CRUSIUS, CHRISTIAN AUGUST: German theologian; b. at Leuna, near Merseburg (10 m. s. of Halls), Jan. 10, 1715; d. at Leipsic Oct. 18, 1775. He entered the University of Leipsic in 1734, became professor of philosophy there, and in 1750 professor of theology. He was an independent follower of J. A. Bengel and an opponent of the Wolfian philosophy, founding all knowledge on positive revelation and seeking to prove that it harmonizes with reason. At the same time he intermingled mystic peculiarities, and thus constructed a strange typico-prophetical system of doctrine. While his colleague Ernesti explained the Scriptures in a purely grammatical way, Crusius followed the Church doctrine, which he interpreted in a mystical sense. Of his many writings the most important are Hypomnemata ad theologiam propheticam (3 parts, Leipsic, 1764) and Kurzer Begriff der Moraltheologie (2 parts, 1772-73). Here he opposes the divine will, known from revelation as moral principle, to the Wolfian principle of perfection. His " Prophetic Theology " was brought into notice in the nineteenth century by Hengstenberg and Delitzsch, who called attention to the fact that Crusius conceived of the essence and aim of prophecy in connection with the scheme of salvation, which no theologian before him had done with like emphasis. Crusius left the reputation of a learned, keen, original thinker and of a pure, pious, and mild character. Even in the great controversy which divided the University of Leipsic into " Ernestians " and " Crusians " he maintained his pious and mild manner, though there was no question that Ernesti's views were gaining the upper hand.


Bibliography: H. Doring. Die Gelehrten Theologen Deutschlande, i. 291-298, >Neustadt, 1831; ADB, iv. 630-631; J. E. Erdmann, Geschichte der Philosophie vol. iii., s 290, Berlin, 1870, Eng. travel., London, 1893.

CRUTTWELL, CHARLES THOMAS: Church of England; b. at London July 30, 1847. He studied at the Merchant Taylors' School, London, and St. John's College, Oxford (B.A., 1871), and was elected fellow of Merton College, Oxford, in 1870, where he was also tutor in 1875-77. He was curate of St. Giles'e, Oxford, 1875-77, head master of St. Andrew's College, Bradfield, 1878-80, and of Malvern College 1880-85. He was rector of Sutton, Surrey (1885), Denton, Norfolk (1885-91), and Kibworth-Beauchamp, Leicestershire (1891-1901), as well as rural dean of Gartree, diocese of Peterborough (1892-1902). Since 1901 he has been rector of Ewelme, Oxfordshire, and was honorary canon of Peterborough Cathedral in 1897-1903, of which he has been residentiary canon since 1903, being also appointed proctor in convocation for the clergy of the diocese of Peterborough in 1900-05 and examining chaplain to the bishop of Peterborough in 1900. He has written A History of Roman Literature (London, 1877); Specimens of Roman Literature (1879; in collaboration with P. Banton); Literary History of Early


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been condemned to the galleys under Diocletian, to have escaped to Sapor, king of Persia, and to have been beheaded under Maximian. His day is Aug. 8. (2) An alleged pope, who is said in the Ursula legend (twelfth century) to have resigned the papal chair to follow that saint and her company of virgins (see URSULA, SAINT), and suffered martyrdom with her at Cologne. A pope of the name is otherwise unknown, and the story is very possibly a development of that of the Roman deacon just mentioned.

2. Cyriacus: Patriarch of Constantinople 595-606, succeeded John IV. and, like him, assumed the tile of "Ecumenical Patriarch"; a synod at Constantinople confirmed the title. But it was highly displeasing to Gregory I. of Rome, and he protested violently, writing letters to Cyriacus, to the other patriarchs of the East, and to the emperor Maurice, and denouncing the title as scandalous, criminal, perverse, worthless, even anti-Christian and diabolic (Jaffe, Regesta, 1470, 1474, 1476, 1477, 1683, 1905 [vol. i., Leipsic, 1885, pp. 176 sqq.]), When Phocas, a rude and coarse soldier, dethroned Maurice in 602, Cyriacus crowned him; but a disagreement soon arose and Gregory did his best to enlist Phocas on his side. Whether Phocas really issued an edict declaring Rome caput omnium ecclesiarum, as is asserted, is uncertain. At any rate, Cyriacus died (Oct. 7, 606) before it was issued.

3. Cyriacus: Metropolitan of Carthage, lived in the latter half of the eleventh century and was one of the last Christian bishops of northern Africa. He refused to perform uncanonical consecration, and for this reason some of his flock accused him before the Saracenic emir, who tortured him in a cruel manner. He addressed himself to Gregory VII. and received letters, of consolation and exhortation from tile pope. Later, in 1076, Gregory commended him to Servandus, a newly consecrated bishop of Hippo Regius.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: 1. (1) ASB, Aug., ii. 327-340; Analecta Bollandiana, ii. 247-258. (2) ASB, Oct., ix. 101 sqq.; F. W. Rettberg, KD, i. 112 sqq., 638; J. J. I. von Dollinger, Die Papstfabein des Mittelalters, pp. 45 sqq., Munich, 1863; DCB, i. 756-758.

2. ASB, Oct., xii. 344-351; Nicephoras Callistus, Hist. eccl., xviii. 40-42; Theophanes, Chronographia, i. 446 sqq.. in CSHB, xxvi., Bonn, 1839; letters of Gregory the Great, bk. vii. 4-7, 31, ix. 68, xiii. 4o; Baronius, Annales, ad an. 595 sqq.; M. le Quien, Oriens Christianus, i. 67, Paris, 1740; R. Baxmann, Die Politik der Papets, i. 129 sqq., Elberfeld, 1868.

3. Gregory VII., Registrum, i. 22-23, iii. 19; P. Jaffe, Regesta, ad an. 1073, Sept. 15 (nos 4793-94); and 1076, June (no. 4994).