CARPENTER, MARY: Philanthropist; b. at Exeter, England, Apr. 3, 1807; d. at Bristol June 14, 1877. She was the eldest child of Lant Carpenter, and received an excellent education in her father's school; she taught for several years; became interested in reformatory movements in India through the visit to Bristol of the Rajah Rammohun Roy in 1833, and also in work for destitute children in England through the instrumentality of Joseph Tuckerman, of Boston. She opened "ragged schools" and developed and set in operation a plan for reformatory schools which was legalized by Parliament in 1854; she was also one of the chief promoters of the Industrial Schools Act passed in 1857. She visited India four times between 1866 and 1876, and came to America in 1873. Prison reform also received her attention, and she was earnest in advocacy of the higher education of women. She wrote much in behalf of her projects, and her reports and memorials to Parliament had no little influence in shaping legislation.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. E. Carpenter, Life and Work of Mary Carpenter, London, 1879; DNB, ix. 159-161.

CARPENTER, WILLIAM BOYD: Church of England bishop of Ripon; b. at Liverpool Mar. 26, 1841. He was educated at St. Catherine's College, Cambridge (B.A., 1864), and was ordered deacon in 1864 and ordained priest in the following year. He was successively curate of All Saints', Maidstone, Kent (1864-66), of St. Paul's, Clapham (1866-67), and of Holy Trinity, Lee (1867-70). He was then vicar of St. James's, Holloway (1870-79),


and of Christ Church, Lancaster Gate (1879-84). He was chaplain to the bishop of London from 1879 to 1884 and canon of Windsor from 1882 to 1884, while he was also honorary chaplain to Queen Victoria in 1879-83, and chaplain in ordinary in 1883-84. In 1884 he was consecrated the bishop of Ripon. He was select preacher at Cambridge in 1875 and 1877, and at Oxford in 1883-84, and was also Hulsean Lecturer at Cambridge in 1878, Bampton Lecturer at Oxford in 1887, Pastoral Lecturer on theology at Cambridge in 1895, and Noble Lecturer at Harvard University in 1904. He has been a clerk of the closet since 1903, and is also a knight of the Prussian Order of the Royal Crown. In addition to numerous volumes of sermons, he has written: Thoughts on Prayer (London, 1871); Narcissus, a Tale of Early Christian Times (1879); The Witness of the Heart to Christ (1879; the Hulsean Lectures for 1878); District Visitor's Companion (1881); My Bible (1884); Nature and Man (1888); Permanent Elements of Religion (Bampton Lectures for 1887, 1889); The Burning Bush (1893); Twilight Dreams (1893); Lectures on Preaching (1895); Thoughts on Reunion (1895); Religious Spirit in the Poets (1900); Popular History of the Church of England (1900); and Witness to the Influence of Christ (Noble Lectures for 1904; 1905). He likewise contributed the notes on Revelation in C. J. Ellicott's New Testament Commentary (London, 1879).


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