CANDIDUS, can-dî'dus (WEISS), PANTALEON: Reformed theologian; b. at Ybbs (60 m. w. of Vienna), Austria, Oct. 7, 1540; d. at Zweibrücken


(55 m. n.w. of Carlsruhe), in the Palatinate, Feb. 3, 1608. He was sent in his tenth year to Andreas Cupicius, Evangelical preacher at Weissenkirchen, for instruction. When his teacher was persecuted by the Jesuits on account of his faith and thrown into prison, Candidus attended him as famulus and fled with him to Hungary. Returning to his native land, he continued his studies with the aid of Vitus Nuber, abbot of Säussenstein (near Ybbs), and when he also was persecuted, Candidus accompanied him to Duke Wolfgang of Zweibrücken. He received a scholarship from the duke which enabled him to acquire a thorough humanistic and theological education at the University of Wittenberg, where he spent about seven years from 1558; he became amanuensis of Hubert Languet and was on intimate terms with Melanchthon. In 1565 he left Wittenberg, and, after having taught a short time in the Latin school of Zweibrücken, became pastor at Hinzweiler, then deacon at Weisenheim and Zweibrücken, and in 1571 town preacher and general superintendent in Zweibrücken.

The Church of Zweibrücken had been founded by Johannes Schweblin in accordance with the Lutheran doctrine by the acceptance of the Augsburg Confession and the Wittenberg Concord of 1536. Duke Wolfgang, after the death of Melanchthon, took vigorous measures against the Philippists and Calvinists by employing strict Lutherans like Marbach, Andreä, and Hesshus. His son, John I., continued the same policy, and the most influential positions were filled with trustworthy Lutherans such as Jacob Heilbrunner and Jacob Schopper. But a change of conditions was brought about under the influence of the Count Palatine John Casimir, who sent his cousin John a statement of the conflicting opinions of Reformed princes and theologians. Thereupon the latter demanded in 1578 a general convention for the discussion of these questions. Candidus, who had always leaned toward Calvinism, became now one of the most influential advocates of the Reformed cause, and the duke himself openly confessed the Calvinistic doctrine, although he had signed the Formula of Concord. The remonstrances of the Lutheran electoral princes were of no avail, nor was a Lutheran embassy which was sent in 1580, consisting of men like Marbach and Osiander. Candidus accepted the Reformed Christology and the Calvinistic doctrine of the Lord's Supper, and in 1585 edited a catechism which contributed considerably to the eradication of the Lutheran doctrine. Moreover, he entered into negotiations with the Reformed theologians of Heidelberg and completed the work of Calvinism in 1588 by his Christliche und notwendige Erklärung des Catechismi aus Gottes Wort, etc., which in its wording and sense follows closely the Heidelberg catechism. The Reformed Church service was introduced in the same way. The dissensions were renewed in 1593 at the religious colloquy of Neuburg, where the Zweibrücken theologians protested against any innovations and attempted to show their agreement with the Augustana. Since the beginning of the seventeenth century the Church of Zweibrücken has been counted among the Reformed Churches. Candidus was also active in the literary field and has left twenty works, written mostly in Latin. He was especially prolific in Latin poetical productions and handled the elegiac measure with ability.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: F. Butters, Pantaleon Candidus, ein Lebensbild, Zweibrücken, 1865; L. Häusser, Geschichte der rheinischen Pfalz. Heidelberg, 1856; ADB, s.v., vol. iii.


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