CALDERWOOD, HENRY: United Presbyterian Church of Scotland; b. at Peebles (21 m. s. of Edinburgh) May 10, 1830; d. at Edinburgh Nov. 19, 1897. He studied at the University of Edinburgh and the theological hall there of the United Presbyterian Church; was ordained minister of Greyfriars Church, Glasgow, 1856; was appointed professor of moral philosophy, Edinburgh, 1868. As a philosopher "he tried to discover and explain the bearings of physiological science on man's mental and moral nature. . . . He believed it to be demonstrated by physiology that the direct dependence of mind on brain was confined to the sensory-motor functions, the dependence of the higher forms of mental activity being, on the other hand, only indirect. He endeavored to establish the thesis that man's intellectual and spiritual life, as we know it, is not the product of natural evolution, but necessitates the assumption of a new creative cause." His interests were not confined to his professional work; he was chairman of the Edinburgh school board, chairman of the North and East of Scotland Liberal Unionist Association, was a member of the mission board of his Church, and advocated temperance reform, Presbyterian union, and other philanthropic and religious movements. He edited The United Presbyterian Magazine, and published The Philosophy of the Infinite (London, 1854), a criticism of Sir William Hamilton prepared during his student days; Handbook of Moral Philosophy (1872); On Teaching, its Means and Ends (1874); The Relations of Mind and Brain (1879); The Parables of our Lord (1880); The Relations of Science and Religion, Morse lectures before Union Theological Seminary, New York, 1880 (1881); Evolution and Man's Place in Nature (1893; enlarged ed., 1896); several of these works have appeared in many editions.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: His Life was written by his son, W. L. Calderwood, with David Woodside, with chapter on his philosophical works by A. S. Pringle-Pattison, London, 1900.
CALEB, CALEBITES: One of twelve scouts
whom Moses sent from the Wilderness of Sin to
spy out the promised land (
The name Caleb was then originally that of a stock, and, personified, became that of the eponymous ancestor (see EPONYM). With this the story of Achsah (Judges i. 12-15, Josh. xv. 15-19) is seen to agree when it is remembered that tribally "daughter" means a weaker stock which has lost its independence to a stronger.
The Calebites remained in the district mentioned
till exilic times when the Edomites drove them,
weakened by Nebuchadrezzar's measures, northward
to the neighborhood of Jerusalem–a change
explained in customary genealogical phrasing
(I Chron. ii. 18-19), and the Calebites were reckoned
to Judah (
An early age can not be ascribed to the narrative which gives the story of the spies, since Caleb is there reckoned as a Judahite without any discrimination of stocks such as other passages cited above make necessary. The assumption in the representation of P in Num. xiii.-xiv., and of the Chronicler, of the assimilation by the Hebrews of the Calebites is good for postexilic times. (See JUDEA.)
While advanced scholarship generally takes the position indicated in the text (so, for example, J. A. Selbie in DB, i. 340), conservative criticism insists that Caleb was originally a personal name and declines altogether the idea of eponymity; cf. J. D. Davis, Dictionary of the Bible, Philadelphia, 1898, pp. 103-104.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. Wellhausen, De gentibus et familiis, I Chron. ii. 4. Göttingen, 1870; idem, Die Komposition des Hexateuchs, pp. 336-338, Berlin, 1889; H. Grätz, Die Kelubaiten oder Kalebiten, in Monatsschrift für Geschichte und Wissenschaft des Judentums, xxv. (1876) 461 sqq.; W. R. Smith, Kinship and Marriage, pp. 200, 219, London, 1885; idem in Journal of Philology, ix. (1876) 89; E. Meyer, Die Entstehung des Judentums, pp. 114 sqq., 147-148, Halle, 1896.
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