CAIAPHAS, cai'a-fas (more exactly Joseph, who also was called Caiaphas; cf. Josephus, Ant., XVIII. ii. 2): The Jewish high priest who held office during the ministry and death of Jesus. He was the last of the four high priests whom the Roman procurator Valerius Gratus appointed successively to this dignity. As Valerius was procurator from 15 to 26 A.D., his appointment of Caiaphas must have occurred at the latest in 26 A.D.; most likely it happened c. 18 A.D., as Valerius Gratus probably appointed Ishmael, the first of the four high priests, immediately after his own inauguration, and as the next two remained in office only about one year, Caiaphas held his office until c. 36 A.D., when he was removed by Vitellius, the legate of Syria. His administration, therefore, lasted about eighteen years–a long term when compared with that of most other high priests of the Roman period. For this he was probably indebted less to his ability than to his submissiveness to the anti-Jewish policy of the Roman government. Probably he belonged to the party of the Sadducees and shared their fondness for foreign ideas, as did his father-in law Annas (Acts iv. 1, 6; v. 17) and the latter's son Annas the Younger (Josephus, Ant., XX, ix. 1). See ANNAS.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. Edersheim, Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, ii. 547, London, 1885; D. F. Strauss, Leben Jesu, iv. 30 sqq., Bonn, 1895; Schürer, Geschichte, ii. 204, 218, Eng. transl., II. i. 182, 199; DB, i. 338; EB, i. 171-172; JE, ii. 493; and, in general, commentaries on the Gospels.

CAILLIN, SAINT, OF FENAGH: Irish saint of the "second order" who flourished about 560. His alleged history is a typical one among the stories of the Irish "saints," and is also noteworthy for the light it throws on the conditions of the time and the progress of Christianity in pagan Ireland. Caillin's kinsmen of Dunmore (County Galway) had determined to slay a part of their number, the land having become overpopulated; but, on the advice of the saint, who had received Christian education in Rome, they


desisted, and Caillin undertook to find more land. In the course of the search he came to Fenagh (County Leitrim, 3 m. s.w. of. Ballinamore), where he converted the kings son, Hugh, and a band of warriors sent to drive him away. The prince then gave the saint his fortress and the latter built a church there. When the druids came, at the king's behest, to expel Caillin, he restrained his Christian followers from attacking them, and turned them into stones. Hugh succeeded to the throne on his father's death; he was known as "the Dark" from his personal appearance, but Caillin made him of fair complexion. Notwithstanding his love of peace, Caillin is said to have given the tribe a cathach or standard, a mighty talisman in battle.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The Book of Fenagh, ed. D. H. Kelly and W. M. Hennessy, Dublin, 1875; T. Olden, The Church of Ireland, pp. 65-67, London, 1892.


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