BLEEK, FRIEDRICH: Protestant theologian and exegete; b. at Ahrensbök, Holstein, July 4, 1793; d. at Bonn Feb. 27, 1859. He studied theology and philology at Kiel and Berlin, 1812-17, and began to lecture as repetent in theology in the latter place in 1818. His lectures on the Old and the New Testaments attracted attention, and in 1821 he was made extraordinary professor; he succeeded Lücke as professor at Bonn, 1829, receiving the same year his doctorate from Breslau. For thirty years Bleek lectured at the university in Bonn. He was extremely painstaking in the preparation of his lectures, which were so carefully written that after his death they could easily be used for publication, and continue in much larger circles the influence they had already exerted. His works printed during his lifetime include: Ueber die Entstehung und Zusammensetzung der Sibyllinischen Orakel, Ueber Verfasser und Zweck des Buches Daniel, and Beitrag zur Kritik und Deutung der Offenbarung Johannis, three valuable essays published in the theological review edited by Schleiermacher, De Wette, and Lücke (Berlin, 1819-22); Versuch einer vollständigen Einleitung in den Brief an die Hebräer (Berlin, 1828), followed in 1836 and 1840 by a translation of Hebrews and commentary on the book; Beiträge zur Evangelienkritik (Berlin, 1846). Of his posthumous works mention may be made of Einleitung in das Alte Testament (edited by his son J. F. Bleek and A. Kamphausen, Berlin, 1860; 3d ed., by Kamphausen, 1870; 4th, 5th, and 6th ed., by J. Wellhausen, 1878, 1886, 1893; Eng. transl. by G. H. Venables, 2 vols., London, 1869; on the last three editions cf. H. L. Strack, Einleitung in das Alte Testament, Munich, 1895, 11); Einleitung in das Neue Testament (1st and 2d editions by his son, J. F. Bleek, 1862, 1866; 3d and 4th editions by W. Mangold, Berlin, 1875, 1886; Eng. transl. by W. Urwick, London, 1870); Synoptische Erklärung der drei ersten Evangelien (ed. H. Holtzmann, 2 vols., Leipsic, 1862); Vorlesungen über die Apokalypse (ed. T. Hossbach, Berlin, 1862; Engl. transl., London, 1874); Vorlesungen über die Briefe an die Kolosser, den Philemon und die Epheser (ed. F. Nitzsch, Berlin, 1865); Vorlesungen über den Hebräerbrief (ed. A. Windrath, Elberfeld,1868). Bleek's writings are especially distinguished for thoroughness in investigation and clearness of expression. His standpoint in criticism was conservative.


BLEMMYDES, NIKEPHOROS: Greek monk; b. at Constantinople about 1197; d. (near Ephesus?) 1272. He founded a monastery near Ephesus, and became its archimandrite. His many writings were philosophical treatises, discourses on the procession of the Holy Spirit, on the Trinity, on Christology, on the duties of the king, and an exposition of the Psalms. [He is principally noted for his defense of the Roman doctrine of the procession of the Spirit from Father and Son before the emperor John III Vatatzes at Nicæa.] Blemmydes was honest and incorruptible, but harsh in character. Out of devotion to the ascetic life, he declined the patriarchate.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: The works of Blemmydes are in MPG, cxlii, and also in A. Heisenberg's N. Blemmydœ, curriculum vitœ et carmina, Leipsic, 1896, which contains the newly discovered autobiography. Consult Krumbacher, Geschichte, pp. 445 sqq., et passim.


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