BRANDENBURG, CONFESSIONS or CONFESSIONS OF THE MARK (Confessiones marchicæ, i.e., Brennoburgenses): The confessions of the mark Brandenburg during the Reformation. They are three in number: (1) the Confession prepared by order of Johann Sigismund, elector of Brandenburg, 1614, which was intended to reconcile the views of Luther with those of Calvin (see SIGISMUND, JOHANN); (2) the Leipsic Colloquy, 1631, i.e., the declarations of the theologians who took part in the Colloquy of Leipsic, 1631; (3) the Declaration of Thorn, 1645 (see THORN, CONFERENCE OF).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The text of the three confessions is in J. C. W. Augusti, Corpus librorum symbolicorum, pp. 369 sqq., Elberfeld, 1827 and in H. A. Niemeyer, Collectio confessionum in reformata publicatarum, pp. 642 sqq., Leipsic, 1840. Consult Schaff, Creeds, ii, 554-563.

BRANDES, bran'dez, FRIEDRICH HEINRICH: German Reformed; b. at Salzuflen (48 m. s.w. of Hanover) Apr. 25, 1825. Educated at the University of Berlin, he was successively second preacher and rector at Salzuflen from 1853 to 1856, and pastor at Göttingen from 1856 to 1901. Since the latter year he has been court-preacher at Bückeburg. Among his numerous writings those of theological interest are: Wir werden leben, Gespräche über Unsterblichkeit (Göttingen, 1858); John Knox, der Reformator Schottlands (Elberfeld, 1862); Katechismus der christlichen Lehre (Göttingen, 1865); Verfassung der Kirche nach evangelischen Grundsätzen (2 vols., Elberfeld, 1867); Zur Wiedervereinigung der beiden evangelischen Kirchen (Göttingen, 1868); Des Apostel Paulus Sendschreiben an die Galater (Wiesbaden, 1869); Geschichte der kirchlichen Polizei des Hauses Brandenburg, (2 vols., Gotha, 1872-73); Blicke in das Seelenleben des Herrn (Gütersloh, 1888); Unser Herr Christus. i, Seine Person (1901); and Einigungen der evangelischen Kirchen ein Befehl des Herrn (Berlin, 1902).

BRANDT, WILHELM: Dutch Protestant; b. at Amsterdam July 22, 1855. He was educated for the ministry of the Dutch Reformed Church and was a pastor until 1891, when he went to Berlin, where he resided for two years. Since 1893 he has been professor of New Testament exegesis and the history of religions at the University of Amsterdam. In theology he belongs to the historico-critical school, and has written Die mandäische Religion (Leipsic, 1889); Mandäische Schriften (Göttingen, 1893); and Die evangelische Geschichte und der Ursprung des Christenthums (Leipsic, 1893).


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