BRACKMANN, ALBERT: German Protestant historian; b. at Hanover June 24, 1871. He was educated at the universities of Tübingen, Leipsic, and Göttingen, and occupies the position of associate professor of history at the University of Marburg. He is a collaborator of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Göttingen for the publication of early papal documents, and in addition to a number of contributions to historical periodicals has written: Urkundliche Geschichte des Halberstädter Domkapitels im Mittelalter (Wernigerode, 1898).

BRADFORD, AMORY HOWE: American Congregationalist; b. at Granby, N. Y., Apr. 14, 1846. He was educated at Genesee College, Hamilton College (B.A., 1867), Andover Theological Seminary (1870), and Oxford University. Since 1870 he has been pastor of the First Congregational Church, Montclair, N. J. He was associate editor of The Outlook from 1894 to 1901, member of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions deputation to Japan in 1895, and moderator of the National Council of Congregational Churches in 1901-04. He is also first secretary and second president of the American Institute of Christian Philosophy, and was elected president of the American Missionary Association in 1904. He


was Southworth Lecturer at Andover Theological Seminary in 1902-03 and George Sheppard Lecturer at Bangor Theological Seminary in 1906. In theology he is a liberal evangelical. He has written Spirit and Life (New York, 1888); Old Wine, New Bottles (1892); The Pilgrim in Old England (1893); Heredity and Christian Problems (1895); The Growing Revelation (1897); The Sistine Madonna (1897); The Holy Family (1899); The Art of Living Alone (1899); The Return to Christ (1900); The Age of Faith (Boston, 1900); Spiritual Lessons from the Brownings (New York, 1900); Messages of the Masters (1902); The Ascent of the Soul (1905); and The Inward Light (1905).

BRADFORD, JOHN: Church of England Protestant martyr; b. at Manchester about 1510; burned at Smithfield July 1, 1555. He was in the service of Sir John Harrington, the king's paymaster in France; began to study law in the Temple 1547, but the next year turned to divinity and entered St. Catherine's Hall, Cambridge (M.A., by special grace, 1549); was elected fellow of Pembroke Hall 1549; became prebendary of Kentish Town in the church of St. Paul, 1551; was chaplain to Bishop Ridley, in 1552 one of the king's six chaplains in ordinary, and preached in many localities with great fervor and earnestness. In August, 1553 (six weeks after the accession of Mary), he was arrested on the charge of preaching seditious sermons and committed to the Tower; he was examined before Bishops Gardiner, Bonner, and others in January, 1555, and condemned as a heretic. His writings (chiefly sermons, letters, and devotional pieces) were edited for the Parker Society by Aubrey Townsend (2 vols., Cambridge, 1848-53).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: W. Stephens, Memoirs of John Bradford, London, 1832; The Life of John Bradford, vol. iii of Library of Christian Biography, London, 1855; DNB, vi, 157-159.


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