripture terms (omitted in some editions) were published separately by the Religious Tract Society (1840); they are strongly Calvinistic. Many stories are told of Cruden's eccentricities. He thought himself divinely appointed as the public censor, especially in regard to swearing and Sabbath keeping, and took the title " Alexander the Corrector." He went about London with a sponge, erasing obscene words on walls and other things which did not meet with his approval. He appeared as candidate for par liament in 1754, applied for knighthood, sought to marry the daughter of the Lord Mayor of London, and paid unwelcome and embarrassing addresses to other young ladies. To promote his schemes he issued several extraordinary pamphlets. But not withstanding all this he was kind-hearted, benevolent, fearless in the discharge of duty, a useful citizen, and a humble, devout Christian; and he was honored and respected where he was fully known. He was a member of an independent church in London. He gives much information about himself in his pamphlets, particularly the three which he called The Adventures of Alexander the Corrector (1754-55).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: His life by Alexander Chalmers, written for the Biographia Britannica (1789), was reprinted in the 5th edition of the concordance; a memoir by Samuel Blackburn was prepared for the first octavo edition (1823); another by William Youngman is found in some editions. Consult DNB, xii. 249-251.


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