BUTLER, ALFRED JOSHUA: Church of England layman; b. at Loughborough (10 m. n.n.w. of Leicester), Leicestershire, Sept. 21, 1850. He was educated at Trinity College, Oxford (B.A., 1874), and after being assistant master at Winchester from 1874 to 1879, was tutor to the Khedive of Egypt in 1879-81. He was elected fellow of Brasenose College, Oxford, in 1877, and was appointed bursar four years later, both of which positions he still holds. He has written: Amaranth and Asphodel, Verses from the Greek Anthology (London, 1880); Ancient Coptic Churches of Egypt (2 vols., Oxford, 1884); Court Life in Egypt (London, 1887); The Churches and Monasteries of Egypt and some neighboring Countries attributed to Abu Salih, the Armenian (1895, in collaboration with B. T. A. Evetts); and The Arab Conquest of Egypt (London, 1902).

BUTLER, CHARLES: English Roman Catholic layman; nephew of Alban Butler; b. in London Aug. 14, 1750; d. there June 2, 1832. He studied at Douai, and for many years was a leading lawyer of London. He was prominent in the movement to secure the repeal of the laws against Roman Catholics; in regard to the hierarchy and the relations of English Catholics to the pope he was an extreme Gallican, and found bitter opponents in the vicars-apostolic in England. He was a voluminous writer; among the more important of his works are Horœ biblicœ (2 pts., London, 1797-1802); Historical Memoirs respecting the English, Irish, and Scottish Catholics from the Reformation (4 vols., 1819-21); Reminiscences (1822); The Book of the Roman Catholic Church (1825); biographies of Alban Butter (1800), Fénelon (1811), Erasmus (1825), Grotius (1826), and others. He continued his uncle's Lives of the Saints.

BUTLER, CLEMENT MOORE: American Episcopalian; b. at Troy, N. Y., Oct. 16, 1810; d. in Philadelphia Mar. 5, 1890. He was graduated at Washington (Trinity) College 1833, and at the General Theological Seminary, New York, 1836; was rector of various churches in New York, the District of Columbia, Massachusetts, and Ohio 1837-61, and from 1849 to 1853 chaplain of the United States Senate; chaplain of the United States embassy at Rome 1861-64; professor of church history in the Protestant Episcopal Divinity School, Philadelphia, 1864-84. Besides occasional sermons, he published: The Year of the Church, hymns and devotional verse for the Sundays and Holy Days of the ecclesiastical year for young persons (Utica, N. Y., 1839); The Book of Common Prayer Interpreted by its History (Boston, 1845; 2d ed., enlarged, Washington, 1849); Addresses and Lectures on Public Men and Public Affairs delivered in Washington City (Cincinnati, 1856); The Flock Fed, catechetical instruction preparatory to confirmation (New York, 1862); Inner Rome, political, religious, and social (Philadelphia, 1866); The Ritualism of Law (1867); A Manual of Ecclesiastical History (from the first to the nineteenth century; 2 vols., 1868-72); History of the Book of Common


(1880); History of the Reformation in Sweden (New York, 1883).


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