BOMBERGER, JOHN HENRY AUGUSTUS: Reformed (German); b. at Lancaster, Penn., Jan. 13, 1817; d. at Collegeville, Penn., Aug. 19, 1890. He was graduated at Marshall College, 1837, and at the Theological Seminary, Mercersburg, Penn., 1838; served as pastor of German Reformed Churches in Pennsylvania till 1870, when he became president of Ursinus College at Collegeville. He began a condensed translation of the first edition of Herzog's Realencyklopädie of which two volumes were published (Philadelphia, 1856-60), embracing vols. i-vi of the original; he issued a revised translation of Kurtz's Text-book of Church History (Philadelphia, 1860), and edited The Reformed Church Monthly (in opposition to the "Mercersburg theology"), 1868-77. He also published Infant Salvation in its Relation to Infant Depravity, Infant Regeneration, and Infant Baptism (1859); Five Years at the Race Street Church [Philadelphia], with an ecclesiastical appendix (1860); The Revised Liturgy, a history and criticism of the ritualistic movement in the German Reformed Church (1867); Reformed, not Ritualistic: a reply to Dr. Nevin's "Vindication" (1867).

BONA, GIOVANNI: Roman Catholic theological writer; b. at Mondovi (55 m. w. of Genoa), Piedmont, Oct. 19, 1609; d. in Rome Oct. 28, 1674. He came of an old French family, and in his fifteenth year entered the Italian congregation of reformed Cistercians, becoming later prior, abbot, and general. Clement IX made him a cardinal in 1669, and he acquired a great reputation for both piety and learning. His most important writings are ascetical and liturgical. To the latter class belong his Psallentis ecclesiœ harmonia (Rome, 1653), a historical, symbolic, and ascetic treatise on the psalmody of the Church, and the still better known Rerum liturgicarum libri ii (Rome, 1671), a sober and learned investigation of liturgical antiquities. The first complete edition of his works appeared at Antwerp, 1677, followed by several others.

BONALD, LOUIS GABRIEL AMBROISE, VICOMTE DE: French political and philosophical writer; b. at Monna, near Millau (130 m. w.n.w. of Marseilles), Aveyron, Oct. 2, 1754; d. there Nov. 23, 1840. He emigrated in 1791 and settled at Heidelberg; returned to France in 1797, lived in concealment for a time, and then was allowed to proceed to his estates; in 1808 he was appointed councilor of the Imperial University, and, after the Restoration, member of the Council of Public Instruction; from 1815 to 1822 he was member of the chamber of deputies, in 1822 minister of state, and in 1823 was made a peer of France; after 1830 he retired to private life. He was one of the leaders of the reactionary school to which belonged De Maistre, D'Eckstein, Ballanche, Lamennais, and others, which started with the principle that revelation and not observation is the true ground of philosophy; absolutism in politics and ecclesiastical despotism in religion were in his view the natural and desirable order of things. The most noteworthy of his many writings were Théorie du pouvoir politique et religieux (3 vols., Constance, 1796); La Législation primitive (3 vols., Paris, 1802); Recherches philosophiques sur les premiers objets des connaissances morales (2 vols., 1818). His collected works were published in twelve volumes in 1817-19 and again in three volumes in 1859. His second son, Louis Jacques Maurice, b. at Millau Oct. 30, 1787, d. at Lyons Feb. 25, 1870, became bishop of Puy in 1823, archbishop of Lyons in 1839, cardinal in 1841; he was a strong Ultramontane.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Victor de Bonald, De la vie et des écrits du vicomte de Bonald, Avignon, 1853 (by his son); J. Blanchon, Le Cardinal de Bonald . . . , sa vie et ses œuvres, Lyons, 1870.


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